Open main menu

2019 European Parliament election in France

The 2019 European Parliament election in France were held on 26 May 2019 (and on 25 May in parts of overseas France and for some nationals abroad), electing members of the 9th French delegation to the European Parliament as part of the elections held across the European Union. The election featured two major changes since the 2014 election: the return to a single national constituency and the increase in the number of French seats from 74 to 79 upon the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. Officially, 79 MEPs were considered to have been elected, including five "virtual" MEPs who will not take their seats until the UK formally leaves the EU. The election featured 34 separate electoral lists, a record number at the national level.

2019 European Parliament election in France

← 2014 25–26 May 2019 2024 →

All 79 French seats in the European Parliament
Opinion polls
Turnout50.12% Increase7.69%
  First party Second party Third party
  Nathalie Loiseau sur un marché durant la campagne des européennes (cropped).jpg Yannick Jadot against Miguel Canete (15395546666) (cropped).jpg
Leader Jordan Bardella Nathalie Loiseau Yannick Jadot
Party RN LREMMoDem
AgirMR
EELV
Alliance EAPN ALDE–R EGP
Last election 24 seats, 24.86% New
(L'Alternative)
6 seats, 10.41%
Seats before 16 9 5
Seats won 23 23 13
Seat change Decrease1 Increase23 Increase7
Popular vote 5,286,939 5,079,015 3,055,023
Percentage 23.34% 22.42% 13.48%
Swing Decrease1.52% New Increase3.08%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  François-Xavier Bellamy (cropped).JPG Manon Aubry (cropped).jpg Raphaël Glucksmann-1040795 (cropped).jpg
Leader François-Xavier Bellamy Manon Aubry Raphaël Glucksmann
Party LRLC FI PSPP
NDPRG
Alliance EPP MLP PES
Last election 20 seats, 20.81% New
(FG)
13 seats, 16.88%
Seats before 16 2 7
Seats won 8 6 6
Seat change Decrease12 Increase6 Decrease7
Popular vote 1,920,407 1,428,548 1,403,170
Percentage 8.48% 6.31% 6.19%
Swing Decrease12.33% New Decrease10.69%

2019 European Parliament election in France by department.svg
Results by department      RN      LREMMoDem

It was the first national election in France since the election of Emmanuel Macron as president and therefore his first major electoral test, taking place amid dismal approval ratings. For his party, Nathalie Loiseau led the Renaissance list of La République En Marche!, Democratic Movement (MoDem), Agir, and the Radical Movement which ultimately arrived in second with 22.42% of the vote, behind the National Rally (RN) list led by the 23-year-old Jordan Bardella which received 23.34% of the vote, with a lower vote percentage but more overall votes than its 2014 result.

Turnout, at just over 50%, was the highest since the 1994 elections. Led by Yannick Jadot, Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV) managed a surprise third-place finish with 13.48% of the vote, short of its score in the 2009 elections in which it also achieved a surprise result. At the same time, the list of The Republicans (LR) led by the 33-year-old Catholic philosopher François-Xavier Bellamy ended up with a historically poor result of just 8.48% of the vote and the loss of 12 MEPs despite expectations of a strong electoral dynamic created by Bellamy's selection as the party's lead candidate. Similarly, the results were also a significant disappointment for Jean-Luc Mélenchon's La France Insoumise, which fell far short of both its presidential and legislative results in 2017 with only 6.31% of the vote, narrowly ahead of the joint list between the Socialist Party (PS), Place Publique, and New Deal led by Raphaël Glucksmann (the first time in its history the PS did not lead an autonomous list), which managed to remain in the European Parliament with its score of 6.19% of the vote, slightly above the 5% threshold needed for seats.

Numerous other lists fell short of the 5% threshold, including Nicolas Dupont-Aignan's Debout la France (DLF) and Benoît Hamon's Génération.s, the scores of which (both slightly above 3%) nevertheless allow their campaign expenses to be compensated by the state. The two were closely followed by the centre-right Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI) led by Jean-Christophe Lagarde and the French Communist Party (PCF) led by Ian Brossat. The recently-founded Animalist Party, an animal rights party, also created a small surprise with its score of 2.16%, comparable to some of the more prominent lists, despite its limited presence in the campaign. The only two notable pro-Frexit parties received 1.82% of the vote combined. Other lists included Urgence Écologie, consisting of several small green parties, led by Dominique Bourg (garnering 1.82% of the vote); Lutte Ouvrière with 0.78% of the vote; and a list of gilets jaunes which collected 0.54% of the vote.

BackgroundEdit

Electoral systemEdit

 
European Parliament constituencies of France in the 2014 election

Starting from the 2004 elections, France was divided into eight large regional electoral constituencies for the purposes of European Parliament elections with members elected by proportional representation. The electoral system changed ahead of the 2019 election, with broad support in the French political class for a return to a national vote.[1] On 29 November, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe announced that all parties consulted except for The Republicans supported returning to national lists, and confirmed the intention of the government to prepare a bill to change the voting system to that end,[2] which was officially unveiled on 3 January 2018,[3] preserving the 5% threshold for representation and 3% for reimbursement of campaign expenses. The possibility of transnational lists following the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union was also considered. The return to national lists in effect benefits smaller parties which were previously disadvantaged by the system of large regional constituencies, while larger parties would win fewer seats.[2]

The bill creating a single national constituency was approved by a vote the National Assembly vote on the first reading on 20 February 2018,[4] and the Senate officially adopted the bill on 23 May 2018,[5] which was promulgated on 25 June after its validation by the Constitutional Council.[6]

DatesEdit

As the European elections are scheduled from 23 to 26 May 2019 and French votes are traditionally held on Sundays, the date of the 2019 European election in France was confirmed to be 26 May 2019.[7] Declarations of lists and candidacies were to be submitted between 23 April and 3 May 2019, while voting in some of the overseas territories and for nationals in the Americas officially took place on 25 May 2019.[8]

Number of seatsEdit

On 23 January 2018, the European Parliament Committee on Constitutional Affairs adopted a proposal to reduce the size of the hemicycle from 751 to 705, splitting 27 former British seats between 14 underrepresented member states of which France was set to gain 5, increasing its representation from 74 to 79.[9] On 7 February, the European Parliament voted 368 to 274 against the principle of reallocating British seats to transnational lists, though the idea's fate was ultimately in the hands of the European Council.[10]

After the agreement on 10 April to postpone the British departure from the EU to 31 October, the participation of the United Kingdom in the European Parliament elections will mean that the number of elected MEPs will remain fixed at 74 until the eventual withdrawal of the UK. As a result, legislation to "provide for two phrases", one with 74 MEPs, and later with 79 in total,[11] was tabled on 24 April; electoral lists will still require 79 candidates, of which 74 will take their seats immediately and the remaining 5 "virtual" MEPs upon the departure of the UK from the EU.[12]

Broadcast campaignEdit

Total time allocated for campaign political broadcasts by the CSA by list under the revised allocation formula[13]
LREMMoDem
55'53"
RN
48'11"
LRLC
38'20"
PSPPND
19'43"
FI
18'37"
EELV
14'14"
UDI
10'52"
DLFCNIP
8'13"
PCF
7'40"
G.s
4'23"
GEMEIMdP
4'14"
LP
3'58"
All 22 others
3'33" each

The length of campaign clips for each list was determined by its declared support among national parliamentarians (senators, deputies, and MEPs),[14] a change largely to the benefit of the governing majority at the expense of opposition parties.[15]

From 15 April 2019, the Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel (CSA) ensured that all candidates receive a fair distribution of time in broadcast media, with the exact timing monitored by stations themselves and speaking time relayed every Monday until the elections. The campaign officially commenced on 13 May.[16]

Televised debatesEdit

Hamon appealed against his exclusion from the France 2 debate on 4 April on 27 March, questioning the choice not to invite him given the inclusion of other lead candidates;[17] this came after the earlier non-invitation of Brossat and Lagarde.[18] He was joined in his case by Philippot and Asselineau, with the Paris administrative court subsequently ordering France 2 to invite the three to its debate, judging France Télévisions's excuse that Hamon's views were sufficiently represented by the invitation of Glucksmann to have been insufficient.[19]

France Télévisions contested this decision, and although the Conseil d'État ultimately ruled that France 2 was not obligated to invite the three, France 2 maintained its invitation out of courtesy.[20] This first debate was watched by only 1.62 million viewers, representing an audience share of 9.8%.[21]

On 9 April, just before the debate hosted by RFI and France 24, the RN announced Bardella would not participate in the debate, taking issue with its format and apparent lack of preparedness on the part of the hosts.[22] As Mélenchon was unable to appear on the CNews debate on 10 April due to a planned campaign meeting,[23] Adrien Quatennens was invited to take his place instead.[24]

The decision of to split the debate on 22 May, hosted by France 2 and France Inter, into two separate segments provoked consternation among those invited to the second part, as did the choice not to invite the lead candidates of three of the principal lists (Bellamy, Loiseau, and Bardella) but their party leaders (Wauquiez, Guerini, and Le Pen) instead. On 14 May, Brossat said he would file an appeal with the CSA to intervene in the debate, while Hamon castigated France Télévisions president Delphine Ernotte for the decision, with Lagarde, Dupont-Aignan, and Philippot also denouncing the arrangement.[25] On 15 May, Hamon, Lagarde, and Dupont-Aignan held a joint press conference in front of the France Télévisions headquarters to announce that they would boycott the debate unless its format was modified,[26] and Yahoo! later announced that the three would participate in a debate on its site before the debate that evening, hosted by Clément Viktorovitch.[27] The LCI debate on 20 May was held in a similar fashion, with the first part dedicated to "small" lists and the later part of the evening reserved for the "main" ones.[28]

Meanwhile, doubts about her performance meant Loiseau would not appear at the debate hosted by France 2, but rather Bayrou, while some considered inviting Canfin to the LCI debate.[29] On 19 May, both Canfin and Loiseau demanded that the three final debates feature live fact-checking in spite of logistical difficulties.[30]

Date Organizers Moderators  P  Present  I  Invitee  NI  Non-invitee  A  Absent Notes
LO PCF FI G.s PSPP EELV UE LREM MoDem UDI LR DLF RN LP UPR AJ
4 April France 2
France Inter
Thomas Sotto [fr]
Alexandra Bensaïd [fr]
NI
Arthaud
P
Brossat
P
Aubry
P
Hamon
P
Glucksmann
P
Jadot
NI
Bourg
P
Loiseau
P
Lagarde
P
Bellamy
P
Dupont-Aignan
P
Bardella
P
Philippot
P
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[31][19]
9 April RFI
France 24
Frédéric Rivière
Caroline de Camaret
NI
Arthaud
NI
Brossat
P
Aubry
NI
Hamon
P
Glucksmann
P
Jadot
NI
Bourg
P
Loiseau
NI
Lagarde
P
Bellamy
NI
Dupont-Aignan
A
Bardella
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[32]
10 April CNews
Europe 1
Laurence Ferrari
Matthieu Belliard
NI
Arthaud
NI
Roussel
P
Quatennens
NI
Hamon
P
Faure
P
Cormand
NI
Bourg
P
Guerini
NI
Bayrou
NI
Lagarde
P
Wauquiez
P
Dupont-Aignan
P
Le Pen
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[33][24]
24 April LCI David Pujadas NI
Arthaud
NI
Roussel
P
Quatennens
NI
Hamon
P
Faure
NI
Cormand
NI
Bourg
P
Guerini
P
Bayrou
NI
Lagarde
P
Wauquiez
NI
Dupont-Aignan
P
Le Pen
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[34][35]
7 May CNews
Europe 1
Laurence Ferrari
Matthieu Belliard
P
Arthaud
P
Roussel
NI
Mélenchon
P
Balas
NI
Faure
NI
Cormand
NI
Bourg
NI
Guerini
NI
Bayrou
P
Lagarde
NI
Wauquiez
NI
Dupont-Aignan
NI
Le Pen
P
Philippot
P
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[36]
15 May BFM TV Ruth Elkrief NI
Arthaud
NI
Brossat
NI
Aubry
NI
Hamon
NI
Glucksmann
NI
Jadot
NI
Bourg
P
Loiseau
NI
Lagarde
NI
Bellamy
NI
Dupont-Aignan
P
Bardella
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[37]
20 May LCI
RTL
Le Figaro
David Pujadas
Élizabeth Martichoux
Alexis Brézet [fr]
P
Arthaud
P
Brossat
NI
Aubry
P
Hamon
NI
Glucksmann
NI
Jadot
NI
Bourg
NI
Loiseau
P
Lagarde
NI
Bellamy
NI
Dupont-Aignan
NI
Bardella
P
Philippot
P
Asselineau
P
Lalanne
[38][28]
NI
Arthaud
NI
Brossat
P
Aubry
NI
Hamon
P
Glucksmann
P
Jadot
NI
Bourg
P
Loiseau
NI
Lagarde
P
Bellamy
P
Dupont-Aignan
P
Bardella
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
22 May France 2
France Inter
Thomas Sotto NI
Arthaud
NI
Brossat
P
Aubry
NI
Balas [fr]
P
Glucksmann
P
Jadot
NI
Bourg
NI
Guerini
P
Bayrou
NI
Lagarde
P
Wauquiez
NI
Dupont-Aignan
P
Le Pen
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[25][29][39]
P
Arthaud
P
Brossat
NI
Aubry
P
Balas
NI
Glucksmann
NI
Jadot
P
Bourg
NI
Guerini
NI
Bayrou
P
Lagarde
NI
Wauquiez
P
Dupont-Aignan
NI
Le Pen
P
Philippot
P
Asselineau
P
Lalanne
23 May BFM TV Ruth Elkrief
Apolline de Malherbe
NI
Arthaud
P
Brossat
P
Aubry
P
Hamon
P
Glucksmann
P
Jadot
NI
Bourg
P
Loiseau
P
Lagarde
P
Bellamy
P
Dupont-Aignan
P
Bardella
P
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
NI
Lalanne
[38]

Other eventsEdit

On 23 September 2018, the national congress of the Association of Rural Mayors of France (Association des maires ruraux de France, or AMRF) announced that they would refuse to directly transmit the results of the elections to the state on the night of the election to voice their discontent with the lack of attention given by the government to rural policy.[40]

The 3 February 2019 edition of Le Journal du Dimanche revealed that Macron was interested in holding a referendum concurrent with the European elections on 26 May to conclude the grand débat national (great national debate) and end the gilets jaunes protests.[41] The opposition, suspicious about the referendum's timing, expressed skepticism, and the idea also lacked support from members of the government.[42]

Following the Notre-Dame de Paris fire on 15 April, several parties briefly suspended their campaigns for the European elections.[43]

Outgoing delegationEdit

 
Distribution of MEPs by European Parliament group as of 3 May 2019
 
Distribution of MEPs by national party as of 3 May 2019

The table below shows the composition of the delegation of France to the European Parliament as of 3 May 2019.[44] MEPs marked with an asterisk (*) are not standing as candidates; those marked with two asterisks (**) are candidates, but only in a clearly non-electable position near the end of electoral lists.[45]

Party Seats Group Seats MEPs
LR 16 EPP 20
DVD 2
Agir 2
RN 14 ENF 15
SE 1
PS 7 S&D 12
G.s 3
LREM 1
LRDG [fr], former PRG 1
MoDem 2 ALDE 7
MR 2
UDI 1
LREM 1
GC 1
EELV 5 Greens/EFA 6
DVE 1
DLF 2 EFDD 6
LP 2
PCD 1
LFL 1
PCF 2 GUE/NGL 5
FG 1
FI 1
GRS 1
RN 1 NI 3
CJ 1
SE 1

Electoral listsEdit

SummaryEdit

The table below is a summary of the main parties contesting the 2019 European elections in France.

