2019 Spanish general election
The 2019 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 28 April 2019, to elect the 13th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 266 seats in the Senate.
All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 266) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
as of 02:15, 29 April 2019 GMT
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies
Following the 2016 election, the People's Party (PP) formed a minority government with confidence and supply support from Ciudadanos (Cs) and Canarian Coalition (CC), allowed by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) abstaining in Mariano Rajoy's investiture after a party crisis resulted in the ousting of Pedro Sánchez as leader. The PP's term of office was undermined by a constitutional crisis over the Catalan issue, the result of a regional election held thereafter, coupled with corruption scandals and protests with thousands of retirees demanding pension increases. In May 2018, the National Court found in the Gürtel case that since 1989 the PP had profited from the kickbacks-for-contracts scheme and confirmed the existence of an illegal accounting and financing structure kept separate from the party's official accounts. Sánchez, who was re-elected as PSOE leader in a leadership contest in 2017, brought down Rajoy's government in June 2018 through a motion of no confidence. Rajoy resigned as PP leader and was succeeded by Pablo Casado.
Presiding over a minority government of 84 deputies, Pedro Sánchez struggled to maintain a working majority in the Congress with the support of the parties which had backed the no confidence motion. The 2018 Andalusian regional election which saw a sudden and strong rise of the far-right Vox party resulted in the PSOE losing the regional government for the first time in history to a PP–Cs–Vox alliance. After the 2019 General State Budget was voted down by the Congress of Deputies on 13 February 2019 as a result of Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT) siding against the government, Sánchez called a snap election to be held on 28 April, one month ahead of the Super Sunday of local, regional, and European Parliament elections scheduled for 26 May. The Valencian regional election was scheduled for 28 April in order for it to take place on the same date as the general election.
Under a high turnout of 75.8%[a], the ruling PSOE of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez won a victory—the first for the party in a nationwide election in eleven years—with 28.7% of the vote and 123 seats, an improvement of 38 over its previous mark which mostly came at the expense of left-wing Unidas Podemos. The PP under Casado received its worst result in history after being reduced to 66 seats and 16.7% of the vote in what was dubbed the worst electoral setback for a major Spanish party since the collapse of the UCD in 1982. Cs saw an increase of support which brought them within 0.8 points and 9 seats from the PP, overcoming them in several major regions throughout the country. The far-right Vox party entered Congress for the first time, but it failed to fulfill expectations by scoring 10.3% of the vote and 24 seats. The three-way split of the right-of-centre vote not only ended any chance of an Andalusian-inspired right-wing alliance, but it also ensured that Sánchez's PSOE would be the only party that could realistically form a government.
The June 2016 general election had resulted in the People's Party (PP) gaining votes and seats relative to its result in the December 2015 election and a round of coalition talks throughout the summer saw Mariano Rajoy obtaining the support of Ciudadanos (C's) and Canarian Coalition (CC) for his investiture, but this was still not enough to assure him re-election. Criticism of Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) leader Pedro Sánchez for his electoral results and his stance opposing Rajoy's investiture, said to be a contributing factor to the country's political deadlock, reached boiling point after poor PSOE showings in the Basque and Galician elections. A party crisis ensued, seeing Sánchez being ousted and a caretaker committee being appointed by party rebels led by Susana Díaz, who subsequently set out to abstain in Rajoy's investiture and allow a PP minority government to be formed, preventing a third election in a row from taking place. Díaz's bid to become new party leader was defeated by party members in a party primary in May 2017, with Sánchez being voted again into office under a campaign aimed at criticising the PSOE's abstention in Rajoy's investiture.
Concurrently, the incumbent PP cabinet found itself embroiled in a string of political scandals which had seen the political demise of former Madrid premier Esperanza Aguirre—amid claims of a massive financial corruption plot staged by former protegés—as well as accusations of judicial meddling and political cover-up. This prompted left-wing Unidos Podemos to table a no-confidence motion on Mariano Rajoy in June 2017. While the motion was voted down due to a lack of support from other opposition parties, it revealed the parliamentary weakness of Rajoy's government as abstentions and favourable votes combined amounted to 179, to just 170 MPs rejecting it.
