Open main menu

The 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires season saw a year-to-year surge in fires occurring in the Amazon rainforest and Amazon biome within Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Peru during that year's Amazonian tropical dry season.[5] Fires normally occur around the dry season as slash-and-burn methods are used to clear the forest to make way for agriculture, livestock, logging, and mining, leading to deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. Such activity is generally illegal within these nations, but enforcement of environmental protection can be lax. The increased rates of fire counts in 2019 led to international concern about the fate of the Amazon rainforest, which is the world's largest carbon dioxide sink and plays a significant role in global climate change.

2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires
Amazon fire satellite image.png
Locations of fires, marked in orange, which were detected by MODIS from August 15 to August 22, 2019
LocationBrazil, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay
Statistics
Total fires>40,000[1]
CostUnknown[2]
Date(s)January 2019 — ongoing
Burned area906,000 hectares (2,240,000 acres)[3]
CauseSlash-and-burn approach to deforest land for agriculture and effects of climate change due to unusually longer dry season and above average temperatures around worldwide during July and August
Land useAgricultural development
Fatalities2[4]
Map
Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF in white and the Amazon drainage basin in blue.
Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF in white and the Amazon drainage basin in blue.

The increased rates were first reported by Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE) in June and July 2019 through satellite monitoring systems, but international attention was drawn to the situation by August 2019 when NASA corroborated INPE's findings, and smoke from the fires, visible from satellite imagery, darkened the city of São Paulo despite being thousands of kilometers from the Amazon. As of August 29, 2019, INPE reported more than 80,000 fires across all of Brazil, a 77% year-to-year increase for the same tracking period, with more than 40,000 in the Brazil's Legal Amazon (Amazônia Legal or BLA), which contains 60% of the Amazon. Similar year-to-year increases in fires were subsequently reported in Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, with the 2019 fire counts within each nation of over 19,000, 11,000 and 6,700, respectively, as of August 29, 2019.[1] It is estimated that over 906 thousand hectares (2.24×10^6 acres; 9,060 km2; 3,500 sq mi) of forest within the Amazon biome has been lost to fires in 2019.[3] In addition to the impact on global climate, the fires created environmental concerns from the excess carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide within the fires' emissions, potential impacts on the biodiversity of the Amazon, and threats to indigenous tribes that live within the forest.

The increased rate of fires in Brazil has raised the most concerns as international leaders, particularly French president Emmanuel Macron, and environmental non-government organizations (ENGOs) attributed these to Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro's pro-business policies that had weakened environmental protections and have encouraged deforestation of the Amazon after he took office in January 2019. Bolsonaro initially remained ambivalent and rejected international calls to take action, asserting that the criticism was sensationalist. Following increased pressure from the international community at the 45th G7 summit and a threat to reject the pending European Union–Mercosur free trade agreement, Bolsonaro dispatched over 44,000 Brazilian troops and allocated funds to fight the fires, and later signed a decree to prevent such fires for a sixty-day period.

Other Amazonian countries have been more open for aid and reduce the rate of fires. While Bolivian president Evo Morales was similarly blamed for past policies that encouraged deforestation, Morales has since taken proactive measures to fight the fires and seek aid from other countries. At the G7 summit, Macron negotiated with the other nations to allocate US$22 million for emergency aid to the Amazonian countries affected by the fires.

The Amazon forest and deforestationEdit

There are 670 million ha (1.7 billion acres; 6.7 million km2; 2.6 million sq mi) of Amazon rainforest.[6] Human-driven deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has been a major concern for decades as the rainforest's impact on the global climate has been measured.[7][8] From a global climate perspective, the Amazon has been the world's largest carbon dioxide sink, and estimated to capture up to 25% of global carbon dioxide generation into plants and other biomass.[9] Without this sink, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would increase and contribute towards higher global temperatures, thus making the viability of the Amazon a global concern.[10] Further, when the forest is lost through fire, additional carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere, and could potentially contribute significantly to the total carbon dioxide content.[11] The flora also generates significant quantities of water vapor through transpiration which travel large distances to other parts of South America via atmospheric rivers and contribute to the precipitation in these areas.[12][13] Due to ongoing global climate change, environmental scientists have raised concerns that the Amazon could reach a "tipping point" where it would irreversibly die out, the land becoming more savanna than forest, under certain climate change conditions which are exacerbated by anthropogenic activities.[14][15]

Human-driven deforestation of the Amazon is used to clear land for agriculture, livestock, and mining, and for its lumber.[16] Most forest is typically cleared using slash-and-burn processes; huge amounts of biomass are removed by first pulling down the trees in the Amazon using bulldozers and giant tractors during the wet season (November through June), followed by torching the tree trunks several months later in the dry season (July through October).[17][18][19] Fires are most common in July though August.[18] In some cases, workers performing the burn are unskilled, and may inadvertently allow these fires to spread. While most countries in the Amazon do have laws and environmental enforcement against deforestation, these are not well enforced, and much of the slash-and-burn activity is done illegally.[16][20][21]