Party Lead candidate Outgoing MEPs
Lutte Ouvrière (LO) Nathalie Arthaud
0 / 74
French Communist Party (PCF)
Ian Brossat
3 / 74
La France Insoumise (FI)
Manon Aubry
2 / 74
Génération.s
Benoît Hamon
3 / 74
Socialist Party (PS)
Raphaël Glucksmann
7 / 74
Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV)
Yannick Jadot
5 / 74
La République En Marche! (LREM)
Nathalie Loiseau
9 / 74
Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI) Jean-Christophe Lagarde
1 / 74
The Republicans (LR)
François-Xavier Bellamy
16 / 74
Debout la France (DLF)
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
2 / 74
National Rally (RN) Jordan Bardella
16 / 74
The Patriots (LP)
  • Jaunes et Citoyens (J&C)
Florian Philippot
2 / 74
Popular Republican Union (UPR) François Asselineau
0 / 74
Other notable lists
Urgence Écologie
Dominique Bourg
0 / 74
Animalist Party (PA) Hélène Thouy
0 / 74
Alliance Jaune (AJ) Francis Lalanne
0 / 74

Lutte OuvrièreEdit

The leadership of the New Anticapitalist Party (NPA) initially voted in favor of a common list with Lutte Ouvrière (LO), with its national political council on 6 and 7 October 2018 voting 37–22 (with 5 abstentions and 10 non-participants) in favor of an alliance in the 2019 European elections;[47] however, in November 2018, the parties acknowledged the failure to arrive to an agreement for a common list.[48] The annual party congress of Lutte Ouvrière on 8 and 9 December voted to present an autonomous list, with spokeswoman and former presidential candidate Nathalie Arthaud announcing that she would be its lead candidate.[49] Arthaud said the party refused an alliance with the NPA because the interests of workers were not a priority for the latter, and because she did not want to run a campaign on "all the struggles that can be fought, from ecology to feminism".[50]

French Communist PartyEdit

On 1 December 2017, Pierre Laurent, national secretary of the French Communist Party (PCF), stated that he wanted to gather "the strongest possible left group" for the 2019 European elections, launching an appeal to Jean-Luc Mélenchon of La France Insoumise and Benoît Hamon of Génération.s.[51] The national council of the PCF on 30 and 31 March approved the principle of a "common platform" including various left-wing groups as well as members of civil society and intellectuals, postponing discussion of electoral strategy.[52] On 3 June, Ian Brossat, deputy for housing to Socialist mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo, was selected as the leader of the PCF list.[53] On 14 June, the PCF again called for a common list of the left in an open letter addressed to parties on the left, excluding the Socialist Party (PS).[54] In December, Fabien Roussel, recently elected leader of the party, indicated that he did not necessarily support a common list given disagreements between left-of-centre parties, and indicated that an alliance with Hamon would only occur if Brossat led the list.[55] On 26 January, the PCF officially unveiled its list, voted on by party members from 31 January to 2 February. It includes two incumbent MEPs (Patrick Le Hyaric and Marie-Pierre Vieu), trade unionist Marie-Hélène Bourlard in second position (featured in the documentary film Merci patron! by sitting France Insoumise deputy François Ruffin), and is half composed of workers.[56]

La France InsoumiseEdit

At the convention of his movement on 25 November 2017, Jean-Luc Mélenchon announced that La France Insoumise would present a list in 2019, considering the elections a "referendum on the European question" to "break the chains, exit the European budgetary treaties".[58] The movement negotiating an alliance with the Spanish party Podemos and the Portuguese Left Bloc in Lisbon on 12 April 2018.[59] At the national level, Mélenchon continued to refuse any alliance with either Hamon's movement or the French Communist Party (PCF).[60] He announced on 11 March 2018 that he himself would not be a candidate.[61]

The movement published an unordered list of candidates on 5 June, with Charlotte Girard and Manuel Bompard guaranteed spots as the presumptive list leaders,[63] in first and second position, respectively,[64] and Younous Omarjee as the sole incumbent MEP. The movement received 637 applications, of which 506 were submitted by men and 131 by women; the electoral committee then ensured the demographic parity of the applicants. The resulting list was then submitted feedback until July,[63] when the list was ranked,[64] with another nine spots on the list reserved for members of civil society and trade unions and associations.[63] On 4 July, following a meeting of the electoral committee on 30 June, the movement published an updated list consisting of 66 candidates, with 13 spots reserved for members of civil society.[65]

The list produced by the electoral committee was met with criticism by dissatisfied activists, including Liêm Hoang-Ngoc of the "insubordinate Socialists", who "suspended" his movement's participation; former electoral committee member Lilian Guelfi, who denounced alleged favoritism by Manuel Bompard; and Sarah Soilihi and François Cocq, who withdrew their candidacies following its publication.[66] Djordje Kuzmanovic later quit the movement in November following his removal from the list after sexist remarks.[67] Nevertheless, the consultation of activists from 4 to 20 July resulted in its approval by 86.97% of participants.[68] After Emmanuel Maurel and Marie-Noëlle Lienemann quit the PS in mid-October.[69] the pair formed a new political party close to the Citizen and Republican Movement (MRC), the Republican and Socialist Left (GRS), in early 2019.[70] On 15 October, MRC president Jean-Luc Laurent announced an alliance with Maurel and Lienemann to create a common list with La France Insoumise,[71] with Maurel leaving the social democratic group in the European Parliament.[72] Accused of sexual harassment, political scientist Thomas Guénolé, in 14th position, was removed from the list in April 2019.[73]

On 15 November, Girard confirmed that she would neither lead the list nor be a candidate in 2019, and appeared to imply that she was sidelined.[74] On 9 December,[57] the movement officially voted to approve its list of 79 candidates and designate Manon Aubry, a 29-year-old tax evasion specialist and spokeswoman at Oxfam France, as its lead candidate. Manuel Bompard, campaign director, was second on the list, followed by Leïla Chaibi and outgoing MEP Younous Omarjee. Emmanuel Maurel, who quit the PS for an alliance with the movement, appeared in sixth, with Mélenchon in the symbolic penultimate position and Girard last.[75] According to Aubry, their list included several active gilets jaunes.[76] As in the 2017 presidential campaign, the movement used holograms to hold virtual meetings in 471 small towns throughout France (via "holovans").[77] Unable to secure financing, Mélenchon called for supporters to participate in a "people's loan" to fund their campaign,[78] collective 1.5 million euros within five days,[79] and reaching 2 million euros by 10 April, with an average loan of 700 euros.[80]

Génération.sEdit

On 21 January 2018, Benoît Hamon announced alongside former Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis of DiEM25 that Génération.s would contest the 2019 European elections.[81] On 10 March, Hamon called for the creation of the "first pan-European transnational list" alongside Razem in Poland, The Alternative in Denmark, and LIVRE in Portugal, publishing a common manifesto in June.[82]

Hamon sought to invite Élise Lucet, host of Cash Investigation on France 2, as a lead candidate, but was rebuffed.[83] Audrey Pulvar was also contacted, but indicated that she was not interested,[84] as was the case with Christiane Taubira.[85] The movement communicated with the Greens and PCF, even if the possibility of an alliance between the three was unlikely,[52] and Noël Mamère remained a possible "consensus candidate" in an alliance with the Greens, given his membership of both formations,[86] but ruled out running on 25 June 2018.[87] On 29 October, the movement launched a call for applications for prospective candidates from civil society,[88] receiving between 300 and 400 applications.[89] In mid-November 2018, incumbent MEP Édouard Martin [fr] confirmed that he would not seek a second term.[90]

In an interview published in Le Monde on 6 December, Hamon confirmed that he would be the lead candidate of a "citizen alliance",[91] and subsequently closed the door to an alliance with the PS on 7 January 2019, citing its membership of the Party of European Socialists (PES).[92] Le Journal du Dimanche reported that top candidates would also include MEPs Guillaume Balas [fr] and Isabelle Thomas [fr], ex-La France Insoumise member Sarah Soilihi [fr], spokeswoman Aurore Lalucq, and community activist Salah Amokrane.[93] In an interview published in Le Monde in early February, Hamon proposed that the left hold a "citizen vote" in April to select a common list and program,[94] though only New Deal, Les Radicaux de gauche [fr] (LRDG), and the Movement of Progressives (MdP) were receptive to the idea.[95] Hamon then announced on 23 February that he would lead an independent list,[96] revealing the first thirty candidates on the list on 26 February.[97] Lalucq later quit, announcing on 18 March that she would join Place Publique.[98] The movement indicated it was 600,000 euros short of financing its campaign, and considered soliciting donations via a "citizen bank".[99]

Socialist Party, Place Publique, and Nouvelle DonneEdit

Early on, a number of PS heavyweights declined to lead the list, including Najat Vallaud-Belkacem,[100] Pierre Moscovici,[101] Stéphane Le Foll,[102] Olivier Faure,[103] Christiane Taubira,[52] Paul Magnette,[104] François Hollande,[105] Bernard Cazeneuve,[106] Ségolène Royal,[107] Jean-Christophe Cambadélis,[108] and Christian Eckert.[109] Julien Dray declared his candidacy,[110] and Emmanuel Maurel was also reportedly approached to lead the list,[111] and did not rule out the possibility at the time.[112] On 8 October, Le Figaro reported that outgoing MEP Éric Andrieu was a candidate to lead the PS list,[113] as was Christine Revault d'Allonnes [fr], who announced her candidacy on 11 October.[114] Gabrielle Siry,[115] Ségolène Neuville [fr], and Sylvie Guillaume were also considered potential list leaders.[116]

In preparation for the elections, the PS began drafting its platform in May 2018,[117] launching a "digital collaborative platform", laruchesocialiste.fr,[103] which only elicited 337 responses from 272 people in two months.[118] Disagreements on the left wing of the party on the final form of the program persisted through September, despite commitments to create a left-wing and ecologist "intergroup" in the European Parliament, halt any new free trade treaties, and vote against the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with Canada. The text marked a new approach for the PS, arguing in favor of more social and environmental controls in trade agreements and a revision of the European treaties led by the left. Faure also affirmed that the PS would not support the candidacy of Frans Timmermans as Spitzenkandidat.[119] In an interview with Le Monde published on 12 October, Maurel quit the PS and castigated its failure to represent socialism,[120] soon followed by Marie-Noëlle Lienemann the following day,[121] with the creating a new left-wing party associated with Citizen and Republican Movement (MRC) in 2019, the Republican and Socialist Left (GRS).[70]

On 15 December 2018, at the ending of a meeting of the national council of the PS, Faure for the first time proposed that the party participate in a "rally" of forces on the left.[122] After Royal ruled out standing as a candidate of a common list on 11 January,[123] Faure indicated he would be ready to lead a PS list if necessary.[124] Raphaël Glucksmann, who co-founded Place Publique in an effort to unite the left, was offered the position of lead candidate.[125] On 13 February, the national office of the party approved of Faure's plans to seek an alliance with Place Publique,[126] and Glucksmann officially announced his intention to lead a list in the European elections on 15 March,[127] with the national council of the PS voting to designate Glucksmann as lead candidate the following day, with 128 votes in favor, 5 against, and 35 abstensions (including Stéphane Le Foll and Luc Carvounas). The list is composed of half PS candidates and half those of other parties and figures from civil society,[128] marking the first time since 1979 the PS did not lead its own list in the European elections.[129]

New Deal officially announced its support for the list on 18 March 2019, as did ex-Génération.s spokeswoman Aurore Lalucq.[130] After receiving 215 applications from party officials by 26 October 2018,[131] the PS approved a list of 20 women and 20 men as candidates in the European elections on 27 March 2019, with 23 votes in favor and 11 against; Le Foll, Carvounas, Martine Aubry, and their allies expressed displeasure at the list, as did a number of candidates and outgoing MEPs, who denounced the diluted list (given the number of PS candidates in non-electable positions).[132] After initially coming to an agreement, Virginie Rozière's Les Radicaux de gauche [fr] (LRDG) quit the list on 29 April, following pressure from their former PRG colleagues towards PS not to welcome the LRDG splitters while PRG was itself cancelling its merger into Macron-leaning Radical Movement.[133] On 5 May, Le Parisien reported that Christiane Taubira would back the list, appearing alongside Glucksmann on 15 May.[134]

Europe Ecology – The GreensEdit

On 27 February 2018, MEP Yannick Jadot stated that EELV would seek to present an independent list in 2019.[136] Both Jadot and fellow MEP Michèle Rivasi opposed a rapprochement with Hamon like that in the 2017 presidential election. Among outgoing MEPs, José Bové, Eva Joly, and Pascal Durand did not intend to seek a third mandate.[137][138] Durand, a supporter of Nicolas Hulot, was seen as open to working with La République En Marche!, as was Karima Delli, despite her denial of any such intentions,[137] and on 13 April, she expressed her desire to lead the EELV list.[139] Durand, on the other hand, ultimately joined the La République En Marche list.[45] Other candidates reportedly included David Cormand, Julien Bayou, Marie Toussaint, and Mounir Satouri.[138] On 19 December, Ségolène Royal offered to join the EELV list in second position,[140] but was rejected the following day.[141]

Given the difficulty in finding a potential list leader, Noël Mamère was named a possible "consensus candidate" in an alliance with Hamon,[86] but later declined on 25 June.[87] On 9 and 10 June, the federal council of the party agreed to put forth provisional lists to be submitted to a membership vote from 11 to 16 July,[143][144] and the outlines of the party's plans for the 2019 elections were presented from 23 to 25 August.[138] Two possible lists were created – one led by Jadot and the other by Rivasi – with the names of Damien Carême and Julien Bayou removed after later revisions.[142] On 16 July, the party announced that Jadot won the vote with 58.69% of votes against 35.59% for Rivasi,[145] and subsequently reaffirmed that he would not ally with Hamon again in the European elections.[146] On 23 September, the EELV federal council agreed to place Damien Carême, mayor of Grande-Synthe, 3rd on the EELV list,[147] and Alexis Tiouka, a former representative to the UN for the rights of indigenous peoples, later joined the list, becoming the first-ever Native American on a European electoral list.[148] In an interview on 25 February 2019, Jadot announced the addition of regional councilor Benoît Biteau to the list in 11th position.[149][150]

Régions et Peuples Solidaires planned to contest the elections but left open the possibility of allying with the Greens,[151] and on 16 February 2019 announced its an alliance, with former MEP François Alfonsi as well as Lydie Massard and Anne-Marie Hautant joining the list.[152] On 23 February, the Independent Ecological Alliance (AEI) duly announced that it reached an agreement with the EELV, with Caroline Roose and Salima Yenbou within the top 10 electable places on the list.[153]

The Greens intend to target both ex-Socialists and disappointed Macron voters who view his government's policies as too right-wing.[154] Jadot has sought to portray the EELV as neither left nor right but "central", attempting to represent a "pragmatic" German-style ecology and create an "ecologist pole" as opposed to the "productivist" and "populist" poles, saying that "ecology is not the left".[155] The Greens, led by Jadot, also unveiled their plans for a "Green New Deal", a name borrowed from the American left, proposing dedicating 100 billion euros to investments in renewable energy and home insulation to achieve 100% electricity generation from renewables within 20 years.[156]

La République En Marche and alliesEdit

In March 2019, Les Échos reported that the choice of lead candidate was to be made internally between either health minister Agnès Buzyn or European affairs minister Nathalie Loiseau.[158] Loiseau officially announced she would seek the nomination for lead candidate following her debate with Marine Le Pen on the set of L'Émission politique on 14 March,[159] while Les Échos and Le Parisien later reported that Buzyn withdrew her name from consideration.[160] Loiseau was officially designated as lead candidate on 26 March as the list of the first 30 candidates was unveiled.[161] Alain Juppé was the subject of early speculation regarding his potential candidacy to lead the list,[2] though confirmed on 19 March 2018 that he would not stand,[162] and his appointment to the Constitutional Council precluded his participation in the campaign, but he indicated he would have supported Macron's list.[163]