Pressure on the Spanish government increased after a major constitutional crisis over the issue of an illegal independence referendum unravelled in Catalonia. Initial actions from the Parliament of Catalonia to approve two bills supporting a referendum and a legal framework for an independent Catalan state were suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain. The government's crackdown on referendum preparations—which included police searches, raids and arrests of Catalan government officials as well as an intervention into Catalan finances—sparked public outcry and protests accusing the PP government of "anti-democratic and totalitarian" repression. The Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain, which resulted in the Spanish Senate enforcing Article 155 of the Constitution to remove the regional authorities and impose direct rule. Carles Puigdemont and part of his cabinet fled to Belgium after being ousted, facing charges of sedition, rebellion and embezzlement. Rajoy immediately dissolved the Catalan parliament and called a regional election for 21 December 2017, but it left his PP severely mauled as Cs capitalised on anti-independence support in the region.
The scale of PP's collapse in Catalonia and the success of Cs had an impact on national politics, with Ciudadanos rising to first place nationally in subsequent opinion polls, endangering PP's stand as the hegemonic party within the Spanish centre-right spectrum. Massive protests by pensioners groups, long regarded as a key component of the PP's electoral base, demanding pension increases, further undermining the PP's standing.
On 24 May 2018, the National Court found that the PP profited from the illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme of the Gürtel case, confirming the existence of an illegal accounting and financing structure that had run in parallel with the party's official one since 1989 and ruling that the PP helped establish "a genuine and effective system of institutional corruption through the manipulation of central, autonomous and local public procurement". This event prompted the PSOE to submit a motion of no confidence in Rajoy and in Cs withdrawing its support from the government and demanding the immediate calling of an early election. An absolute majority of 180 MPs in the Congress of Deputies voted to oust Mariano Rajoy from power on 1 June 2018, replaced him as Prime Minister with PSOE's Pedro Sánchez. On 5 June, Rajoy announced his farewell from politics and his return to his position as property registrar in Santa Pola, vacating his seat in the Congress of Deputies and triggering a leadership contest in which the party's Vice Secretary-General of Communication Pablo Casado defeated former Deputy Prime Minister Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría and became new PP president on 21 July 2018.
For most of his government, Sánchez was reliant on confidence and supply support from Unidos Podemos and New Canaries (NCa), negotiating additional support from Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT) and Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) on an issue-by-issue basis. ERC, PDeCAT and En Marea withdrew their support from the government in February 2019 by voting down the 2019 General State Budget, with the government losing the vote 191–158 and prompting a snap election being called for 28 April.
The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which are not subject to the Congress' override. Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Additionally, Spaniards abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).
For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency was entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats which were elected using plurality voting.
For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each and the smaller—Menorca, Ibiza–Formentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.
The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, parties, federations or coalitions that had not obtained a mandate in either House of Parliament at the preceding election were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election, whereas groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of 1 percent of electors. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called. After the experience of the 2015–2016 political deadlock leading to the June 2016 election and the possibility of a third election being needed, the electoral law was amended in order to introduce a special, simplified process for election re-runs, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through pre-election procedures again.
The term of each House of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election Decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the Prime Minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The Decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette, with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 26 June 2016, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 26 June 2020. The election Decree was required to be published no later than 2 June 2020, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 26 July 2020.
The Prime Minister had the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both Houses were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot. Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.
After the 2019 General State Budget was voted down by the Congress of Deputies on 13 February 2019, it was confirmed that Sánchez would call a snap election, with the specific date to be announced following a Council of Ministers meeting on 15 February. Sánchez confirmed 28 April as the election date in an institutional statement following the Council of Ministers, with the Cortes Generales being subsequently dissolved on 5 March.
Status at dissolutionEdit
The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 5 March 2019, after the publication of the dissolution Decree in the Official State Gazette. The tables below show the status of the parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.
- 4 March: The election Decree is issued with the countersign of the Prime Minister after deliberation in the Council of Ministers, ratified by the King.
- 5 March: Formal dissolution of the Cortes Generales and beginning of a suspension period of events for the inauguration of public works, services or projects.
- 8 March: Initial constitution of Provincial and Zone Electoral Commissions.
- 15 March: Deadline for parties and federations intending to enter into a coalition to inform the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 25 March: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates to the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 27 March: Submitted lists of candidates are provisionally published in the Official State Gazette.
- 30 March: Deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad and for citizens temporarily absent from Spain to apply for voting.
- 31 March: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to rectify irregularities in their lists.
- 1 April: Official proclamation of valid submitted lists of candidates.
- 2 April: Proclaimed lists are published in the Official State Gazette.
- 12 April: Official start of electoral campaigning.