Deforestation leads to a large number of observed fires across the Amazon during the dry season, usually tracked by satellite data. While it is possible for naturally-occurring wildfires to occur in the Amazon, the chances are far less likely to occur, compared to those in California or in Australia.[22] Even with global warming, spontaneous fires in the Amazon cannot come from warm weather alone, but warm weather is capable of exacerbating the fires once started as there will be drier biomass available for the fire to spread.[23][24] Alberto Setzer of INPE estimated that 99% of the wildfires in the Amazon basin are a result of human actions, either on purpose or accidentally.[22] Manmade fires in the Amazon also tend to elevate their smoke into the higher atmosphere due to the more intense burn of the dry biomass, compared with naturally occurring wildfires.[25] Further evidence of the fires being caused by human activity is due to their clustering near roads and existing agricultural areas rather than remote parts of the forest.[11]

Fires in BrazilEdit

Past deforestation and fires in BrazilEdit

Location of Amazônia Legal (red) within Brazil
States within Amazônia Legal.

Brazil's role in deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has been a significant issue since the 1970s, as 60% of the Amazon is contained within Brazil, designated as the Brazil's Legal Amazon (Amazônia Legal, BLA).[20][26] Since the 1970s, Brazil has consumed approximately 12 percent of the forest, representing roughly 77.7 million ha (192 million acres)—an area larger than that of the US state of Texas.[27] Most of the deforestation has been for natural resources for the logging industry and land clearing for agricultural and mining use.[28][29] Forest removal to make way for cattle ranching was the leading cause of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon from the mid-1960s on. The Amazon region has become the largest cattle ranching territory in the world.[30] According to the World Bank, some 80% of deforested land is used for cattle ranching.[30] Seventy per cent of formerly forested land in the Amazon, and 91% of land deforested since 1970, is used for livestock pasture.[31][32] According to the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), "between 1990 and 2001 the percentage of Europe's processed meat imports that came from Brazil rose from 40 to 74 percent" and by 2003 "for the first time ever, the growth in Brazilian cattle production, 80 percent of which was in the Amazon[,] was largely export driven."[33] The Brazilian states of Pará, Mato Grosso, and Rondônia, located along the southern border of the Amazon rainforest, are in what is called the "deforestation arc".[34]

Deforestation within Brazil is partially driven by growing demand for beef and soy exports, particularly to China and Hong Kong.[17] Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef, accounting for more than 20% of global trade of the commodity. Brazil exported over 1.6 million tonnes of beef in 2018, the highest volume in recorded history.[30] Brazil's cattle herd has increased by 56% over the last two decades. Ranchers wait until the dry season to slash-and-burn to give time for the cattle to graze.[35][36] While slash-and-burn can be controlled, unskilled farmers may end up causing wildfires. Wildfires have increased as the agricultural sector has pushed into the Amazon basin and spurred deforestation.[21] In recent years, "land-grabbers" (grileiros) have been illegally cutting deep into the forest in "Brazil's indigenous territories and other protected forests throughout the Amazon".[27]

 
Number of fires in Brazil's Amazônia Legal between January 1 and August 26 by year, reported by INPE[37]

Past data from INPE has shown the number of fires with the BLA from January to August in any year to be routinely higher than 60,000 fires from 2002 to 2007 and as high as 90,000 in 2003.[38] Fire counts have generally been higher in years of drought (2007 and 2010), which are often coupled with El Niño events.[25]

Within international attention on the protection of the Amazon around the early 2000s, Brazil took a more proactive approach to deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. In 2004, the Brazilian government had established the Federal Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Amazon (PPCDAM), with the goal to reduce the rate of deforestation through land use regulation, environmental monitoring, and sustainable activities, promoted through partnerships at the federal and private level, and legal penalties for violations.[39] Brazil also invested in more effective measures to fight fires, including fire-fighting airplanes in 2012. By 2014, USAID was teaching the indigenous people how to fight fires.[40] As a result of enforcement of PPCDAM, the rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon dropped 83.5% of their 2004 rates by 2012.[41] However, in 2014, Brazil fell into an economic crisis, and as part of that recovery, pushed heavily on its exports of beef and soy to help bolster its economy, which caused a reversal in the falling deforestation rates.[23] The Brazilian government has been defunding scientific research since the economic crisis.[42]

To support PPCDAM, the INPE began developing systems to monitor the Amazon rainforest. One early effort was the Amazon Deforestation Satellite Monitoring Project (PRODES), which is a highly detailed satellite imagery-based approach to calculate wildfires and deforestation losses on an annual basis.[43] In 2015, INPE launched five complementary projects as part of the Terra Brasilis project to monitor deforestation closer to real-time. Among these include the Real-Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) satellite alert system, allowing them to capture incidents of wildfires in 15-day cycles.[39] The daily data is published on the regularly updated Brazilian Environmental Institute government website, and later corroborated with the annual and more accurate PRODES data.[44][45][46][47]