Other speculated list leaders included Édouard Philippe, François Bayrou, Nicolas Hulot, Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet,[1][164] Sylvie Goulard, Daniel Cohn-Bendit,[165] Arnaud Danjean,[166] and Michel Barnier. Pierre Moscovici ruled out the possibility,[167] as did Barnier,[168] Jean-Yves Le Drian,[169] Bayrou,[170] Danjean,[171] Daniel Cohn-Bendit,[172] and Thomas Pesquet.[173] Outgoing Green MEP Karima Delli, ministers Marlène Schiappa and Brune Poirson, deputy Amélie de Montchalin,[174] Pascal Canfin, head of the French section of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and former France Inter journalist Bernard Guetta were also considered potential candidates.[175] Canfin declined to lead the list on 16 November,[176] and in late January 2019, Laurence Tubiana, president of the European Climate Foundation and former COP21 negotiator, was mentioned as a possibility,[177] as were Le Drian, sailor Maud Fontenoy,[178] justice minister Nicole Belloubet,[179] and Emmanuelle Wargon.[180]

On 17 December 2017, at the congress of the Democratic Movement (MoDem), Christophe Castaner said he supported an "enlarged list" for the European elections based on their alliance,[181] and on 26 September 2018, the movement officially announced the opening of applications for prospective candidates from civil society,[182] receiving 2,673 in total,[183] winnowed by an investiture committee chaired by Jean-Marc Borello.[184] Former Élysée advisor Stéphane Séjourné was designated campaign director on 29 October, tasked with creating a list alongside Agir,[175] and seeking a lead candidate with a "green profile".[185] For the MoDem, Bayrou selected Régis Lefebvre to serve as deputy campaign director.[186]

On 15 February, Challenges revealed that EELV MEP Pascal Durand would be on the list in an electable position and Séjourné in the top 25 places.[187] The centre-right party Agir proposed several candidates for the list, including two in electable position: Nicolas Barnier (the son of Michel Barnier and a parliamentary assistant), as well as Fabienne Keller, Gilles Boyer, Élisabeth Morin-Chartier, and Xavier Fournier.[188] In an interview published in Challenges on 6 February, Radical Movement co-president Laurent Hénart indicated that the movement would likely vote to join a common list,[189] sparking dissent among some ex-PRG members including co-president Sylvia Pinel, who announced her departure from the party to resurrect the PRG on two days later.[190] The candidates it proposed included outgoing MEP Dominique Riquet, Olga Johnson, and Mélanie Fortier.[191] One outgoing MEP, Jean Arthuis, announced that he would not seek to run again in 2019,[192] and Agir MEP Tokia Saïfi also retired,[193] as did the party's other MEP Élisabeth Morin-Chartier after learning she would not be in electable position on the list.[194] Foreign nationals were also be on the list, including former Italian undersecretary for European affairs Sandro Gozi.[195] After declining to run as a lead candidate, Canfin ultimately appeared in second on the list.[196]

La République En Marche considered alliances with similar European political parties including Citizens in Spain and the Democratic Party in Italy, as well as parties outside of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE). Pieyre-Alexandre Anglade was delegated with the task of forming contacts with potential European partners.[197] On 9 September 2018, Guy Verhofstadt, leader of the ALDE group, claimed that La République En Marche would ally with ALDE, which Castaner denied.[198] Reports in October indicated Macron and Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte reached an agreement in principle for an alliance, though Anglade emphasized that ALDE parties would merely serve as the foundation, with EPP parties on the right such as Civic Platform in Poland and New Democracy in Greece as well as PES parties on the left including the Democratic Party in Italy and the Social Democratic Party of Austria in consideration. The party considered recruiting MEPs to form a group after the election.[199] Following the airing of a report on France 2 on 11 March about ALDE's financial backing from Monsanto, manufacturer of glyphosate, the party announced that it would not join the ALDE,[200] leading the latter to announce it would no longer accept corporate donations.[201] Verhofstadt later announced on 2 May that the ALDE group would be dissolved after the elections to ally and create a new group.[202]

Union of Democrats and IndependentsEdit

On 15 December 2018, Lagarde launched the party's campaign at its extraordinary congress,[204] hoping to gain the support of pro-European voters who were not necessarily in favor of Macron's ideas on Europe.[205] The party is also seeking to gain support from LR voters disillusioned by the hard-right political line of Wauquiez.[206] Former LR vice president Virginie Calmels as well as general Pierre de Villiers were approached as potential candidates.[207] However, Calmels later denied she was contacted and ruled out working with the UDI.[208] Xavier Bertrand planned to appear at the launch of the UDI congress remotely, but reiterated that he did not support a federal Europe did support the UDI list.[209] The UDI list includes former MEP Nora Berra, an Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes regional councilor elected on the LR list who later quit the party to protest its hard-right positioning, in second position,[210] as well as longtime centrist Louis Giscard d'Estaing, son of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, in third.[211] While the party's sole remaining MEP Patricia Lalonde initially supported the principle of an independent list, she later urged the party to join the LR list, expressing support for Bellamy and Wauquiez;[212] Lalonde did not seek another mandate in the elections.[45]

The RepublicansEdit

On 18 November, Le Journal du Dimanche reported that LR leader Laurent Wauquiez was considering 33-year-old Catholic philosopher François-Xavier Bellamy as a candidate to lead the LR list in 2019,[213] though his political inexperience and conservative profile initially raised concerns.[214] Wauquiez decided to submit three names to the CNI on 29 January, naming not only Bellamy but Agnès Evren and Arnaud Danjean as top candidates for the list,[215] balancing the various strands of the party, with Evren close to Valérie Pécresse and Danjean a committed pro-European close to Alain Juppé.[216] On 29 January, the CNI validated the nominations of Bellamy, Evren, and Danjean with 38 out of 40 votes.[217] Other potential list leaders included Laurent Wauquiez, who declined,[218] Virginie Calmels, Damien Abad,[167] Nadine Morano,[164] Jean Leonetti, Arnaud Danjean,[219] Luc Ferry,[166] Brice Hortefeux,[220] Pierre de Villiers,[221] Éric Woerth, Christian Jacob,[222] Geoffroy Didier, Philippe Juvin, Michel Dantin,[223] and Arnaud Danjean,[224] though Leonetti declined,[225] Ferry was uninterested,[220] and Dantin decided instead to seek another term as mayor of Chambéry in 2020.[226] Pécresse,[227] Rachida Dati,[228] and Michel Barnier also declined to lead the LR list.[168]

In an interview published on 10 March 2018 in Le Journal du Dimanche, Thierry Mariani militated for an alliance with Le Pen,[229] and was subsequently threatened with expulsion from the party;[230] he ultimately joined the RN list.[45] On 9 October, Wauquiez ruled out the possibility of alliances with Debout la France, La République En Marche!, or the National Rally in a letter addressed to Nicolas Dupont-Aignan.[231] On 12 February 2019, Hervé Morin of The Centrists met with Wauquiez about a possible alliance for two out of the top 20 places on the list.[232] On 6 March, the LR national investiture committee designated the first 26 candidates on the list.[233] Alexandre Vergnes, general secretary of Hunting, Fishing, Nature and Traditions (CPNT), was initially slated to appear in 13th – and later 15th – position, but was later demoted to 30th;[234] ultimately, the party announced on 11 April that its candidates would be Martine Aury in 48th and Pascal Marie in 31st.[235] Geoffroy Didier was appointed campaign director in March.[236] Despite pressure from La République En Marche to support their list ahead of the 2020 municipal elections and implied threats not to support them in case of their refusal denounced by some as "blackmail", "Macron-compatible" mayors (including Arnaud Robinet and Christian Estrosi) largely backed Bellamy's list.[237]

Among outgoing MEPs, Nadine Morano, Brice Hortefeux, Alain Cadec, Franck Proust, Geoffroy Didier,[220] and Angélique Delahaye sought to stand as candidates, while Françoise Grossetête, Élisabeth Morin-Chartier, Michèle Alliot-Marie, Alain Lamassoure, Jérôme Lavrilleux, Renaud Muselier, and Maurice Ponga did not seek the party's investiture,[238] with Rachida Dati also opting out in view of the 2020 municipal elections in Paris.[239] Marc Joulaud and Philippe Juvin are also not running for another term.[45]

Debout la FranceEdit

On 19 January 2018, Europe 1 revealed that Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, leader of Debout la France, appeared to close the door to an alliance with the National Rally (RN) while still appealing for a "union of patriots" that could yet include members of the National Rally.[241] On 20 March, the National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP) voted unanimously to join Dupont-Aignan's "The Lovers of France" (Les Amoureux de la France),[242][243] a political formation including the Christian Democratic Party of Jean-Frédéric Poisson and mayor of Béziers Robert Ménard.[244] On 31 May, the three figures of "The Lovers of France" presented a "common program" with president of the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group Ryszard Legutko in attendance,[245] coinciding with the defection of FN MEP Bernard Monot to join DLF and the publication of an open letter from Le Pen inviting Dupont-Aignan to form a common list,[246] which the latter subsequently rejected publicly.[247] On 23 September, Dupont-Aignan officially announced that he intended to lead a "union list" of the right in the 2019 European elections,[248] and DLF officially concluded its alliance with the ECR on 21 December.[249]

RN MEP Sylvie Goddyn, who was expelled from the party on 19 October 2018 after indicating her support for Dupont-Aignan's initiative for a union list,[250] initially planned to appear on the party's list,[251] as did Poisson.[252] According to a report in Le Figaro, Dupont-Aignan also sought to invite Jean Lassalle to lead his list but was rebuffed,[253] as was the case with Thierry Mariani,[254] who chose to join the RN list.[255] Jeannette Bougrab also refused to join the list, while both Dupont-Aignan and Le Pen failed to recruit LR member Erik Tegnér. DLF attempted to draft another LR figure, Malika Sorel,[256] while UBS whistleblower Stéphanie Gibaud became a candidate on the DLF list.[257] On 11 February, L'Opinion reported that wealthy financier and writer Charles Gave would appear on the DLF list and provide the party with nearly 2 million euros in funding, while his daughter Emmanuelle Gave would also be on the list in an electable position.[258] After Quotidien revealed the younger Gave's history of controversial tweets, DLF announced on 20 February that she would not be nominated, thus losing the elder Gave's guarantee of funding.[259] Following the departure of the Gaves and denial of loans, the party relied on 1.2 million in funding via a "people's loan" from supporters, in addition to around 1 million euros provided by candidates on the list.[260]

On 28 March 2019, Dupont-Aignan unveiled the first 23 candidates on the list, excluding Poisson because of his alleged refusal to embrace a collective approach, with outgoing MEPs Monot and Goddyn also absent "by mutual agreement".[261] Poisson reportedly threatened to launch his own list with Gave after being told he would appear in fifth position, rather than third as originally planned.[262] Despite their participation in Les Amoureux de la France, Ménard and Nicolas Dhuicq ultimately supported the list of the RN.[263]

National RallyEdit

According to a report in L'Obs on 22 November 2018, Jordan Bardella, the 23-year-old head of the party's youth wing Génération Nation, was favored by Le Pen to lead the list.[265] and on 7 January 2019, Louis Aliot confirmed that Bardella would lead the party's list in the European elections after being confirmed unanimously by the members of the RN's leadership.[266] Two LR members, former minister Thierry Mariani and Jean-Paul Garraud, as well as economist Hervé Juvin, appeared on the party's list.[267] In addition, André Rougé, who advised Le Pen during the presidential campaign and another ex-UMP member, employed in the mayoral office of Jacques Chirac until 1995, was also on the list.[268] A number of other lead candidates were considered but did not ultimately run. On 1 December 2017, Nicolas Bay announced that Marine Le Pen would not lead the party's list in 2019.[269] Juvin was also considered a possibility,[270] and on 12 October 2018, Aliot confirmed said he would seek to become lead candidate,[271] but announced on 20 November that he would instead seek the mayoralty of Perpignan in the 2020 municipal elections.[272]

On 13 December 2017, Le Pen claimed that she wanted an alliance with Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, president of Debout la France,[273] and met with Dupont-Aignan the same day to discuss "a possible partnership",[274] but was rebuked a month later,[241] and subsequently published an open letter seeking an alliance on 31 May 2018,[246] only to receive his rejection again on 3 June.[247] RN MEP Sylvie Goddyn was expelled from the party on 19 October 2018 after indicating her openness to Dupont-Aignan's initiative for a union list on the right.[250]

Le Pen campaigned with Bardella at public meetings on Saturday afternoons in 20 small communes over the course of a campaign, the cost of which is anticipated to be around 4 million euros, in addition to a single major campaign event in a regional capital on 1 May,[275] with Hénin-Beaumont mayor Steeve Briois appointed campaign director.[276] Like La France Insoumise, the party launched an appeal for a "popular loan", soliciting donations from supporters in order to finance its campaign after being denied loans by French banks,[277] and on 23 April announced that it raised 4 million euros using this scheme, which promised to repay lenders with 5% interest.[278] Le Pen and Matteo Salvini plan to hold a joint campaign meeting in Italy in mid-May, likely in Milan on 18 May.[279]

The PatriotsEdit

On 23 November 2017, Florian Philippot announced that his movement, The Patriots (Les Patriotes), would present candidates in the 2019 European elections, fighting for the French exit from the European Union.[280] The party had three MEPs, including Sophie Montel and Mireille d'Ornano,[44] though Montel quit the party on 5 July 2018.[281] Philippot launched the party's campaign for the European elections with the publication of his book Frexit, setting out his vision of Europe, in September 2018. Despite his hopes to build a cross-party list, his appeals to Henri Guaino, François Asselineau, and Jean Lassalle went unreciprocated.[282] Lacking public financing, Philippot called for donations to help fund the party's campaign.[283] As with other parties, the movement sought to recruit gilets jaunes onto its list, with Philippot seeking to register the name with the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) as well.[284] Philippot confirmed on 22 February that his party would have the financial means to contest the elections, saying that he would lead the list, followed by d'Ornano in second place.[285] On 30 April, Philippot filed his list, which was joined by members of Jean-François Barnaba's list Jaunes et citoyens; Barnaba himself is ninth on the list.[286]

On April 24, close to the deadline for filing of lists, Philippot publicly called for a common list with Asselineau; according to L'Opinion, he delegated Thibaud Lonjon with the task of soliciting an alliance, offering 300,000 euros in additional financing for the list (which had then already raised around 1.2 million euros). In addition to Asselineau, Philippot sought a last-minute alliance with Dupont-Aignan, this time offering 400,000 euros for the third spot on the list, but was again rejected, with Bertrand Dutheil de La Rochère confirming these approaches.[287]

Popular Republican UnionEdit

On 18 November 2017, François Asselineau, founder of the Popular Republican Union (UPR), said at the party congress in Tours that he would "probably" be a candidate on the party's list in the 2019 European elections.[288] Asselineau intends to leverage the party's online presence to help raise funds from its 32,000 members.[289]

Gilets jaunesEdit

Present listsEdit

In a press release on 29 April, Francis Lalanne announced that he would present a list under the banner of Alliance jaune on 30 April, having allied with the abortive RIC list now led by Jérémy Clément,[290] with a financial guarantee of 800,000 euros from Jean-Marc Governatori, co-secretary of the Independent Ecological Alliance (AEI) – allied with the Greens – in order to ensure the list would be able to contest the elections. The list was led by Lalanne, with Sophia Albert-Salmeron in second and Clément in third position.[291] This effort began following the publication of an open letter signed by Lalanne and Governatori, co-secretary of the Independent Ecological Alliance (AEI), on 7 December 2018 supporting the principle of a gilets jaunes list.[292] On 17 December, Lalanne announced the launch of the Rassemblement gilet jaune citoyen list,[293] though was opposed by many gilets jaunes who felt that he did not represent them.[294] According to Le Figaro, Jean-François Barnaba was expected to be chosen as the lead candidate for this list, despite having once considered launching his own list,[295] but on 22 March instead announced that he wanted to lead his own list, Jaunes et citoyens,[296] which later allied with Philippot's list, The Patriots, with ten candidates in non-electable positions.[297]

On 3 March, Christophe Chalençon announced the creation of the Évolution Citoyenne (Citizen Evolution) list for the European elections.[298] Though Chalençon is a notable figure of the movement, he says the list is not a list of "yellow vests", even if most of its candidates are, but consists of members of civil society representing "citizens of the left and right".[299][300]