- 18 April: Deadline to apply for postal voting.
- 23 April: Official start of legal ban on publication of electoral opinion polling, dissemination or reproduction and deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad to vote by mail.
- 24 April: Deadline for postal and temporarily absent voters to issue their votes.
- 26 April: Last day of official electoral campaigning and deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad to vote in a ballot box in the relevant Consular Office or Division.
- 27 April: Official 24-hour ban on political campaigning prior to the general election (reflection day).
- 28 April: Polling day (polling stations open at 9 am and close at 8 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 8 pm have cast their vote). Provisional counting of votes starts immediately.
- 1 May: General counting of votes, including the counting of votes made overseas.
- 4 May: Deadline for the general counting of votes to be carried out by the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 13 May: Deadline for elected members to be proclaimed by the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 23 May: Deadline for both chambers of the Cortes Generales to be re-assembled (the election Decree determines this date which for the 2019 election was set for 21 May).
- 22 June: Final deadline for definitive results to be published in the Official State Gazette.
Parties and alliancesEdit
Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which will contest the election:
Two opposing coalitions were formed in Navarre at different levels: for the Senate, Geroa Bai, EH Bildu, Podemos and Izquierda-Ezkerra re-created the Cambio-Aldaketa alliance under which they had already contested the 2015 Spanish general election. Concurrently, UPN, Cs and PP formed the Navarra Suma alliance for both Congress and Senate elections. In Galicia, En Marea, the former Podemos–EU–Anova alliance which had been constituted as a party in 2016, broke away from the creator parties and announced that it would contest the election on its own. Podemos, EU and Equo in Galicia formed a regional branch for the Unidas Podemos alliance branded En Común–Unidas Podemos whereas Anova chose to step out from the election race. In the Balearic Islands, an alliance was formed for the Congress election by More for Majorca (Més), More for Menorca (MpM), Now Eivissa (Ara Eivissa) and Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), named Veus Progressistes; for the Senate election, the alliance was styled as Unidas Podemos Veus Progressistes and included Podemos and IU.
|Party or alliance||Original slogan||English translation||Refs|
|PP||« Valor seguro »||"Safe asset"|||
|PSOE||« La España que quieres / ❤ »[n]
« Haz que pase » & « Estamos muy cerca »
|"The Spain you want / ❤"
"Make it happen" & "We are very close"
|Unidas Podemos||« La historia la escribes tú »||"You write history"|||
|Cs||« ¡Vamos Ciudadanos! »||"Let's go Citizens!"|||
|ERC–Sobiranistes||« Va de llibertat »||"It's about freedom"|||
|JxCat–Junts||« Tu ets la nostra força. Tu ets la nostra veu »||"You are our strength. You are our voice"|||
|EAJ/PNV||« Nos mueve Euskadi. Zurea, gurea »||"The Basque Country moves us. What's yours is ours"|||
|Compromís||« Imparables »||"Unstoppable"|||
|EH Bildu||« Erabaki. Para avanzar »||"Decide. To make progress"|||
|Vox||« Por España »||"For Spain"|||
|2019 Spanish general election debates|
|Date||Organisers||Moderator(s)||P Present S Surrogate NI Non-invitee A Absent invitee|
|8 April||El Confidencial||Isabel Morillo
(Todo es Mentira)
(La Sexta Noche)
|16 April||RTVE||Xabier Fortes||S
A. de Toledo
(La Sexta Noche)
|22 April||RTVE||Xabier Fortes||P
|23 April||Atresmedia||Ana Pastor
The table below shows registered vote turnout on election day without including voters from the Census of Absent-Residents (CERA).