Another list, Mouvement pour l'Initiative Citoyenne, which supports implementing the RIC at the national and European level, was selected by drawing lots,[301] though it existed long before the movement, with its foundation in 2006 and presence in the 2009 elections.[297] Yvan Bachaud, spokesman for the list (led by Gilles Helgen), reiterated on 6 May that the list has no connection to the gilets jaunes movement, and is only focused on supporting the RIC.[302]

Other parties ultimately included gilets jaunes on their lists, including the French Communist Party (PCF) with three, two present on the pro-Frexit Popular Republican Union (UPR) list led by François Asselineau, and right-wing activist Benjamin Cauchy in 9th position for Debout la France (DLF), of which he was already a member and spokesperson.[297]

Abortive listsEdit

On 4 December 2018, amid the gilets jaunes protests, Jean-François Barnaba announced that he intended to prepare a list of gilets jaunes to contest the European elections in 2019.[304] On 10 December, Hayk Shahinyan announced that he would also attempt to constitute a list.[305] Christophe Chalençon, one of the leaders of the "free" gilets jaunes, also supported the ambition of presenting a list in the European elections.[306] Shahinyan's association, Gilets Jaunes, le mouvement, was the best-organized group, with 85,000 euros and 14,000 members.[307]

On 23 January, the group announced in a press release that they would present a list called Ralliement d'initiative citoyenne (RIC, or Citizens' Initiative Rally, referencing the acronym of the proposed referendum desired by many gilets jaunes) led by Ingrid Levavasseur, a 31-year old nurse assistant, and also revealed the first 10 names on the list, with the remaining spots open to applications.[303] Shahinyan was chosen as campaign director. The announcement of a list provoked largely negative reactions among other gilets jaunes, many of whom were skeptical and considered them opportunists. Marc Doyer, eighth on the list, was revealed to have previously supported Macron,[308] and withdrew from the list on 28 January. Shahinyan also stepped down as campaign director, citing doubts.[309] On 31 January, Brigitte Lapeyronie, ex-UDI member and trade unionist, also announced that she would not stand as a candidate due to personal reasons.[310] Barnaba, who hoped to lead his own list, also quit.[311] On 13 February, Levavasseur announced that she would quit the RIC list, a week after a controversial meeting with Luigi Di Maio,[312] and announced on RTL on 11 March that she would not attempt to present a list.[313] Two others on the list, Côme Dunis and Ayouba Sow, confirmed their departure from the initiative on 26 February.[314] Jérémy Clément said that he would be ready to be lead candidate for the list unless a "more legitimate" candidate emerged.[315] On 5 April, Frédéric Mestdjian, spokesman for the RIC list, said that he expected to arrive at an alliance with "two or three" other lists of yellow vests within weeks, working with Lalanne's list.[316]

On 29 January, a gilet jaune leader from Nice, Patrick Cribouw, announced his intention to present a list in the European elections under the banner of Union jaune.[317] Spokesman Fréderic Ibanez claimed the list already had around 40 candidates and would attempt to remain apolitical in terms of its composition.[318] Appearing on BFM TV on 2 March, Cribouw claimed the list was complete and called for alliances with Mouraud, Levavasseur, and Valette.[319] On 1 February, Thierry Paul Valette announced the creation of a European election list under the banner of the Rassemblement des Gilets jaunes citoyens, claiming to have already chosen 10 candidates,[320] after having quit Lalanne's initiative,[321] but subsequently announced on 26 April that he would not present a list.[322] Shahinyan and Chalençon announced their intention to create the mouvement alternatif citoyen (MAC) and hold a member vote in March to decide whether to present a list.[323] For her part, Jacline Mouraud launched a party, Les Émergents, on 27 January, and reiterated her intention not to present a list in the European elections but the 2020 municipal elections.[324]

Many of Macron's supporters considered gilets jaunes lists desirable, given that an internal poll suggested that such a list would siphon votes from the opposition and increase turnout by engaging traditional abstentionists,[325] paradoxically strengthening Macron as a result.[326] Others, however, warned that an electoral transformation of the movement could result in a French Five Star Movement.[327]

Absent listsEdit

New Anticapitalist PartyEdit

While the New Anticapitalist Party (NPA) initially sought to ally with Lutte Ouvrière (LO), with its national political council of 6 and 7 October 2018 approving of the principle of an alliance by a 37–22 vote (with 5 abstentions and 10 non-participants),[47] talks broke down in November 2018.[48] On 28 January, the NPA indicated that it would attempt to present a list despite its serious financial difficulties,[328] soliciting donations from its members, with its leadership deciding on 24 March whether to contest the European elections.[329] On 18 February, the party reiterated its desire to be present in the elections, requiring a million euros to ensure its ability to do so.[330] The NPA ultimately announced on 25 March that it would not present a list in 2019, lacking the financial means to do so, and called on its supporters to vote for Lutte Ouvrière.[331]

Résistons!Edit

In an interview published in Valeurs actuelles on 3 May 2018, former presidential candidate Jean Lassalle announced his intention to present a list under the banner of his movement Résistons! in the European elections, hoping to defend the "territories and rurality" from the "European supranationalism, globalization and hypercapitalism". He voted "no" in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty referendum as well as the 2005 referendum on the European Constitution and opposed the Treaty of Lisbon in 2008. He intended to create a list composed of local mayors, farmers, business executives, and professionals inadequately represented in politics.[332] On 6 March 2019, Lassalle indicated he had about a "quarter" of the 800,000 to 1 million euros needed to finance the campaign,[333] and ultimately announced on 11 April 2019 that he would not present a list in the European elections,[334] lacking sufficient funding.[335]

Other electoral listsEdit

On 23 November 2018, Delphine Batho of Ecology Generation confirmed that she intended to present a list,[336] and on 18 March 2019, she confirmed alongside Antoine Waechter of the Independent Ecological Movement (MEI) that Dominique Bourg would lead their Urgence Écologie list,[337] also supported by the Movement of Progressives (MdP),[338] as well as a significant contingent of the Union of Democrats and Ecologists (UDE).[339]

The Animalist Party presented a list in the elections led by Hélène Thouy, with several notable candidates including journalist Henry-Jean Servat and Sylvie Rocard, wife of the late former prime minister Michel Rocard, as well as backing from numerous film and television personalities,[340] and former MEP Michèle Striffler in 11th position.[45]

Other lists include the monarchist and anti-EU Alliance Royale list led by Robert de Prévoisin; La ligne claire, a far-right identitarian list led by Renaud Camus, known for promoting the Great Replacement conspiracy theory, with Karim Ouchikh, president of Souveraineté, Identité et Libertés (SIEL), in third position; the list of the Pirate Party, a pro-transparency pirate party led by Florie Marie; Démocratie représentative, a far-left list led by Hadama Traoré emanating from the citizen collective La révolution est en marche; Parti des citoyens européens (PACE), led by Audric Alexandre, which calls for a federal Europe; the Liste de la reconquête, the list of the extreme-right party Dissidence française (DF) led by the 30-year-old Vincent Vauclin, which includes a number of ex-RN candidates; the European Federalist Party (PFE), a federalist party led by its president Yves Gernigon; Allons Enfants, a pro-European "party of youth" consisting entirely of candidates under 30 and led by 22-year-old Sciences Po graduate Sophie Caillaud; Décroissance 2019, a pro-degrowth and radical ecologist list led by Thérèse Delfel; À voix égales, a feminist list led by Nathalie Tomasini, former lawyer for Jacqueline Sauvage; Neutre et actif, a list led by Cathy Denise Ginette Corbet to "fight against abstention" in the elections; the far-left Parti Révolutionnaire Communistes, a split from the PCF, led by national secretary Antonio Sanchez; Espéranto - langue commune équitable pour l'Europe, the list of Europe Démocratie Espéranto (EDE), led by Pierre Dieumegard, which calls for the designation of Esperanto as an official language; Les Oubliés de l'Europe, a list led by Olivier Bidou to defend the interests of "artisans, tradespeople, liberal professions, and the self-employed"; the Union Démocratique Pour La Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité (UDLEF), a centre-right federalist list consisting mostly of African immigrants led by business leader Christian Luc Person;[299][300] and Une Europe au service des peuples, the list of the Union des démocrates musulmans français (Union of French Muslim Democrats, UDMF) led by Najib Azergui, which was validated after a delay due to incomplete paperwork.[341]

Election platformsEdit

The table below is a summary of the platforms of the principal electoral lists in the European elections.

Party Summary of platform
Lutte Ouvrière (LO) The Trotskyst party describes its goal as a "socialist United States of Europe", advocating for universal freedom of movement for all in order to help those fleeing war and poverty, banning layoffs, increasing wages by at least 300 euros, indexing wages and pensions to inflation, and abolishing the EU's Directive on the Protection of Trade Secrets.[342]
French Communist Party (PCF) The PCF calls for a "European minimum wage system", banning offshoring, cracking down on tax evasion achieved through foreign domiciles, creating a form of public service dedicated to "energy renovation", developing an "ecologically sustainable industrial strategy", issuing "humanitarian visas" near sites of origin, revising the Dublin Regulation to end the "first safe country" requirement, and increasing the involvement of national parliaments in EU policymaking.[342]
La France Insoumise (FI) La France Insoumise advocates for exit from the European treaties, granting the European Parliament with the right of legislative initiative, making Strasbourg the sole meeting place of the European Parliament, ending French contributions to the EU budget unless it addresses its "policy of inequality", refusing cuts to the Common Agricultural Policy, ending the Posted Workers Directive, the introduction of a European minimum wage at "75% of the median wage" in each country, and refuses the privatization of public services. On ecology, it proposes the creation of a "green rule" (i.e., to never take from the ecosystem more than can be replenished), raising carbon dioxide emissions targets, banning endocrine disruptors, adopting a plan to exit from coal and nuclear at the European level, and implementing a carbon EU border tariff. Other proposals include the creation of a "European aid and rescue corps" in the Mediterranean to end migrant deaths at sea.[342]
Génération.s
Hamon's list calls for a "Green New Deal", providing 500 billion euros per year towards the ecological transition (including a shift to organic farming using Common Agricultural Policy funds and a border tax on non-organic imports), a European wealth tax and minimum wage, and "moving towards" a continental universal basic income through a robot tax. The movement, which also claims the helm of ecology, advocates for creating a European environmental court and outlawing endocrine disruptors and fracking. Like EELV, Génération.s and DiEM25 back a "European Constituent Assembly" to create a new European Constitution, universal legal recognition of same-sex marriage, an end to the repatriation of migrants, and the establishment of an "independent search and rescue agency" in the Mediterranean.[342]
Socialist Party (PS)
Proposals of the common list include a European Finance-Climate Pact with 400 billion euros per year in funding dedicated to the ecological transition, focused on renovating outdated buildings, expanding the use of renewable energy, and a kerosene tax on European aviation. The list will also seek to allow the abrogation of the Stability and Growth Pact's mandate to limit deficits to 3% of GDP for such environmental spending and to revisit a continental ban on glyphosate. With regard to immigration, the PS–Place Publique list plans include a "European version" of the Mediterranean rescue operation, abolishing the Dublin Regulation, and issuance of "humanitarian visas and legal channels for migration". It also calls for reducing barriers to the European Citizens' Initiative, empowering the European Parliament, and a European version of France's High Authority for Transparency in Public Life [fr] (HATVP).[342]
Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV)
EELV aims to create a zero-carbon economy, end support for fossil fuels, eliminate free trade agreements (including CETA), implement a "green protectionism" including a "socio-environmental border tax", create of a European bank for "climate and diversity" with 100 billion euros per year in funding dedicated to "eco-sufficiency, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable transport", and develop a "social fund for the ecological transition" financed by a financial transaction tax. It also proposes environmental courts to prosecute environmental crimes, eliminating the usage of toxins (e.g., glyphosate and endocrine disruptors), targeting planned obsolescence, redistributing the power of European institutions to also better reflect "civil, social, and environmental" concerns, establishing an institution to focus on public transparency, and creating European referenda.[342]
La République En Marche! (LREM)
The Renaissance list calls for a European minimum wage corresponding to each country's relative purchasing power, reforming the Posted Workers Directive, creating a continental digital tax on large firms to clamp down on tax evasion within the EU, investing at least 1 trillion euros "to develop clean energy and transport, renovate housing and accompany the retraining of workers and sectors in transition", creating a "European climate bank" to direct funds towards "green growth" and carbon taxation of foreign products, the "harmonization of asylum criteria", increasing the number of border personnel, strengthening the Schengen Area, empowering the European Parliament with the right of legislative initiative, and reducing the number of European Commissioners.[342]
Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI) The UDI supports "harmonization" of corporate taxation, reinforcing the Common Agricultural Policy by abolishing the UK rebate, creating a Livret E in the same vein as the Livret A to fund "major environmental projects", as well as identifying "alternatives" to glyphosate and copper sulphate, fighting terrorism by establishing a European FBI, migration agency, and "cyber army". With regard to institutional changes, the UDI proposes the end of unanimity requirements, requiring European Commissioners to receive the backing of at least 40 MEPs, the direct election of the president of the European Council, and creation of a "European citizens' referendum".[342]
The Republicans (LR)
Proposals of the LR list include creating a "European and French" preference over foreign products similar to the Buy American Act, ensuring reciprocal access to foreign public procurement markets, fully funding the Common Agricultural Policy budget, restoring community preference "in the agricultural sector", amending the Posted Workers Directive, imposing anti-pollution custom duties on countries that fail to meet environmental or social standards, modifying the Schengen Borders Code to account for the "restoration of internal border controls", processing asylum applications outside of the EU, ending new migrant reception structures, tripling the Frontex budget, returning migrant boats to ports of origin, and maintaining a common register of deportees. It also opposes the further expansion of the EU or Schengen, calls for making Strasbourg the sole seat of the European Parliament, and limiting the authority of the Commission and instead delegating its responsibilities to the European Parliament and Council of the European Union.[342]
Debout la France (DLF)
Les Amoureux de la France support ending the Posted Workers Directive, allocating 75% of public contracts to European firms, and to "immediately recuperate" 80% of France's contribution to the EU budget. The souverainist platform also calls for the restoration of national border controls with the abolition of the Schengen Area, deportation of "illegal immigrants and foreign criminals", and ending immigration via family reunification. Though it does not advocate for the departure of France from the EU, it does support the dissolution of the European Commission, granting veto power to any of the five most populous EU nations (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Poland), and to make French the official working language of the EU after Brexit.[342]
National Rally (RN) The RN advocates for "an economic patriotism", seeking to repeal the Posted Workers Directive, replace the Common Agricultural Policy with a "French agricultural policy", and changing the mandates of the European Central Bank (abandoning its past support of leaving the Eurozone). It also emphasizes the restoration of "national border controls", ending legal immigration, expelling sans-papiers and "foreign Islamists", and shutting down "radical mosques". The RN also proposes to abolish the European Commission, and granting legislative initiative to the Council of the European Union.[342]
The Patriots (LP) The Patriots, the party of ex-FN vice president Florian Philippot, is principally focused on Frexit to regain control over national borders; most of its proposals are concerned with national issues (e.g. increase of the minimum wage, pensions, and tax reform). It also backs the citizens' initiative referendum (RIC), a principal demand of the yellow vests movement, and proportional representation in all elections.[342]
Popular Republican Union (UPR) The UPR, which also advocates for the departure of France from the EU, which it argues would allow the country to end offshoring, target tax evasion, and improve export competitiveness, and also argues for the French departure from NATO to reassert the "military and diplomatic independence" of France and empowerment of voters through citizens' initiative referenda (RIC).[342]

Opinion pollsEdit

ResultsEdit

On 4 May 2019, the names of 33 official electoral lists, validated by the Ministry of the Interior, were published in the Journal officiel de la République française, with their order determined by drawing lots.[45] A 34th list entitled Une Europe au service des peuples, representing the Union des démocrates musulmans français (Union of French Muslim Democrats, UDMF) led by Najib Azergui, was later validated by the Ministry of the Interior after an initial delay,[343] due to a lack of written consent from several candidates on the list.[341] In all, a total of 2,686 candidates were represented on these 34 lists, the number of which surpasses the previous record of 20 at the national level in the 1999 elections and the average of 24 lists per constituency in the 2014 elections.[344] Lacking the financial means to do so, most minor electoral lists were unable to distribute ballot papers at every polling site, instead requiring voters to print their own ballots published online;[345] others, like the Pirate Party, only printed a fraction of ballots for each polling station, with those in particularly favorable areas targeted for ballots, to cut costs.[346] Due to the Article 50 extension granted to the United Kingdom, 79 MEPs will be considered to have been officially elected, but only 74 will initially take their seats, with 5 "virtual" MEPs to take their seats upon the departure of the UK from the EU.[12]

Comparisons for 2019 results for Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV) are made with the combined score it received in 2014 of 8.95%, the Independent Ecological Alliance (AEI) with 1.12%, and Régions et Peuples Solidaires (R&PS) with 0.34% (representing 10.41% in total); for the Socialist Party (PS) common list including Place Publique and New Deal, with its score in 13.98% as well as that of New Deal with 2.90% (representing 16.88% in total); the score of the Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI) is compared with the total score of the electoral alliance The Alternative in 2014; for the French Communist Party (PCF), with the Left Front electoral alliance (including the Union for the Overseas).

Party/alliance List Lead candidate Votes Seats (79/74) Group
# % +/– # +/– # +/–
RN Prenez le pouvoir, liste soutenue par Marine Le Pen Jordan Bardella 5,286,939 23.34 –1.52 23 –1 22 –2 ID
LREMMoDem Renaissance soutenue par La République en Marche, le MoDem et ses partenaires Nathalie Loiseau 5,079,015 22.42 New 23 +19 21 +17 RE
EELV Europe Écologie Yannick Jadot 3,055,023 13.48 +3.08 13 +7 12 +6 Greens/EFA
LRLC Union de la droite et du centre François-Xavier Bellamy 1,920,407 8.48 –12.33 8 –12 8 –12 EPP
FI La France Insoumise Manon Aubry 1,428,548 6.31 New 6 +5 6 +5 GUE/NGL
PSPPND Envie d'Europe écologique et sociale Raphaël Glucksmann 1,403,170 6.19 –10.69 6 –7 5 –8 S&D
DLFCNIP Le courage de défendre les Français avec Nicolas Dupont-Aignan. Debout la France ! – CNIP Nicolas Dupont-Aignan 795,508 3.51 –0.31 0 0
G.s Liste citoyenne du Printemps Européen avec Benoît Hamon soutenue par Génération.s et DémE-DiEM 25 Benoît Hamon 741,772 3.27 New 0 0
UDI Les Européens Jean-Christophe Lagarde 566,057 2.50 New 0 –3 0 –3
PCF Pour l'Europe des gens, contre l'Europe de l'argent Ian Brossat 564,949 2.49 New 0 –3 0 –3
PA Parti animaliste Hélène Thouy 490,074 2.16 New 0 0
GEMEIMdP Urgence écologie Dominique Bourg 412,136 1.82 New 0 0
UPR Ensemble pour le Frexit François Asselineau 265,469 1.17 +0.77 0 0
LO Lutte Ouvrière – Contre le grand capital, le camp des travailleurs Nathalie Arthaud 176,339 0.78 –0.40 0 0
LP Ensemble, Patriotes et Gilets jaunes : pour la France sortons de l'Union européenne ! Florian Philippot 147,140 0.65 New 0 0
AJ Alliance jaune, la révolte par le vote Francis Lalanne 121,209 0.54 New 0 0
CNDI Les oubliés de l'Europe – Artisans, commerçants, professions libérales et indépendants – ACPLI – Olivier Bidou 51,240 0.23 New 0 0
PP Parti pirate Florie Marie 30,105 0.13 –0.07 0 0
UDMF Une Europe au service des peuples Nagib Azergui 28,469 0.13 New 0 0
EDE Espéranto – langue commune équitable pour l'Europe Pierre Dieumegard 18,587 0.08 –0.09 0 0
PFE Parti fédéraliste européen – pour une Europe qui protège ses citoyens Yves Gernigon 12,146 0.05 –0.04 0 0
AdOC Décroissance 2019 Thérèse Delfel 10,352 0.05 +0.02 0 0
AE Allons enfants Sophie Caillaud 8,062 0.04 New 0 0
AVE À voix égales Nathalie Tomasini 7,825 0.03 New 0 0
PACE PACE – Parti des citoyens européens Audric Alexandre 6,663 0.03 New 0 0
RIC Mouvement pour l'initiative citoyenne Gilles Helgen 5,882 0.03 New 0 0
UDLEF Union démocratique pour la liberté, égalité, fraternité (UDLEF) Christian Luc Person 4,912 0.02 New 0 0
DF Liste de la Reconquête Vincent Vauclin 4,569 0.02 New 0 0
AR Une France royale au cœur de l'Europe Robert de Prévoisin 3,150 0.01 –0.00 0 0
LREEM Démocratie représentative Hadama Traoré 3,084 0.01 New 0 0
EC Évolution citoyenne Christophe Chalençon 2,061 0.01 New 0 0
SIELPI La ligne claire Renaud Camus 1,578 0.01 –0.00 0 0
PRC Parti révolutionnaire communistes Antonio Sanchez 1,413 0.01 –0.02 0 0
N&A Neutre et actif Cathy Denise Ginette Corbet 1,321 0.01 New 0 0
Total 22,655,174 100.00 79 +5 74
Valid votes 22,655,174 95.47 –0.52
Blank votes 555,033 2.34 –0.43
Null votes 520,533 2.19 +0.95
Turnout 23,730,740 50.12 +7.69
Abstentions 23,614,588 49.88 –7.69
Registered voters 47,345,328
Source: Journal officiel de la République française

By departmentEdit

By regionEdit

Communes with at least 100,000 inhabitantsEdit

Elected MEPsEdit

Five MEPs were formally considered to have been elected in the elections, but will not take their seats pending the departure of the UK from the EU.[12]

# Name List Party
1 Jordan Bardella RN RN
2 Hélène Laporte RN RN
3 Thierry Mariani RN SE
4 Dominique Bilde RN RN
5 Hervé Juvin RN RN
6 Joëlle Mélin RN RN
7 Nicolas Bay RN RN
8 Virginie Joron RN RN
9 Jean-Paul Garraud RN SE
10 Catherine Griset RN RN
11 Gilles Lebreton RN RN
12 Maxette Grisoni-Pirbakas RN RN
13 Jean-François Jalkh RN RN
14 Aurélia Beigneux RN RN
15 Gilbert Collard RN RN
16 Julie Lechanteux RN RN
17 Philippe Olivier RN RN
18 Annika Bruna RN RN
19 Jérôme Rivière RN RN
20 France Jamet RN RN
21 André Rougé RN RN
22 Mathilde Androuët RN RN
23 Jean-Lin Lacapelle RN RN
1 Nathalie Loiseau LREMMoDem LREM
2 Pascal Canfin LREMMoDem DVE
3 Marie-Pierre Vedrenne LREMMoDem MoDem
4 Jérémy Decerle LREMMoDem SE
5 Catherine Chabaud LREMMoDem MoDem
6 Stéphane Séjourné LREMMoDem LREM
7 Fabienne Keller LREMMoDem Agir
8 Bernard Guetta LREMMoDem SE
9 Irène Tolleret LREMMoDem DVG
10 Stéphane Bijoux LREMMoDem LREM
11 Sylvie Brunet LREMMoDem MoDem
12 Gilles Boyer LREMMoDem DVD
13 Stéphanie Yon-Courtin LREMMoDem DVD
14 Pierre Karleskind LREMMoDem LREM
15 Laurence Despaux-Farreng LREMMoDem MoDem
16 Dominique Riquet LREMMoDem MR
17 Véronique Trillet-Lenoir LREMMoDem LREM
18 Pascal Durand LREMMoDem DVE
19 Valérie Hayer LREMMoDem LREM
20 Christophe Grudler LREMMoDem MoDem
21 Chrysoula Zacharopoulou LREMMoDem LREM
22 Sandro Gozi LREMMoDem PD (Italy)
23 Ilana Cicurel LREMMoDem LREM
1 Yannick Jadot EELV EELV
2 Michèle Rivasi EELV EELV
3 Damien Carême EELV EELV
4 Marie Toussaint EELV EELV
5 David Cormand EELV EELV
6 Karima Delli EELV EELV
7 Mounir Satouri EELV EELV
8 Caroline Roose EELV AEI
9 François Alfonsi EELV PNC
10 Salima Yenbou EELV AEI
11 Benoît Biteau EELV EELV
12 Gwendoline Delbos-Corfield EELV EELV
13 Claude Gruffat EELV SE
1 François-Xavier Bellamy LRLC LR
2 Agnès Evren LRLC LR
3 Arnaud Danjean LRLC LR
4 Nadine Morano LRLC LR
5 Brice Hortefeux LRLC LR
6 Nathalie Colin-Oesterlé LRLC LC
7 Geoffroy Didier LRLC LR
8 Anne Sander LRLC LR
1 Manon Aubry FI FI
2 Manuel Bompard FI FI
3 Leïla Chaibi FI FI
4 Younous Omarjee FI FI
5 Anne-Sophie Pelletier FI FI
6 Emmanuel Maurel FI GRS
1 Raphaël Glucksmann PSPPND PP
2 Sylvie Guillaume PSPPND PS
3 Éric Andrieu PSPPND PS
4 Aurore Lalucq PSPPND PP
5 Pierre Larrouturou PSPPND ND
6 Nora Mebarek PSPPND PS

ElectorateEdit

Demographic PCF FI G.s PS/
PP/ND
EELV LREM/
MoDem
UDI LR/
LC
DLF RN Turnout
Total vote 2.49% 6.31% 3.27% 6.19% 13.48% 22.42% 2.50% 8.48% 3.51% 23.34% 50.12%
Sex
Men 2% 7% 3% 6% 9% 25% 3% 8% 3% 26% 54%
Women 2% 6% 4% 7% 17% 19% 3% 9% 4% 20% 49%
Age
18–24 years old 4% 9% 7% 5% 25% 12% 1% 8% 4% 15% 39%
25–34 years old 1% 6% 5% 5% 28% 17% 1% 4% 2% 20% 40%
35–49 years old 1% 10% 3% 7% 14% 16% 2% 6% 5% 26% 46%
50–59 years old 2% 8% 4% 6% 10% 21% 1% 6% 2% 30% 51%
60–69 years old 4% 6% 2% 8% 9% 24% 2% 9% 5% 23% 62%
70 and older 3% 2% 3% 8% 5% 33% 6% 15% 3% 20% 65%
Socio-occupational classification
Manager/professional 2% 6% 5% 7% 20% 28% 2% 6% 1% 13% 51%
Intermediate occupation 4% 10% 4% 7% 21% 19% 2% 4% 3% 19% 43%
White-collar worker 1% 11% 3% 3% 13% 15% 1% 8% 4% 27% 41%
Blue-collar worker 1% 7% 3% 8% 12% 12% 1% 3% 3% 40% 45%
Retired 4% 4% 2% 8% 6% 30% 4% 11% 4% 22% 65%
Employment status
Employee 2% 9% 3% 6% 17% 17% 2% 6% 3% 25% 45%
Private employee 1% 9% 3% 6% 16% 19% 2% 6% 4% 25% 45%
Public employee 4% 9% 4% 7% 19% 16% 1% 5% 3% 25% 45%
Self-employed 0% 9% 6% 5% 12% 19% 1% 13% 5% 14% 43%
Unemployed 2% 8% 3% 3% 13% 14% 0% 5% 1% 29% 47%
Education
Less than baccalauréat 3% 6% 3% 7% 6% 21% 2% 8% 4% 33% 50%
Baccalauréat 2% 8% 4% 6% 14% 20% 2% 8% 4% 24% 50%
Bac +2 1% 6% 3% 7% 15% 21% 3% 10% 4% 16% 52%
Bac +3 and higher 3% 8% 4% 7% 20% 25% 3% 8% 2% 12% 53%
Monthly household income
Less than €1,200 2% 12% 7% 5% 12% 11% 1% 5% 3% 30% 42%
€1,200 to €2,000 3% 8% 4% 6% 10% 17% 4% 9% 4% 26% 48%
€2,000 to €3,000 3% 5% 2% 6% 12% 24% 2% 7% 3% 27% 53%
More than €3,000 2% 6% 3% 7% 15% 26% 4% 10% 4% 18% 56%
First-round vote in the 2017 presidential election
Jean-Luc Mélenchon 11% 36% 6% 8% 19% 3% 1% 0% 3% 4% 45%
Benoît Hamon 3% 4% 23% 30% 24% 7% 0% 0% 0% 2% 62%
Emmanuel Macron 1% 1% 2% 11% 14% 57% 2% 3% 0% 4% 60%
François Fillon 0% 1% 0% 0% 4% 27% 9% 34% 3% 18% 56%
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan 0% 1% 0% 1% 9% 9% 2% 5% 37% 23% 52%
Marine Le Pen 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 3% 0% 2% 4% 78% 57%
Political party
PCF 63% 2% 5% 2% 7% 3% 0% 6% 0% 0% 62%
FI 5% 67% 3% 5% 3% 0% 0% 0% 2% 3% 47%
PS 2% 4% 11% 44% 15% 15% 0% 0% 1% 4% 56%
EELV 0% 2% 3% 1% 78% 4% 0% 0% 1% 3% 54%
LREM 0% 0% 1% 0% 7% 88% 0% 1% 0% 2% 64%
MoDem 1% 0% 1% 4% 12% 45% 12% 3% 1% 4% 55%
UDI 0% 0% 0% 1% 5% 32% 42% 9% 0% 2% 62%
LR 0% 2% 0% 0% 2% 16% 4% 52% 1% 18% 52%
DLF 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 2% 58% 29% 54%
RN 0% 0% 1% 0% 2% 1% 0% 0% 1% 91% 58%
Left subtotal 7% 19% 7% 18% 29% 7% 0% 1% 1% 3% 53%
Right subtotal 0% 2% 0% 0% 3% 16% 9% 38% 10% 17% 54%
No party 1% 3% 7% 4% 8% 11% 4% 4% 7% 26% 36%
Proximity to the gilets jaunes movement
Very close 4% 20% 1% 4% 5% 2% 1% 2% 5% 44% 58%
Rather close 3% 9% 6% 7% 13% 3% 2% 5% 6% 35% 47%
Not really close 3% 3% 3% 9% 18% 23% 4% 11% 3% 16% 49%
Not at all close 0% 2% 3% 5% 12% 47% 3% 12% 1% 9% 56%
Close subtotal 3% 13% 4% 6% 11% 3% 1% 4% 6% 38% 50%
Not close subtotal 2% 2% 3% 7% 15% 36% 4% 12% 2% 12% 52%
Source: Ipsos

Aftermath and analysisEdit

Top list in Paris by arrondissement
Top list in Marseille by sector
     LREM–MoDem
     RN
     EELV

Turnout, up by 7.7 points compared to the previous European elections, was the highest since the 1994 elections. The results of the election were a confirmation of the establishment of the National Rally and La Republique En Marche as the two strongest political forces, between them leading in every single department.[347] Although it fell relative to 2014, elevated turnout also meant the RN also attained a new record vote total in the European elections.[348] Pre-election polls failed to capture both the rise of the Greens and abysmal result of The Republicans. Even if surveys in the closing weeks uniformly reflected an increase in estimated turnout, that alone did not explain the discrepancy between polls and the final result. Frédéric Dabi, deputy director general of the polling institute Ifop, admitted that pollsters missed the result, while Brice Teinturier, deputy managing director at Ipsos, suggested that the LR vote was more fragile than immediately visible, with their electorate less firm and many placing Loiseau's list as their second choice; the same was true for La Republique En Marche, with 17% of its backers then considering a vote for the Greens. Teinturier suggested that there had been a "double transfer" in votes in the closing weekend during the polling ban, with LR supporters moving Loiseau's list to prevent the RN from a first-place finish, the Greens depriving votes from the En Marche list, and a porous Socialist electorate compatible with both.[349] Surveys indicated that nearly a quarter of voters made their choice only in the weekend before, with over half of EELV voters deciding within the last week alone, while retirees, who traditionally make up the LR vote, instead voted for the Renaissance list.[350]