|Castile and León||37.18%||41.80%||53.33%||62.00%||73.34%||78.24%|
Congress of DeputiesEdit
|Parties and coalitions||Popular vote||Seats|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||7,480,755||28.68||+6.05||123||+38|
|People's Party (PP)1||4,356,023||16.70||–15.87||66||–69|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)1||4,136,600||15.86||+2.88||57||+25|
|United We Can (Unidas Podemos)||3,732,929||14.31||–6.84||42||–29|
|In Common We Can–Let's Win the Change (ECP–Guanyem el Canvi)||614,738||2.36||–1.19||7||–5|
|Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERC–Sobiranistes)||1,019,558||3.91||+1.28||15||+6|
|Republican Left of the Valencian Country (ERPV)||4,203||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts)3||497,638||1.91||–0.10||7||–1|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||394,627||1.51||+0.32||6||+1|
|Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA)||326,045||1.25||+0.06||0||±0|
|Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)||258,840||0.99||+0.22||4||+2|
|Commitment: Bloc–Initiative–Greens Equo (Compromís 2019)||172,751||0.66||New||1||+1|
|Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (CCa–PNC)||137,196||0.53||+0.20||2||+1|
|Free People–We Are Alternative–Pirates: Republican Front (Front Republicà)||113,008||0.43||New||0||±0|
|Sum Navarre (NA+)4||107,124||0.41||–0.12||2||±0|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)||93,810||0.36||+0.17||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC)||52,197||0.20||New||1||+1|
|Zero Cuts–Green Group (Recortes Cero–GV)||46,487||0.18||–0.04||0||±0|
|New Canaries (NCa)||36,193||0.14||New||0||±0|
|Progressive Voices (Ara–Més–esquerra)||25,384||0.10||New||0||±0|
|Yes to the Future (GBai)||22,150||0.08||+0.02||0||±0|
|For a Fairer World (PUM+J)||21,711||0.08||New||0||±0|
|En Masse (En Marea)||17,726||0.07||New||0||±0|
|Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE)||14,189||0.05||New||0||±0|
|El Pi–Proposal for the Isles (El Pi)||11,671||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Andalusia by Itself (AxSí)||11,485||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Communist Workers' Party (PCOE)||9,094||0.03||+0.02||0||±0|
|Forward–The Greens (Avant/Adelante–LV)5||7,251||0.03||+0.02||0||±0|
|Blank Seats (EB)||7,128||0.03||–0.02||0||±0|
|Coalition for Melilla (CpM)||6,890||0.03||New||0||±0|
|We Are Region (Somos Región)||5,018||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Humanist Party (PH)||4,435||0.02||+0.01||0||±0|
|We Are Valencian in Movement (UiG–Som–CUIDES)||4,433||0.02||–0.01||0||±0|
|Left in Positive (IZQP)||3,409||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Canaries Now (ANC–CNC–UP)6||3,027||0.01||+0.01||0||±0|
|Commitment to Galicia (CxG)||2,692||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Sorian People's Platform (PPSO)||2,656||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL)||2,135||0.01||+0.01||0||±0|
|Riojan Party (PR+)||2,080||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Libertarian Party (P–LIB)||1,250||0.00||–0.01||0||±0|
|United Linares Independent Citizens (CILU–Linares)||1,079||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Andecha Astur (AA)||909||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Retirees Party for the Future. Dignity and Democracy ("JF")||872||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Federation of Independents of Aragon (FIA)||803||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS)||641||0.00||–0.04||0||±0|
|European Solidarity Action Party (Solidaria)||627||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Plural Democracy (DPL)||539||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL)||483||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Public Defense Organization (ODP)||308||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Living Ourense (VOU)||303||0.00||New||0||±0|
|European Retirees Social Democratic Party–Centre Unity (PDSJE–UdeC)||276||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Revolutionary Anticapitalist Left (IZAR)||253||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Andalusian Solidary Independent Republican Party (RISA)||188||0.00||New||0||±0|
|XXI Convergence (C21)||69||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Death to the System (+MAS+)||46||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Union of Everyone (UdT)||28||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Votes cast / turnout||26,361,051||75.75||+9.27|
|Parties and coalitions||Directly
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||123||+81||18||141|
|Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC)||3||+3||1||4|
|People's Party (PP)||54||–73||19||73|
|Forum of Citizens (FAC)||0||–1||0||0|
|Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERC–Sobiranistes)||11||+1||2||13|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)||4||+4||6||10|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||9||+4||1||10|
|United We Can (Unidas Podemos)||0||–16||6||6|
|In Common We Can (ECP)||0||–4||1||1|
|Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts)2||2||±0||2||4|
|Sum Navarre (NA+)||3||+2||0||3|
|Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)||1||+1||1||2|
|Basque Solidarity (EA)||0||±0||0||0|
|Commitment Coalition (Compromís)||0||±0||1||1|
|Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (CCa–PNC)||0||–1||1||1|
|Independent Herrenian Group (AHI)||0||–1||0||0|
|Gomera Socialist Group (ASG)||1||±0||0||1|
|New Canaries (NCa)||0||–1||0||0|
|Aragonese Party (PAR)||0||–2||0||0|
The election resulted in a victory for Pedro Sánchez's Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)—its first since the 2008 general election—which swept the country and won in most constituencies and regions. The right-wing bloc of PP–Cs–Vox was only able to garner 42.9% of the vote and 147 Congress seats (149 including the Navarra Suma alliance in Navarre) to the 165 seats and 43.0% vote share garnered by the two major left-wing parties, PSOE and Unidas Podemos. Even though the left-wing bloc was still 11 seats short of a majority, the three-way split on the centre-right ensured Sánchez's PSOE would be the only party that could realistically garner enough support from third parties to command a majority in the lower house. The PSOE also obtained an absolute majority of seats in the Senate for the first time since 1989 as the PP vote collapsed. Having initially been allocated 121 senators, it was awarded two additional senators from PP after the counting of CERA votes, the Census of Absent-Residents, namely one for Zamora and one for Segovia.
Support for the People's Party (PP) plummeted and scored the worst result of its history as well as the worst support for any of the party's incarnations since the People's Alliance results in the 1977 and 1979 elections. The PP was only able to remain the most voted party in five constituencies: Ávila, Lugo, Melilla, Ourense and Salamanca; and it was not able to remain the largest party in any region, including Galicia, where it lost to the PSOE for the first time in democracy. Overall, the party lost 3.6 million votes from 2016, with post-election analysis determining that 1.4 million had been lost to Albert Rivera's Citizens party, 1.6 million to far-right Vox, 400,000 to abstentions and a further 300,000 to PSOE.
Scoring below previous expectations throughout the campaign, Vox's result signalled the first time since Blas Piñar's election as a deputy for the National Union coalition in 1979 that a far-right party had won seats in the Spanish Parliament after the country's return to democracy as well as the first time that a far-right party would be able to form a parliamentary group of its own in the Congress of Deputies.
After losing more than a half of their seats, the PP sacked Javier Maroto as their campaign manager. Maroto had also failed to hold his seat from Álava in the election, losing it to EH Bildu and signalling the first time since 1979 that the party had not won a seat in the province. Pablo Casado, the PP leader whose right-wing stance and controversial leadership had been labelled by commentators as a "suicide" in light of election results, refused to resign and instead proposed a sudden U-turn of the party back into the centre under pressure from party regional leaders one month ahead of the regional and local elections while also raising an hostile profile to both Cs and Vox, harshly attacking them for dividing the vote to the right-of-centre.
- This figure does not include the CERA vote (Census of Absent Spanish Residents).
- Data for C's in the 2016 election, not including results in Navarre.
- Data for PP in the 2016 election, not including results in Navarre.
- Currently in preventive detention in Soto del Real (Madrid).
- 77 PSOE, 7 PSC.
- 46 Podemos, 7 IU, 4 BComú, 3 ICV, 3 eQuo, 2 EUiA, 2 Anova.
- 8 PDeCAT, 4 Compromís, 2 EH Bildu, 1 CCa, 1 NCa.
- 145 PP, 2 PAR.
- 59 PSOE, 1 PSC.
- 15 Podemos, 3 ICV, 2 IU.
- 4 PDeCAT, 2 CCa–AHI.
- 6 Cs, 2 Compromís, 1 UPN, 1 FAC, 1 NCa, 1 EH Bildu, 1 ASG, 1 Vox, 1 independent (ex-Podemos).
- PDeCAT will run in a coalition list with its predecessor party, CDC, in order to guarantee public funding for the campaign.
- This slogan had been initially conceived for the pre-campaign period, but was later used as a secondary slogan throughout the official electoral campaign.
- Debate centered on economic issues.
- Vox's candidate Santiago Abascal had been initially invited, but was excluded after the Central Electoral Commission threatened to suspend the debate on its proposed format, claiming that Vox's presence would breach the proportionality principle under law.
- "Elecciones a Cortes Generales y Valencianas 28 de abril de 2019" (PDF). ine.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Catalan crisis: Spain PM Rajoy demands direct rule". BBC. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Meler, Isaac (22 December 2017). "Total collapse of the PP in Catalonia leaves Rajoy exposed". Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018 – via http://catalanmonitor.com.
- "Retirees protest across Spain to demand a pension hike". The Associated Press. 17 March 2018.