The results of the European elections in France were also viewed with interest for their potential implications in the upcoming municipal elections in 2020. In Paris, the Renaissance list came first with 33% of the vote, followed by the Greens with just under 20%, LR with a catastrophic score of just 10%, the Socialists on 8%, RN on 7%, and Mélenchon's France Insoumise on only 5%.[351] Despite the overall vote share of the LREM list remaining relatively stable compared to Macron's result in 2017, the massive increase in support in the wealthier western arrondissements and decrease in support everywhere else in the city reflected the changing nature of its electoral base with the loss of its left flank.[352] Even in Marseille, a stronghold of the right, the LR list received only 8% of the vote, whereas the National Rally led with just over 26% and the list backed by Mélenchon with just over 8% in his electoral fief.[353]

In reaction to the results, the Élysée claimed that it perceived the outcome as a "disappointment", but "not a defeat", while pointing to EELV's strong showing as reflecting strong support for ecological issues which it had made central to the campaign, with no change in direction expected from the government.[354] Interpretations of the RN's score were also qualified, described as a "victory but not a triumph", falling short of the 25% mark in late polls, matching its usual electoral results and marking a slight decrease from its share of the vote from 2014.[355] Speaking after the RN's victory, Le Pen called for the immediate dissolution of the National Assembly after the "democratic rejection" of Macron with his list's second-place finish.[356] For his part, Benoît Hamon decided to take time to reflect upon his next steps and to try to assist in uniting the left after his movement, Génération.s, fell short and failed to secure any seats.[357] Despite implicit pressure on him to step down after overseeing the worst result for the right in its history, Laurent Wauquiez initially sought to remain at the helm of The Republicans, proposing an "Estates General" to update the party's strategy and propositions.[358][359] The results were also a major disappointment for Mélenchon's France Insoumise with a score just over 6%, only narrowly ahead of the PS/Place Publique list, cut in third compared to the 2017 presidential election; like LR, it was also potentially a victim of tactical voting, potentially due to a strategic failure in framing the election as an anti-Macron referendum.[360] Wauquiez ultimately announced his resignation as president of The Republicans a week later, on 2 June.[361]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Vivien Vergnaud (19 November 2017). "Emmanuel Macron lance le chantier des élections européennes de 2019". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "L'exécutif veut revenir à des listes nationales pour les élections européennes de 2019". Le Monde. Agence France-Presse. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Projet de loi relatif à l'élection des représentants au Parlement européen (INTX1733528L)". Légifrance. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Analyse du scrutin n° 407 - Deuxième séance du 20/02/2018". Assemblée nationale. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  5. ^ "Scrutin n° 104 - séance du 23 mai 2018". Sénat. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  6. ^ "LOI n° 2018-509 du 25 juin 2018 relative à l'élection des représentants au Parlement européen (1)". Légifrance. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  7. ^ "Date des élections européennes: le scrutin aura lieu le 26 mai 2019". Le HuffPost. Agence France-Presse. 20 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Document à l'attention des candidats aux élections européennes 2019". Ministère de l'Intérieur. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Élections 2019: les députés ouvrent la voie à une circonscription paneuropéenne après le Brexit". Parlement européen. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  10. ^ Cécile Ducourtieux (7 February 2018). "Le Parlement européen rejette le principe des listes transnationales pour les européennes". Le Monde. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  11. ^ Jean-Baptiste Chastand; Cédric Pietralunga (11 April 2019). "Brexit : en France, l'imbroglio du nombre de députés européens à élire". Le Monde. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  12. ^ a b c Valérie Mazuir (24 April 2019). "Européennes : des eurodéputés français « virtuels » en attendant le Brexit". Les Échos. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  13. ^ Nicolas Berrod (10 May 2019). "Européennes : entre 33 secondes et 4 minutes, les clips de campagne diffusés dès mardi". Le Parisien. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  14. ^ "Européennes: le temps d'antenne officiel bientôt réparti". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  15. ^ Pauline Moullot (16 January 2018). "Le gouvernement veut-il réduire le temps de parole de l'opposition pour les élections européennes ?". Libération. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Elections européennes : le casse-tête du temps de parole a commencé". Le Parisien. 15 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  17. ^ Pierre Lepelletier (27 March 2019). "Européennes: écarté du débat sur France 2, Hamon saisit la justice". Le Figaro. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  18. ^ "«L'Emission politique» : le PCF finalement invité au débat de France 2". Le Parisien. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Européennes: la justice ordonne à France 2 d'inviter Hamon, Philippot et Asselineau à son débat". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  20. ^ François Rousseaux (4 April 2019). "Débat des européennes : France Télévisions gagne en Conseil d'Etat". Le Parisien. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  21. ^ Pierre Dezeraud (5 April 2019). "Audiences : "Section de recherches" leader, "9-1-1" en baisse, "L'émission politique" faible, C8 en grande forme". PureMédias. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  22. ^ Charles Sapin (9 April 2019). "Européennes: Jordan Bardella (RN) annule sa participation au second débat". Le Figaro. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  23. ^ Pierre Dezeraud (29 March 2019). "Européennes : Jean-Luc Mélenchon sèche le débat de CNews et Europe 1". PureMédias. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Élections européennes : débat mercredi 10 avril en direct sur CNEWS et Europe 1". CNews. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  25. ^ a b "Européennes : plusieurs têtes de liste critiquent le double débat du 22 mai sur France 2". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  26. ^ "Européennes : Hamon, Lagarde et Dupont-Aignan ensemble pour dénoncer la «mascarade» d'un débat sur France 2". Libération. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  27. ^ "Européennes: Hamon, Lagarde et Dupont-Aignan débattront sur Yahoo avant France 2". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 19 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  28. ^ a b "Européennes : quatorze têtes de liste débattront le 20 mai sur LCI". LCI. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  29. ^ a b Anne-Charlotte Dusseaulx; Sarah Paillou (16 May 2019). "Européennes : comment En marche a tergiversé sur la présence de Nathalie Loiseau aux débats télévisés". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  30. ^ Nicolas Berrod (19 May 2019). "Européennes : LREM demande aux chaînes des dispositifs «anti fake news» lors des débats". Le Parisien. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  31. ^ Cyril Lacarrière; Ivanne Trippenbach (25 February 2019). "France 2 décroche le premier débat des européennes". L'Opinion. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  32. ^ "Européennes. Un débat entre 6 têtes de liste prévu ce mardi sur France 24 et RFI". Ouest-France. Agence France-Presse. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  33. ^ Caroline Sallé; Alexandre Debouté (20 March 2019). "Européennes: débats, reportages et pédagogie au menu des télés et des radios". Le Figaro. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  34. ^ Cyril Lacarrière; Ludovic Vigogne (8 April 2019). "Pour les européennes, les débats télé se programment à la pelle". L'Opinion. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  35. ^ ""La Grande confrontation" : ne ratez pas notre soirée événement avec six leaders politiques mercredi à 20h45 sur LCI". LCI. 22 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  36. ^ CNEWS Les OFF [@CNEWSLesOFF] (6 May 2019). "🔴RENDEZ-VOUS Mardi 7 mai à 20H45 @CNEWS et @Europe1 proposent un second débat « Demain, quelle France dans quelle Europe ? » avec les dirigeants des formations politiques. Animé par @LaurenceFerrari et @MA2TBE2L #QFQE à suivre en direct et en simultané sur #CNEWS et #Europe1" (Tweet). Retrieved 6 May 2019 – via Twitter.
  37. ^ "Nathalie Loiseau/Jordan Bardella: un face-à-face événement à 19h sur BFMTV". BFM TV. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  38. ^ a b Jean-Marc Barenghi (2 May 2019). "Européennes: les débats nombreux à la télé". Le Figaro. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  39. ^ "Les Français définiront les thèmes du débat des européennes sur France 2". Le Journal du Dimanche. 21 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  40. ^ "Les maires des communes rurales annoncent qu'ils ne transmettront pas les résultats des européennes aux préfectures". France 3 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. 23 September 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  41. ^ David Revault d’Allonnes (2 February 2019). "EXCLUSIF. Comment Emmanuel Macron prépare un référendum en secret". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  42. ^ "L'hypothèse d'un référendum le jour des élections européennes ne convainc pas". Le Monde. Agence France-Presse. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  43. ^ Noémie Bonnin (16 April 2019). "Incendie de Notre-Dame : plusieurs candidats suspendent leur campagne pour les élections européennes". franceinfo. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  44. ^ a b "Recherche avancée | Recherche | Députés". Parlement européen. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Arrêté du 3 mai 2019 fixant les listes candidates à l'élection des représentants au Parlement européen des 25 et 26 mai 2019". Légifrance. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  46. ^ "Elections européennes - Liste Lutte ouvrière". Lutte ouvrière. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  47. ^ a b Julian Vadis (10 October 2018). "Européennes. La direction du NPA favorable à une liste commune avec Lutte Ouvrière". Révolution Permanente. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  48. ^ a b Antoine Larrache; Christian Babel (15 November 2018). "Discussion avec LO sur les européennes : clap de fin, l'urgence de lancer la campagne du NPA". NPA. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  49. ^ "Lutte ouvrière mènera sa propre liste aux européennes". franceinfo. Agence France-Presse. 11 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  50. ^ Pablo Pillaud-Vivien (10 December 2018). "Nathalie Arthaud : « Ce qui s'exprime aujourd'hui est bien plus puissant que ce qui s'exprime dans des urnes »". Regards. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  51. ^ "Européennes 2019 : Laurent (PCF) lance un appel à Hamon et Mélenchon". RTL. Agence France-Presse. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  52. ^ a b c Abel Mestre; Astrid de Villaines (7 April 2018). "Européennes : au grand bazar des gauches". Le Monde. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  53. ^ "Ian Brossat va mener la liste PCF aux élections européennes". Libération. Agence France-Presse. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  54. ^ "Européennes. Le PCF propose une liste d'union de la gauche… sans le PS". Ouest-France. Agence France-Presse. 14 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  55. ^ Pierre Lepelletier (17 December 2018). "Européennes : le PCF n'est pas favorable à l'idée d'une liste commune à gauche". Le Figaro. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  56. ^ Sarah Paillou (27 January 2019). "Elections européennes : le PCF dévoile sa liste". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  57. ^ a b "Nos candidat⋅e⋅s aux élections européennes". La France Insoumise. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  58. ^ Enora Ollivier (25 November 2017). "A la convention de La France insoumise, Jean-Luc Mélenchon "refuse la police de la pensée"". Le Monde. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  59. ^ Abel Mestre; Sandrine Morel (12 April 2018). "Elections européennes : La France insoumise s'allie avec Podemos et le Bloco". Le Monde. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  60. ^ "France: Les européennes aiguisent les divisions à gauche". Challenges. Reuters. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  61. ^ Félix Roudaut (12 March 2018). "Élections européennes : Mélenchon ne sera "ni tête de liste, ni candidat"". RTL. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  62. ^ "Rapport du comité électoral – Réunion du 30 juin". La France Insoumise. 4 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  63. ^ a b c Arthur Nazaret; Sarah Paillou (27 May 2018). "Européenne : La France insoumise peaufine sa liste". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  64. ^ a b Tristan Quinault-Maupoil (3 June 2018). "Européennes : La France insoumise dans les starting-blocks". Le Figaro. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  65. ^ "Rapport du comité électoral – Réunion du 30 juin". La France Insoumise. 4 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  66. ^ Abel Mestre (5 July 2018). "Européennes : dissensions à La France insoumise". Le Monde. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  67. ^ "Le départ d'un proche de Mélenchon provoque une crise à LFI". L'Obs. Agence France-Presse. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  68. ^ "Résultats de la consultation sur le rapport du comité électoral". La France Insoumise. 21 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  69. ^ "Européennes: Mélenchon ouvre la porte à Maurel et Lienemann". L'Express. Agence France-Presse. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  70. ^ a b "Après quarante-sept ans au Parti socialiste, Marie-Noëlle Lienemann annonce son départ". Le Monde. 13 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  71. ^ "Le MRC va s'allier à Emmanuel Maurel pour se rapprocher de LFI". Ouest-France. 15 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  72. ^ "Européennes : Maurel et Mélenchon préparent une liste commune". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  73. ^ Michaël Bloch; Gaël Vaillant (18 April 2019). "France insoumise : accusé d'harcèlement sexuel, Thomas Guénolé se défend en attaquant Mélenchon". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  74. ^ Quentin Laurent (15 November 2018). "Européennes : Charlotte Girard renonce à mener la liste Insoumise". Le Parisien. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  75. ^ Anne-Charlotte Dusseaulx (8 December 2018). "Européennes : Manon Aubry, porte-parole d'Oxfam France, sera tête de liste de La France insoumise". Le Journal du Dimanche. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  76. ^ "Elections européennes : "Des 'gilets jaunes', il y en a sur la liste de La France insoumise", assure sa tête de liste". franceinfo. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  77. ^ "Elections européennes : La France insoumise lance des camions avec des hologrammes pour faire campagne". franceinfo. Agence France-Presse. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  78. ^ Pierre Lepelletier (1 April 2019). "Européennes: LFI demande à ses sympathisants de «prêter de l'argent» pour la campagne". Le Figaro. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  79. ^ "Européennes: la France insoumise a déjà récolté 1,5 million d'euros dans le cadre de son emprunt populaire". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 6 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  80. ^ "Européennes : LFI a récolté 2 millions d'euros avec sa souscription". Le Parisien. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  81. ^ "Européennes : Hamon et Varoufakis veulent un programme et des listes en commun". L'Obs. Agence France-Presse. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  82. ^ "Européennes : Hamon lance un appel pour une liste transnationale". Les Échos. Agence France-Presse. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  83. ^ Sophie de Ravinel (20 April 2018). "Européennes : Benoît Hamon a pensé à Élise Lucet". Le Figaro. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  84. ^ Dominique Tenza; Loïc Farge (16 May 2018). "Européennes 2019 : pour les partis, c'est "Recherche candidat désespérément !"". RTL. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  85. ^ David Revault d’Allonnes (24 June 2018). "Christiane Taubira très courtisée pour l'élection européenne". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  86. ^ a b Abel Mestre (16 May 2018). "Elections européennes : Noël Mamère, un candidat de consensus ?". Le Monde. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  87. ^ a b "Noël Mamère renonce à se présenter aux élections européennes et "arrête la politique"". franceinfo. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  88. ^ "Européennes: Génération.s lance un appel à candidatures citoyennes". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  89. ^ "Européennes : Generation.s a reçu entre 300 et 400 "candidatures citoyennes"". Libération. 9 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  90. ^ Cécile Poure (15 November 2018). "Elections européennes 2019: Non, Edouard Martin ne se représentera pas". France 3 Grand Est. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  91. ^ "Benoît Hamon candidat aux européennes, "à la tête d'une alliance citoyenne"". L'Obs. Agence France-Presse. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  92. ^ "Hamon ferme la porte à une « liste commune » avec le PS pour les européennes". Le Monde. Agence France-Presse. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  93. ^ "Comment Benoît Hamon s'organise pour les européennes". Le Journal du Dimanche. 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  94. ^ Abel Mestre; Sylvia Zappi (8 February 2019). "Benoît Hamon : « L'union de la gauche et des écologistes aux européennes doit passer par un vote »". Le Monde. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  95. ^ "Européennes. Benoît Hamon va dévoiler les 30 premiers noms de sa liste mardi". Ouest-France. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  96. ^ Jannick Alimi (23 February 2019). "Européennes : «Je prendrai la tête d'une liste Génération.s», annonce Benoît Hamon". Le Parisien. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  97. ^ Tristan Quinault-Maupoil (26 February 2019). "Européennes: Benoît Hamon dévoile une partie de sa liste". Le Figaro. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  98. ^ Sylvia Zappi (18 March 2019). "Aurore Lalucq, première défection sur la liste de Benoît Hamon aux européennes". Le Monde. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  99. ^ "Européennes : il manque 600 000 euros à Benoît Hamon pour assurer le financement de sa campagne". franceinfo. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  100. ^ Mahaut Landaz (4 January 2018). "Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, retour sur un parcours éclair". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  101. ^ Rachid Laïreche (4 October 2018). "Européennes : Pierre Moscovici libère le PS". Libération. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  102. ^ Astrid de Villaines (12 February 2018). "À la tête du PS ou non, Le Foll ne prévoit pas de mener la liste aux Européennes". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  103. ^ a b Erwan Bruckert (23 June 2018). "Européennes 2019 : le PS se cherche une ligne et une tête de liste". Le Point. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  104. ^ "Européenne : le Belge Paul Magnette refuse de conduire la liste PS". Le Journal du Dimanche. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  105. ^ Quentin Laurent (19 September 2018). "Hollande refuse d'être tête de liste aux Européennes". Le Parisien. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  106. ^ Sophie de Ravinel (12 September 2018). "Européennes : au bord de l'explosion, les socialistes en appellent à Cazeneuve". Le Figaro. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  107. ^ "Européennes: être tête de liste PS serait "absurde", affirme Royal". Libération. Agence France-Presse. 4 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  108. ^ Alba Ventura (13 March 2019). "Européennes : Faure candidat du PS, "ça en dit long sur l'état du parti", dit Alba Ventura". RTL. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  109. ^ Ludwig Gallet (9 October 2018). "Européennes: le PS Christian Eckert n'est plus candidat". L'Express. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  110. ^ Philippe Martinat (4 August 2018). "Julien Dray : "Je souhaite mener la bataille des Européennes"". Le Parisien. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  111. ^ "PS : Maurel, tête de liste aux européennes ?". Le Parisien. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  112. ^ Arthur Nazaret (17 September 2018). "Européennes : l'hypothèse Emmanuel Maurel en tête de liste PS est-elle crédible?". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  113. ^ Tristan Quinault-Maupoil (8 October 2018). "Européennes : Éric Andrieu "disponible" pour mener la liste PS". Le Figaro. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  114. ^ Enora Ollivier (11 October 2018). "Européennes : Christine Revault d'Allonnes candidate pour être tête de liste du Parti socialiste". Le Monde. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  115. ^ Quentin Laurent (11 October 2018). "PS : vers un contrat de génération aux européennes". Le Parisien. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  116. ^ Tristan Quinault-Maupoil (13 October 2018). "Ségolène Royal sur les européennes : "Ça n'est ni mon objectif, ni mon envie"". Le Figaro. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  117. ^ "Le PS face au difficile "chantier" des européennes". Le Monde. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  118. ^ Ludwig Gallet (6 August 2018). "Européennes: au PS, le retour des éléphants". L'Express. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  119. ^ "Après le départ de Maurel, le PS resserre les rangs". Libération. Agence France-Presse. 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  120. ^ Quentin Laurent (12 October 2018). "Emmanuel Maurel quitte le PS". Le Parisien. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  121. ^ "La sénatrice Marie-Noëlle Lienemann quitte le PS". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  122. ^ Enora Ollivier (15 December 2018). "Européennes 2019 : le PS veut travailler sur le « rassemblement » d'une gauche « fragmentée comme jamais »". Le Monde. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  123. ^ "VIDEO. Européennes : Ségolène Royal renonce à être candidate et accuse ceux qui ont "fait passer les ego avant le rassemblement"". franceinfo. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  124. ^ Alexandre Boudet (13 January 2019). "Aux européennes, Olivier Faure envisage de mener la liste PS". Le HuffPost. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  125. ^ Eric Hacquemand (25 January 2019). "Européennes : A gauche, le naufrage annoncé". Paris Match. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  126. ^ "Européennes : feu vert au PS pour faire campagne avec Place publique". Libération. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  127. ^ Vivien Vergnaud (15 March 2019). "Européennes : Raphaël Glucksmann va mener la liste commune Place publique-Parti socialiste". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  128. ^ "Européennes : le Parti socialiste désigne Raphaël Glucksmann comme tête de liste". Le Monde. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  129. ^ "Européennes : le PS désigne Raphaël Glucksmann comme tête de liste". Le Parisien. Agence France-Presse. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  130. ^ "Nouvelle Donne rejoint Glucksmann et le PS". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  131. ^ "Européennes : au PS, il y a 215 candidats pour 79 places". Le Journal du Dimanche. 28 October 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  132. ^ "Élections européennes : Sylvie Guillaume (PS) numéro deux de la liste Glucksmann". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  133. ^ "Européennes: l'eurodéputée Virginie Rozière (Radicaux de gauche) quitte la liste PS". Le Figaro. 29 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  134. ^ "Européennes : Christiane Taubira va soutenir la liste de Raphaël Glucksmann". Le Parisien. 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  135. ^ "Les candidat.e.s du climat". Pour le climat, tout doit changer. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  136. ^ Jason Wiels (27 February 2018). "ÉLECTIONS EUROPÉENNES : VERS UNE LISTE EELV AUTONOME EN 2019 ?". LCP. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  137. ^ a b Tristan Quinault-Maupoil; Sophie de Ravinel (2 March 2018). "Européennes : l'heure de vérité pour les écologistes". Le Figaro. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  138. ^ a b c Arthur Nazaret (24 June 2018). "Européenne : Jadot, Cormand, Bayou, candidats à la candidature chez EELV". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  139. ^ Astrid de Villaines (13 April 2018). "Karima Delli : "Je suis candidate pour être tête de liste EELV aux européennes"". Le Monde. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  140. ^ Enora Ollivier (19 December 2018). "Elections européennes : Ségolène Royal se propose d'être n° 2 sur une liste EELV". Le Monde. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  141. ^ Nathalie Schuck (20 December 2018). "Yannick Jadot à Ségolène Royal : pour les européennes, c'est non !". Le Parisien. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  142. ^ a b Anne-Charlotte Dusseaulx (2 July 2018). "Européenne : et si au final il y avait cinq listes de gauche?". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  143. ^ Abel Mestre (12 June 2018). "EELV et Génération.s, l'entente impossible". Le Monde. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  144. ^ "Les écologistes connaîtront lundi leur tête de liste pour les européennes". L'Express. Agence France-Presse. 10 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  145. ^ Astrid de Villaines (16 July 2018). "Yannick Jadot tête de liste EELV aux élections européennes de 2019". Le Monde. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  146. ^ "Européennes : Jadot confirme exclure une liste commune avec Hamon". Le Monde. 19 August 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  147. ^ "Européennes : le maire de Grande-Synthe désigné numéro 3 sur la liste EELV". France 3 Hauts-de-France. Agence France-Presse. 24 September 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  148. ^ Valérie Parlan (2 December 2018). "INFO OUEST-FRANCE. Un Amérindien de Guyane sur la liste européenne de l'écologiste Yannick Jadot". Ouest-France. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  149. ^ "Européennes : Yannick Jadot fait le pari d'une liste écologiste à 15% le 26 mai". Public Sénat. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  150. ^ Raphaël Proust (27 February 2019). "La gauche compte sur ses nouvelles têtes aux européennes". L'Opinion. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  151. ^ Jacques Pons (25 August 2018). "Elections européennes 2019 : tout est (presque) prêt chez Régions et Peuples Solidaires". France Bleu Pays Basque. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  152. ^ Gustave Alirol (18 February 2019). "Régions et Peuples Solidaires, fin prêt pour dépasser l'Europe des États !". Régions et Peuples Solidaires. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  153. ^ Jean Marc Governatori; Caroline Roose; Ghislain Wysocinski (23 February 2019). "Européennes 2019 - Accord avec EELV". Alliance écologiste indépendante. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  154. ^ Abel Mestre (13 November 2018). "Européennes : EELV veut capitaliser sur l'affaiblissement de la social-démocratie". Le Monde. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  155. ^ "De la contestation à l'écologie «réaliste», EELV en pleine mue". Libération. Agence France-Presse. 2 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  156. ^ Arthur Nazaret (23 March 2019). "EXCLUSIF. Yannick Jadot dévoile le programme des Verts pour les européennes". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  157. ^ "Candidats". Renaissance. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  158. ^ Grégoire Poussielgue (27 February 2019). "Européennes : match entre Buzyn et Loiseau pour la tête de liste En Marche". Les Échos. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  159. ^ "VIDEO. "Je suis prête à être candidate" : la ministre Nathalie Loiseau annonce vouloir être tête de liste LREM aux élections européennes". franceinfo. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  160. ^ "Européennes : Richard Ferrand vote Nathalie Loiseau". Le Journal du Dimanche. 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  161. ^ Marion Bothorel (26 March 2019). "Qui sont les 30 premiers candidats de La République en marche pour les élections européennes ?". franceinfo. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  162. ^ Yann Quercia (19 March 2018). "Élections européennes : Juppé "n'a pas l'intention d'être candidat"". Public Sénat. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  163. ^ "Alain Juppé, bientôt "Sage" tenu à la réserve, aurait soutenu la liste d'Emmanuel Macron aux européennes". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 17 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  164. ^ a b Arnaud Focraud (1 March 2018). "Européennes 2019 : ceux qui seront candidats, ceux qui ne le seront pas". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  165. ^ Jannick Alimi (5 January 2018). "Elections européennes : le nouveau mode de scrutin chamboule les partis". Le Parisien. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  166. ^ a b Lucie Soullier; Olivier Faye; Alexandre Lemarié (7 April 2018). "Européennes : l'imbroglio des têtes de liste". Le Monde. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  167. ^ a b Emmanuel Galiero; Charles Sapin; Mathilde Siraud (17 December 2017). "Européennes : les états-majors face au choix épineux des têtes de liste". Le Figaro. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  168. ^ a b Agathe Lambret (28 September 2018). "Européennes: Michel Barnier ne sera ni tête de liste Les Républicains, ni LaREM". BFM TV. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  169. ^ "Jean-Yves Le Drian ne compte pas être tête de liste aux élections européennes". Ouest-France. Reuters. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  170. ^ "François Bayrou annonce qu'il ne sera pas candidat aux européennes 2019". L'Obs. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  171. ^ David Revault d’Allonnes (19 January 2019). "Arnaud Danjean, député européen et juppéiste : "Se rapprocher de Macron est hors sujet"". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  172. ^ "Européennes : Daniel Cohn-Bendit n'est "pas tenté", mais "participera" à la campagne". franceinfo. 1 October 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  173. ^ Nathalie Raulin (11 May 2018). "Européennes : LREM en quête d'un candidat introuvable". Libération. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  174. ^ Mathilde Siraud (26 June 2018). "LaREM à la recherche d'alliés européens et de son casting idéal". Le Figaro. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  175. ^ a b Alexandre Lemarié (9 November 2018). "Européennes 2019 : Macron tente d'imposer sa vision des progressistes contre les populistes". Le Monde. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  176. ^ Mathilde Siraud (16 November 2018). "Élections européennes : l'écologiste Pascal Canfin refuse de s'allier à LaREM". Le Figaro. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  177. ^ Arthur Nazaret; Sarah Paillou (21 January 2019). "Européennes : à En marche, c'est le grand flou pour la tête de liste". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  178. ^ Pauline De Saint-Rémy (23 January 2019). "Européennes 2019 : Jean-Yves Le Drian pourrait mener la liste LaREM". RTL. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  179. ^ Marie-Pierre Haddad (27 February 2019). "Européennes : ces ministres qui pourraient prendre la tête de liste LaREM". RTL. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  180. ^ Cédric Pietralunga; Olivier Faye (14 March 2019). "Des ministres issus de la « société civile » de plus en plus politiques". Le Monde. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  181. ^ Gaël Vaillant (17 December 2017). "Européennes : Bayrou et Castaner ébauchent une liste commune MoDem-En Marche". Le Journal du DImanche. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  182. ^ "Européennes: LREM lance sa campagne avec un appel à candidatures". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 26 September 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  183. ^ Matthieu Deprieck (26 December 2018). "Européennes: chamboulée, la majorité se donne le temps d'entrer en campagne". L'Opinion. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  184. ^ Alain Auffray (21 February 2019). "Elections européennes : Macron joue la protection rapprochée". Libération. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  185. ^ "Européennes : En marche cherche un "profil écolo" pour prendre la tête de liste". Le Journal du Dimanche. 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  186. ^ Mathilde Siraud (1 February 2019). "Européennes : Bayrou choisit un proche pour co-diriger la campagne de la majorité". Le Figaro. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  187. ^ Rémi Clément (15 February 2019). "Les premiers noms de la liste La République en marche pour les européennes". Challenges. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  188. ^ Loris Boichot; Marion Mourgue (19 February 2019). "Liste LREM aux européennes: Nicolas Barnier, Fabienne Keller et Gilles Boyer proposés". Le Figaro. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  189. ^ Thiébault Dromard (6 February 2019). "Européennes: le Mouvement radical veut convaincre En Marche et le Modem". Challenges. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  190. ^ Tristan Quinault-Maupoil (11 February 2019). "À gauche, les échéances électorales divisent les radicaux". Le Figaro. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  191. ^ Matthieu Deprieck (20 February 2019). "La relation privilégiée du MoDem avec Macron suscite la jalousie". L'Opinion. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  192. ^ Alan Le Bloa (5 January 2019). "Élections européennes. Le Mayennais Jean Arthuis ne se représentera pas". Ouest-France. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  193. ^ "Européennes: les partenaires de LREM jouent des coudes pour placer leurs candidats". Le Point. Agence France-Presse. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  194. ^ Isabelle Marchais (28 March 2019). "Européennes 2019: ces sortants maltraités ou recalés par les partis". L'Opinion. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  195. ^ "Elections européennes : La République en marche envisage d'ouvrir sa liste à des ressortissants étrangers". franceinfo. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  196. ^ "Européennes : Nathalie Loiseau va démissionner du gouvernement dès lundi soir, Pascal Canfin rejoint la liste En Marche". franceinfo. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  197. ^ Vincent Kranen (18 May 2018). "INFO LCP - Le plan de Macron pour les élections européennes". LCP. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  198. ^ "Elections européennes : le Belge Guy Verhofstadt veut s'allier avec Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  199. ^ Isabelle Marchais (12 October 2018). "Européennes 2019: LREM ne veut pas d'alliance exclusive avec des partis". L'Opinion. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  200. ^ "VIDEO. Européennes : le parti allié à LREM financé par le fabricant du glyphosate". France Télévisions. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  201. ^ "Européennes : sous pression de LREM, son parti allié ALDE met fin aux financements d'entreprises". franceinfo. Reuters. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  202. ^ Fabien Cazenave (3 May 2019). "Européennes. Le futur « nouveau groupe » d'En Marche sera bien une nouvelle version de l'ADLE". Ouest-France. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  203. ^ "La liste Les Européens déposée au Ministère de l'Intérieur". Union des Démocrates et Indépendants. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  204. ^ Ludovic Vigogne (24 October 2018). "Européennes: l'UDI enclenche le compte à rebours". L'Opinion. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  205. ^ "Elections européennes. Lagarde (UDI) veut « conduire une liste indépendante »". Ouest-France. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  206. ^ Nicolas Berrod (15 December 2018). "L'UDI aura sa liste aux élections européennes". Le Parisien. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  207. ^ Christophe Forcari (28 November 2018). "Européennes : à l'UDI, on rêve du général de Villiers et on discute avec Virginie Calmels". Libération. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  208. ^ Olivier Beaumont (23 December 2018). "Virginie Calmels, la tentation européenne". Le Parisien. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  209. ^ Ludovic Vigogne (13 December 2018). "Xavier Bertrand, guest-star de l'UDI qui lance sa campagne européenne". L'Opinion. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  210. ^ Christine Ollivier (16 March 2019). "Européennes : Nora Berra, ex-LR, sera numéro 2 sur la liste UDI". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  211. ^ Ludovic Vigogne (28 March 2019). "Européennes: les Giscard entrent en campagne". L'Opinion. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  212. ^ Emmanuel Galiero (10 March 2019). "Européennes: quand une eurodéputée UDI veut soutenir Bellamy". Le Figaro. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  213. ^ Anna Cabana (17 November 2018). "François-Xavier Bellamy, l'intellectuel que Wauquiez veut comme tête de liste aux européennes". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  214. ^ Olivier Beaumont; Valérie Hacot (12 December 2018). "Européennes : l'hypothèse Bellamy fait grincer des dents chez les Républicains". Le Parisien. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  215. ^ Marion Mourgue (28 January 2019). "Européennes: Wauquiez choisit un trio emmené par Bellamy pour conduire la liste LR". Le Figaro. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  216. ^ "Européennes: Bellamy à la tête d'une liste de compromis". L'Express. Agence France-Presse. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  217. ^ "Européennes : le parti Les Républicains valide le trio François-Xavier Bellamy, Agnès Evren et Arnaud Danjean pour conduire sa liste". franceinfo. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  218. ^ Maxence Lambrecq (30 November 2017). "Les européennes, cette élection qui embarrasse Les Républicains". Europe 1. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  219. ^ Christine Ollivier (29 October 2018). "Européennes : Jean Leonetti possible tête de liste des Républicains face aux "vieux schnocks" de son parti". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  220. ^ a b c Ludovic Vigogne (2 April 2018). "Européennes: Laurent Wauquiez et le casse-tête de la tête de liste". L'Opinion. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  221. ^ Olivier Pérou; Jean Guisnel (7 June 2018). "Européennes : Villiers, Calmels, Wauquiez... LR cherche tête de liste". Le Point. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  222. ^ Ludovic Vigogne (26 December 2018). "Chez LR, la piste Bellamy tient la corde pour les européennes". L'Opinion. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  223. ^ Quentin Laurent; Alexander Sulzer (7 January 2019). "Liste LR aux européennes : Bellamy, ce n'est pas fini". Le Parisien. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  224. ^ Christophe Barbier (16 January 2019). "Européennes: les raisons du refus d'Arnaud Danjean". L'Express. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  225. ^ Olivier Faye (5 December 2018). "Les Républicains : Jean Leonetti ne sera pas candidat aux élections européennes". Le Monde. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  226. ^ Julien Estrangin (12 January 2019). "Election municipale de Chambéry : Oui, Michel Dantin sera candidat à sa succession en 2020". Le Dauphiné Libéré. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  227. ^ "Mairie de Paris. Valérie Pécresse exclut "totalement" d'être candidate". Ouest-France. Agence France-Presse. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  228. ^ "Européennes: Dati dit avoir refusé d'être tête de liste". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  229. ^ Christine Ollivier (10 March 2018). "Thierry Mariani, ex-député LR : "Il faut un accord avec le FN"". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  230. ^ "Européennes : Marine Le Pen a proposé au LR Mariani de figurer sur la liste FN". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  231. ^ "Européennes: Wauquiez dit "non" à Dupont-Aignan". BFM TV. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  232. ^ Marion Mourgue (26 February 2019). "Européennes: Hervé Morin réfléchit à une alliance avec Les Républicains". Le Figaro. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  233. ^ Éric Ciotti (6 March 2019). "Communiqué de presse de la Commission nationale d'investiture". Les Républicains. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  234. ^ Etienne Jacob (11 March 2019). "Européennes: Chasse, pêche, nature et traditions éclipsé de la liste LR". Le Figaro. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  235. ^ "Européennes: les chasseurs de CPNT appellent à voter LR". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  236. ^ Marion Mourgue (24 March 2019). "Européennes: François-Xavier Bellamy choisit Geoffroy Didier pour diriger sa campagne". Le Figaro. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  237. ^ Gaël Vaillant (12 May 2019). "Européennes : ces maires de droite Macron-compatibles qui soutiennent finalement la liste des Républicains". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  238. ^ "Nadine Morano candidate aux élection européennes, "selon toute vraisemblance"". BFM TV. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  239. ^ Marion Mourgue (5 March 2019). "Rachida Dati: «J'ai décidé de renoncer à briguer un mandat de députée européenne»". Le Figaro. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  240. ^ "La liste "Le courage de défendre les Français avec Nicolas Dupont-Aignan. Debout la France ! – CNIP" a été déposée hier". Debout La France. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  241. ^ a b Arnaud Focraud (19 January 2018). "Européennes : Dupont-Aignan ne veut pas "s'enfermer" dans un duo avec Marine Le Pen". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  242. ^ Emmanuel Galiero (15 March 2018). "Les droites souverainistes rêvent d'alliance pour les élections européennes de 2019". Le Figaro. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  243. ^ Charles Sapin (4 April 2018). "Debout la France, Front national : à chacun son "rassemblement"". Le Figaro. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  244. ^ Virginie Le Guay (28 April 2018). "Nicolas Dupont-Aignan en course vers les européennes". Paris Match. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  245. ^ "Des partis eurosceptiques présentent un "traité alternatif"". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 28 May 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  246. ^ a b "Européennes : Marine Le Pen propose une liste commune à NicolasDupont-Aignan". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  247. ^ a b "Élections européennes. Dupont-Aignan refuse pour l'heure une liste commune avec Le Pen". Ouest-France. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  248. ^ Paul Véronique (23 September 2018). "Européennes 2019 : Dupont-Aignan mènera une "liste d'union" des droites". RTL. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  249. ^ Charles Sapin (2 January 2019). "Dupont-Aignan noue ses alliances européennes, à l'écart du RN". Le Figaro. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  250. ^ a b Charles Sapin (19 October 2018). "L'eurodéputée Sylvie Goddyn exclue du Rassemblement national". Le Figaro. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  251. ^ Tristan Berteloot (24 October 2018). "Européennes : chacun cherche son chat au Rassemblement national". Libération. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  252. ^ Virginie Le Guay (7 November 2018). "Européennes : Dupont-Aignan - Le Pen, je t'aime, moi non plus". Paris Match. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  253. ^ Loris Boichot (23 November 2018). "Européennes : Dupont-Aignan voulait conduire sa liste avec Jean Lassalle". Le Figaro. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  254. ^ "Le Pen ou Dupont-Aignan ? L'ex-ministre LR Mariani tranchera "début janvier"". L'Obs. Agence France-Presse. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  255. ^ "Européennes : le Rassemblement national entre en campagne". Le Monde. Agence France-Presse. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  256. ^ Quentin Laurent (2 March 2019). "Européennes : à droite, le mercato des ralliements". Le Parisien. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  257. ^ "Européennes : la lanceuse d'alerte d'UBS sur la liste Dupont-Aignan". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 3 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  258. ^ Ivanne Trippenbach (11 February 2019). "Européennes: l'économiste libéral Charles Gave finance Nicolas Dupont-Aignan". L'Opinion. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  259. ^ "Européennes : Dupont-Aignan ne retient pas une candidate aux tweets controversés". Le Parisien. Agence France-Presse. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  260. ^ Tristan Berteloot (7 May 2019). "Philippot, Asselineau, Dupont-Aignan : pas de banques mais des histoires de gros sous". Libération. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  261. ^ Quentin Laurent (28 March 2019). "Européennes : Dupont-Aignan présente sa liste… sans Jean-Frédéric Poisson". Le Parisien. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  262. ^ Charles Sapin (28 March 2019). "Européennes: «Les Amoureux de la France» divorcent". Le Figaro. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  263. ^ Charles Sapin (9 May 2019). "Européennes: Robert Ménard votera Jordan Bardella plutôt que Nicolas Dupont-Aignan". Le Figaro. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  264. ^ "Nos candidats". Rassemblement National. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  265. ^ Ivanne Trippenbach (22 November 2018). "Européennes: Jordan Bardella tête de liste, le coup de jeune de Marine Le Pen". L'Opinion. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  266. ^ "Elections européennes : Jordan Bardella désigné tête de liste du Rassemblement national". Le Monde. Agence France-Presse. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  267. ^ Alexandre Sulzer (7 January 2019). "Européennes : Thierry Mariani sera bien sur la liste du Rassemblement national". Le Parisien. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  268. ^ Ivanne Trippenbach (6 January 2019). "Comment Le Pen et Dupont-Aignan lorgnent l'électorat Les Républicains". L'Opinion. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  269. ^ "Européennes: pas de liste pour le FN". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  270. ^ Olivier Faye; Astrid de Villaines (20 August 2018). "Elections européennes : partis cherchent têtes de liste". Le Monde. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  271. ^ "Élections européennes : Aliot candidat à la tête de liste RN et à la mairie de Perpignan". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 12 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  272. ^ Loris Boichot; Charles Sapin (20 November 2018). "Européennes : Aliot pas candidat, Le Pen a choisi sa tête de liste". Le Figaro. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  273. ^ Emmanuel Galiero (13 December 2017). "Le Pen tend encore la main à Dupont-Aignan". Le Figaro. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  274. ^ "Marine Le Pen a évoqué avec Dupont-Aignan un "partenariat"aux européennes". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  275. ^ Maxence Lambrecq (13 January 2019). "À quoi va ressembler la campagne de Marine Le Pen pour les Européennes ?". France Inter. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  276. ^ Charles Sapin (29 November 2018). "Européennes : le RN se dote d'une équipe de campagne resserrée". Le Figaro. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  277. ^ Charles Sapin (2 April 2019). "Européennes: Marine Le Pen va lancer un emprunt auprès des Français". Le Figaro. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  278. ^ "Européennes. Le RN a récolté 4 millions d'euros avec son « emprunt patriotique »". Ouest-France. Agence France-Presse. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  279. ^ "Européennes: Le Pen et Salvini en meeting commun mi-mai". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  280. ^ "Florian Philippot "Les patriotes seront présents aux européennes [Contre l'UE] prison des peuples"". Libération. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  281. ^ Lucie Soullier (5 July 2018). "Sophie Montel claque la porte des Patriotes de Florian Philippot". Le Monde. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  282. ^ Marylou Magal (4 May 2018). "Avec "Frexit", Florian Philippot vise les élections européennes". Le Point. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  283. ^ "Élections européennes. Philippot, tête de liste des Patriotes, lance un appel aux dons". Ouest-France. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  284. ^ Ivanne Trippenbach (27 December 2018). "Philippot dépose la marque «Les Gilets jaunes» en vue des européennes". L'Opinion. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  285. ^ "Florian Philippot sera tête de liste pour les Patriotes aux européennes". Libération. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  286. ^ "Européennes 2019 : Philippot va déposer une liste avec des Gilets jaunes". Le Parisien. Agence France-Presse. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  287. ^ Ivanne Trippenbach (6 May 2019). "Européennes 2019: Philippot a proposé un «deal» à Dupont-Aignan pour une liste commune". L'Opinion. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  288. ^ "François Asselineau, au congrès de l'UPR près de Tours". La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  289. ^ Ivanne Trippenbach (25 October 2018). "Le pro-Frexit François Asselineau mitonne sa "revanche" aux européennes". L'Opinion. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  290. ^ Nicolas Berrod (29 April 2019). "Européennes 2019 : Francis Lalanne annonce qu'il va présenter sa liste ce mardi". Le Parisien. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  291. ^ Jeanne Bulant (30 April 2019). "Gilets jaunes: Francis Lalanne prend la tête d'une liste "Alliance jaune"". BFM TV. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  292. ^ "« Gilets jaunes » : Francis Lalanne propose de devenir leur guide suprême". Le Figaro. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  293. ^ "Européennes : lancement d'un "rassemblement 'gilets jaunes'" avec Francis Lalanne". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  294. ^ Hugo Domenach (17 December 2018). "Francis Lalanne veut représenter les Gilets jaunes aux européennes !". Le Point. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  295. ^ Charles Sapin (8 February 2019). "Européennes: les listes «gilets jaunes» à l'épreuve de leur désunion". Le Figaro. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  296. ^ "Européennes: lancement d'une nouvelle liste «gilets jaunes»". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  297. ^ a b c "Quelles listes aux européennes comptent des "gilets jaunes" parmi leurs candidats ?". franceinfo. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  298. ^ "Européennes : le "gilet jaune" Christophe Chalençon lance sa liste". franceinfo. Agence France-Presse. 3 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  299. ^ a b "Principaux candidats, programme... On vous en dit plus sur les 33 listes en lice pour les européennes". franceinfo. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  300. ^ a b Loris Boichot; Pierre Lepelletier (4 May 2019). "Européennes: qui sont les 33 têtes de liste?". Le Figaro. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  301. ^ Patrick Roger (4 May 2019). "Elections européennes : trente-trois listes ont été déposées, un record". Le Monde. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  302. ^ Jeanne Bulant (6 May 2019). "Européennes: la liste qui défend le RIC pas liée aux gilets jaunes". BFM TV. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  303. ^ a b Charles Sapin (23 January 2019). "Européennes : une première liste «gilets jaunes» conduite par Ingrid Levavasseur présentée". Le Figaro. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  304. ^ "Le "gilet jaune" Jean-François Barnaba dit travailler à une liste aux européennes". L'Obs. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  305. ^ "VIDEO. "Nous allons présenter une liste aux Européennes", annonce un "gilet jaune"". franceinfo. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  306. ^ Alexandra Saviana; Louis Hausalter (12 December 2018). "Bernard Tapie, Alexandre Jardin : ces parrains des gilets jaunes pour les élections européennes". Marianne. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  307. ^ Théo Maneval (10 January 2019). "La difficile conversion politique des "gilets jaunes" en vue des européennes". Europe 1. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  308. ^ "Européennes : des Gilets jaunes annoncent le dépôt d'une liste". Le Parisien. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  309. ^ Arnaud Focraud (28 January 2019). "Européennes : la liste Gilets jaunes perd un candidat et son directeur de campagne". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  310. ^ "Européennes : nouvelle défection sur la liste "gilets jaunes" conduite par Levavasseur". Europe 1. Agence France-Presse. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  311. ^ Arnaud Focraud (4 February 2019). "Européennes : les Gilets jaunes règlent leurs comptes avant d'entrer en campagne". Le Journal du Dimanche. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  312. ^ Etienne Jacob (13 February 2019). "Élections européennes: Ingrid Levavasseur renonce à mener la liste «gilets jaunes»". Le Figaro. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  313. ^ Dominique Tenza (11 March 2019). ""Gilets jaunes" : Ingrid Levavasseur renonce à présenter une liste aux européennes". RTL. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  314. ^ François Guéroult (26 February 2019). "Deux Montargois quittent la liste RIC des "gilets jaunes" aux européennes". France Bleu Orléans. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  315. ^ "Européennes : Jérémy Clément prêt à prendre la tête de la liste "gilets jaunes" "RIC"". Europe 1. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  316. ^ "Européennes: possible alliance en vue entre listes «gilets jaunes»". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  317. ^ "«Gilets jaunes»: un niçois prépare une liste «Union jaune» aux européennes". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  318. ^ "Elections européennes : une deuxième liste de "gilets jaunes" a été "constituée", selon son porte-parole". franceinfo. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  319. ^ "Patrick Cribouw annonce avoir constitué sa liste pour les élections européennes". BFM TV. 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  320. ^ "Elections européennes. Une nouvelle liste de Gilets jaunes veut « une Europe davantage sociale »". Ouest-France. Agence France-Presse. 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  321. ^ Aurélie Rossignol (1 February 2019). "Européennes : Thierry Paul Valette lance une quatrième liste de Gilets jaunes". Le Parisien. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  322. ^ "Nouvel abandon pour mener une liste gilet jaune aux européennes". Libération. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  323. ^ "Listes aux européennes, «MAC»... les «gilets jaunes» multiplient les initiatives politiques". Le Figaro. 11 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.