- Jones, Sam (24 May 2018). "Court finds Spain's ruling party benefited from bribery scheme". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- Cortizo, Gonzalo (25 May 2018). "El PSOE registra en el Congreso la moción de censura contra Rajoy". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- "Rajoy, sin margen para seguir". El País (in Spanish). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Jones, Sam (1 June 2018). "Mariano Rajoy ousted as Spain's prime minister". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "Rajoy se va: "Es lo mejor para mí, para el PP y para España"". El Mundo (in Spanish). 5 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- "Rajoy dimite como presidente del PP: "Es lo mejor para mí, para el partido y para España"". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 5 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- "Pablo Casado vence en el congreso del PP y consuma el giro a la derecha". El País (in Spanish). 21 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- "Los independentistas tumban los Presupuestos y abocan a Sánchez a elecciones". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "¿Y ahora qué? Campaña electoral en Semana Santa y constitución de las Cortes antes de los comicios de mayo". RTVE (in Spanish). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "¿Por qué se han adelantado las elecciones en la Comunidad Valenciana?". ABC (in Spanish). 18 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Sánchez gana, se hunde Casado y Rivera se postula como líder de la oposición". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 28 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "El PP sufre una derrota histórica, pierde 3,7 millones de votos y Cs se queda cerca del sorpaso". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 28 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "El PSOE gana las elecciones pero necesitará pactar y el PP sufre una debacle histórica". El País (in Spanish). 28 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Spain's socialist PSOE party mulls next move after victory without majority". The Guardian (in Spanish). 29 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- Merino, Juan Carlos (26 September 2016). "La debacle electoral deja a Sánchez contra las cuerdas ante sus críticos". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Clemente, Enrique (29 September 2016). "El PSOE se sume en su mayor crisis al negarse Sánchez a irse tras dimitir media ejecutiva". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Pedro Sánchez: Spanish Socialist leader resigns". BBC News. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Sierra, Juan Ruiz (1 October 2016). "Sánchez dimite, el PSOE implosiona". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Spain's Socialists vote to allow Rajoy minority government". BBC News. 23 October 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Casqueiro, Javier (24 April 2017). "Former Madrid PP leader resigns over latest corruption scandal". El País. Madrid. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Águeda, Pedro (25 April 2017). "Las grabaciones a Ignacio González evidencian las maniobras del PP para quitar y poner jueces y fiscales". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "El SMS de Rafael Catalá a Ignacio González en 2016: "Ojalá se cierren pronto los líos"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Hernández, Marisol (25 April 2017). "El ministro del Interior revela que Ignacio González le telefoneó y le pidió tomarse un café". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Torres, Diego (27 April 2017). "Podemos divides opposition with Rajoy no-confidence motion". Politico. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Buck, Tobias (27 April 2017). "Spain's far-left opposition calls no-confidence vote in PM Rajoy". Financial Times. Madrid. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Garea, Fernando (14 June 2017). "Iglesias pierde la moción de censura y solo suma a ERC, Bildu y Compromís". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Riveiro, Aitor (14 June 2017). "Pablo Iglesias emplaza al PSOE a "trabajar una moción de censura en verano" para echar al PP". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Stone, Jon (20 September 2017). "Catalonia referendum: Catalonian government 'de facto' suspended by Spain, President of region says". The Independent. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- Jones, Sam; Burgen, Stephen (20 September 2017). "Catalan president says Madrid is suspending region's autonomy". The Guardian. Madrid, Barcelona. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- "Catalonia referendum: Spain steps up raids to halt vote". BBC News. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- "Un Parlament semivacío consuma en voto secreto la rebelión contra el Estado". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain takeover bid". BBC. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Catalonia's longest week". BBC News. 4 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
- "Sacked Catalan leader 'in Belgium'". BBC News. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Guindal, Carlota (30 October 2017). "La Fiscalía se querella contra Puigdemont y el Govern por rebelión y sedición". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 October 2017.
- Jones, Sam (30 October 2017). "Spanish prosecutor calls for rebellion charges against Catalan leaders". The Guardian. Barcelona. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
- "Catalonia independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament". BBC News. Barcelona, Madrid. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Buil Demur, Ana (22 December 2017). "El 21-D marca "el comienzo del fin de la hegemonía del PP en España"". euronews (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- Romero, Juanma (26 December 2017). "El PP exige a Rajoy cambios gruesos en el Gobierno y en el partido del PP por el 21-D". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- de Miguel, Rafa (17 January 2018). "Ciudadanos would now be Spain's most voted party, new survey shows". El País. Madrid. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- "New Poll Places Ciudadanos First, PP Third". The Spain Report. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- "La nueva vida del ciudadano Rajoy". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Rajoy renuncia a su acta de diputado". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Barcelona. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "El Congreso tumba los Presupuestos y Sánchez comunicará su decisión sobre las elecciones el viernes". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Spanish Constitution of 1978". Act of 29 December 1978. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". congreso.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- Carreras et al. 1989, pp. 1077.
- Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "Constitution" (PDF). congreso.es. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Pedro Sánchez anunciará este viernes que las elecciones generales serán el 28 de abril". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "La ministra de Hacienda da por "seguro" el anuncio de elecciones este viernes". El País (in Spanish). 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Sánchez anunciará la fecha de las elecciones en una declaración institucional este viernes a las 10.00 horas". Público (in Spanish). 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Pedro Sánchez convoca elecciones generales el 28 de abril". El País (in Spanish). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Real Decreto 129/2019, de 4 de marzo, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (55): 21025–21028. 5 March 2019. ISSN 0212-033X.
- "Parliamentary Groups in the Congress of Deputies and Senate". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Senate Composition 1977-2019". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Elecciones Generales 28 de abril de 2019. Calendario Electoral" (PDF). juntaelectoralcentral.es (in Spanish). Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "PP y Foro Asturias quieren repetir coalición para las generales". COPE (in Spanish). 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Podemos e IU revalidan su acuerdo para las generales y europeas". El País (in Spanish). 27 February 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Podemos y Equo reeditan su alianza en busca del voto verde y joven". El País (in Spanish). 12 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Golpe de efecto de ERC: presentará a Junqueras como cabeza de lista al Congreso". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 7 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "ERC debate unas listas con Rufián de dos y un miembro de Sobiranistes de cuatro". Europa Press (in Spanish). 14 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "El Govern se plantea una remodelación amplia". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "La Crida avala que Jordi Sànchez se presente con Junts Per Catalunya en las elecciones generales". El Mundo (in Spanish). 9 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Sànchez lidera la lista de JxCat por Barcelona al Congreso con Borràs, Nogueras y Tremosa". Europa Press (in Spanish). 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Se presentan nueve coaliciones ante la Junta Electoral Central para concurrir a las generales del 28 de abril". RTVE (in Spanish). 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "Podem y Esquerra Unida ven imposible ir con Compromís a las generales". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Ana Oramas y María Fernández, designadas como candidatas al Congreso por Coalición Canaria". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 9 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Nueva Canarias pone en marcha su maquinaria para ir en solitario a elecciones". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "El Cuatripartito acudirá al Senado con la marca 'Cambio-Aldaketa'". Diario de Navarra (in Spanish). 9 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- "Ciudadanos renuncia a sus siglas en Navarra y se presenta con UPN y el PP". El Mundo (in Spanish). 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "La votación de los Presupuestos evidencia la fractura de En Marea". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "En Marea se presentará a las elecciones generales del 28-A fuera de Unidos Podemos". Expansión (in Spanish). 16 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "En Común-Unidas Podemos, marca electoral de la coalición para las generales de Podemos, EU y Equo". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Anova no se presentará a las generales tras fracasar las negociaciones con Podemos e IU". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Esquerra Republicana de Mallorca, MÉS y Ara Eivissa se unen en 'Veus progressistes' para concurrir a las generales". Europa Press (in Spanish). 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "'Unidas Podemos Veus Progressistes', la marca de la formación morada que se presenta al Senado". Cadena SER (in Spanish). 14 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "'Valor seguro' será el lema de campaña del PP para las generales". Europa Press (in Spanish). 27 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "'Haz que pase', el lema del PSOE para llamar a una "extraordinaria movilización" el 28-A". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Sánchez declara la guerra a la abstención retando al votante: "Haz que pase"". Agencia EFE (in Spanish). 2 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Sánchez se da por ganador del debate y estrena lema: "Estamos muy cerca"". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "Podemos se lanza a por las generales advirtiendo a los poderosos "que se acabaron sus privilegios"". Europa Press (in Spanish). 23 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "¡Vamos Ciudadanos!, lema de Cs para las generales del 28A". EFE (in Spanish). 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "Sant Vicenç dels Horts - Soto del Real - Badalona: ERC centra la campanya del 28-A en la "llibertat"". Diari Ara (in Catalan). 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- ""Tu ets la nostra força. Tu ets la nostra veu", el lema de campanya de JxCat per al 28-A". Diari Ara (in Catalan). 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Los primeros mensajes de la campaña". Cadena SER (in Spanish). 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Compromís se presenta a las elecciones bajo el lema "imparables"". El Periòdic (in Spanish). 27 March 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "PNV, EH Bildu, Elkarrekin Podemos y PP inician su campaña en Vitoria, mientras el PSE-EE lo hará en Bilbao". 20minutos.es (in Spanish). 10 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Vox elige como lema de campaña "Por España"". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Debate económico en El Objetivo con PP, PSOE, Unidos Podemos y Ciudadanos". laSexta (in Spanish). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "'GH Dúo: El debate' lidera con un gran 18,1% y 'Cuarto milenio' logra récord de temporada (9,9%) en Cuatro". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 18 March 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "El debate de las políticas influyentes". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 8 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- "El 'Debate de verdad' de Risto Mejide se prolongará hasta media tarde". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 9 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Todo es mentira' bate récord con su debate electoral y supera por primera vez a 'Zapeando'". VerTele! (in Spanish). 11 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "María Jesús Montero, Edurne Uriarte, Irene Montero e Inés Arrimadas inauguran la campaña electoral en laSexta Noche". laSexta (in Spanish). 9 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- "'Sábado Deluxe' se corona como líder con un buen 15,4% y 'laSexta noche' despunta a un estupendo 9,4%". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 15 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "El debate a seis en RTVE enfrentará el martes a Álvarez de Toledo, María Jesús Montero, Irene Montero, Arrimadas, Rufián y Aitor Esteban". RTVE (in Spanish). 14 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "El 'Debate a 6' firma un buen 11,8% en La 1 y 'Secretos de Estado' anota su mínimo de temporada con un 9,3%". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Debate a siete, este sábado en laSexta Noche: Sicilia, Egea, Cantó, Garzón, Rufián, Borràs y Esteban". laSexta (in Spanish). 19 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- "'Sábado deluxe' baja a un buen 14,5% frente al Debate a 7 de 'laSexta noche' y su estupendo 9,3%". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 17 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "Pedro Sánchez rectifica y ofrece ahora dos debates: uno el día 22 en TVE y otro el 23 en Atresmedia". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 19 April 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- "El primer gran debate electoral rompe audímetros con casi 9 millones de espectadores y un 43.8% en total". vertele (in Spanish). 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "La Junta Electoral paraliza el debate a cinco de Atresmedia por incluir a Vox". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Atresmedia readapta su debate del 23A a cuatro". laSexta (in Spanish). 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "El segundo gran debate barre más todavía con 9.4 millones y un 48.8% entre Antena 3 y laSexta". vertele (in Spanish). 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "Resumen por autonomías - Total nacional - Avances - Elecciones Generales España 2019". resultados.eleccionesgenerales19.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "Total nacional - Congreso - Elecciones Generales España 2019". resultados.eleccionesgenerales19.es (in Spanish). Interior Ministry. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "General election 28 April 2019". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- "Total nacional - Senado - Elecciones Generales España 2019". resultados.eleccionesgenerales19.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "El PSOE lidera España". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 29 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "El PSOE se impone en el Senado con 121 escaños, alcanza la mayoría absoluta y aleja la aplicación de otro 155". Europa Press (in Spanish). 29 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Los socialistas arrebatan 'in extremis' dos senadores al PP en Zamora y Segovia". El Norte de Castilla (in Spanish). 1 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Elecciones 2019: El PSOE, al borde de gobernar sin los separatistas ante la debacle del PP". El Mundo (in Spanish). 28 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Los socialistas gallegos sueñan con la Xunta tras imponerse por primera vez en las urnas a un PP desconcertado". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 3 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "El PP perdió 1,6 millones de votos con Vox y 1,4 con Ciudadanos". El Mundo (in Spanish). 30 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Vox no triunfa en el Madrid acomodado y pincha en los barrios obreros". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 30 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Maroto, relegado como director de campaña tras el fracaso del PP en las urnas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Sánchez gana y la derecha se suicida". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 29 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Casado hunde al PP con el peor resultado de su historia y no dimite a un mes de las autonómicas y municipales". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 28 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Feijóo y Casado escenifican en Galicia el viraje al centro del PP: "Aquí cabemos todos"". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Casado se proclama representante único del centro derecha y carga contra Cs y Vox". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 30 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "El 28A deriva en una batalla campal entre las tres derechas a menos de un mes de otras elecciones". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 3 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.