By December 2017, INPE had completed a modernization process and had expanded its system to analyze and share data on forest fires.[48] It launched its new TerraMA2Q platform—software which adapts fire-monitoring data software including the "occurrence of irregular fires".[48] Although the INPE was able to provide regional fire data since 1998, the modernization increased access. Agencies that monitor and fight fires include the Brazilian Federal Environment and Renewable Resources Agency (IBAMA), as well as state authorities.[48] The INPE receives its images daily from 10 foreign satellites, including the Terra and Aqua satellites—part of the NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS).[48] Combined, these systems are able to capture the number of fires on a daily basis, but this number does not directly measure the area of forest lost to these fires; instead, this is done with fortnightly imaging data to compare the current state of the forest with reference data to estimate acreage lost.[49]

Jair Bolsonaro was elected as President of Brazil in October 2018 and took office in January 2019, after which he and his ministries changed governmental policies to weaken protection of the rainforest and make it favorable for farmers to continue practices of slash-and-burn clearing,[20] thus accelerating the deforestation from previous years.[5] Land-grabbers had used Bolsonaro's election to extend their activities into cutting in the land of the previously isolated Apurinã people in Amazonas where the "world's largest standing tracts of unbroken rainforest" are found.[27] Upon entering office, Bolsonaro cut US$23 million from Brazil's environmental enforcement agency, making it difficult for the agency to regulate deforestation efforts.[22][50] Bolsonaro and his ministers had also segmented the environmental agency, placing part of its control under the agricultural ministry, which is led by the country's farming lobby, weakened protections on natural reserves and territories belonging to indigenous people, and encouraged businesses to file counter-land claims against regions managed by sustainable forestry practices.[51]

2019 Brazil dry season firesEdit

 
Agricultural fires in southern Pará, Brazil in August 2019.

INPE alerted the Brazilian government to larger-than-normal growth in the number of fires through June to August 2019. The first four months of the year were wetter-than-average, discouraging slash-and-burn efforts. However, with the start of the dry season in May 2019, the number of wildfires jumped greatly.[52] Additionally, NOAA reported that, regionally, the temperatures in the January–July 2019 period were the second warmest year-to-date on record.[53] INPE reported a year-to-year increase of 88% in wildfire occurrences in June 2019.[47][54] There was further increase in the rate of deforestation in July 2019, with the INPE estimating that more than 1,345 square kilometres (519 sq mi; 134,500 ha; 332,000 acres) of land had been deforested in the month and would be on track to surpass the area of Greater London by the end of the month.[51]

The month of August 2019 saw a large growth in the number of observed wildfires according to INPE. By August 11, Amazonas had declared a state of emergency.[55] The state of Acre entered into a environmental alert on August 16.[56] In early August, local farmers in the Amazonian state of Pará placed an ad in the local newspaper calling for a queimada or "Day of Fire" on August 10, 2019, organizing large scale slash-and-burn operations knowing that there was little chance of interference from the government.[57][58] Shortly after, there was an increase in the number of wildfires in the region.[57][59]

INPE reported on August 20 that it had detected 39,194 fires in the Amazon rainforest since January.[57] This represented a 77 percent increase in the number of fires from the same time period in 2018.[57] However, the NASA-funded NGO Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) shows 2018 as an unusually low fire year compared to historic data from 2004–2005 which are years showing nearly double the number of counted fires.[60] INPE had reported that at least 74,155 fires have been detected in all of Brazil,[61] which represents a 84-percent increase from the same period in 2018.[62] NASA originally reported in mid-August that MODIS satellites reported average numbers of fires in the region compared with data from the past 15 years; the numbers were above average for the year in the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, but below average for Mato Grosso and Pará.[63][64][63][65] NASA later clarified that the data set they had evaluated previous was through August 16, 2019. By August 26, 2019, NASA included more recent MODIS imagery to confirm that the number of fires were higher than in previous years.[66]

 
INPE satellite imagery of a 70-by-70 mile area along the Purus River between Canutama and Lábrea in the state of Amazonas, taken on August 16, 2019, showing several plumes of smoke from wildfires, including areas that have been deforested
Number of wildfires detected by INPE from January 1 to August 26 in Brazil[37]
Highlighted rows are states within the BLA
Year
State
2013 Diff% 2014 Diff% 2015 Diff% 2016 Diff% 2017 Diff% 2018 Diff% 2019
Acre 782 47% 1,150 43% 1,649 72% 2,846 –57% 1,204 3% 1,246 134% 2,918
Alagoas 128 –9% 116 69% 197 –60% 78 5% 82 –19% 66 10% 73
Amazonas 1,809 117% 3,927 13% 4,457 22% 5,475 4% 5,730 –38% 3,508 117% 7,625
Amapá 28 75% 49 4% 51 –13% 44 –43% 25 88% 47 –48% 24
Bahia 2,226 –26% 1,631 12% 1,836 42% 2,614 –37% 1,634 –21% 1,280 86% 2,383
Ceará 281 12% 316 14% 361 36% 493 –57% 209 84% 385 –15% 327
Federal District 60 130% 138 –57% 59 179% 165 –31% 113 –63% 41 65% 68
Espírito Santo 186 –35% 120 119% 263 40% 370 –76% 87 2% 89 157% 229
Goiás 1,406 56% 2,202 –24% 1,658 53% 2,540 –22% 1,963 –28% 1,398 27% 1,786
Maranhão 4,427 89% 8,375 –1% 8,229 –13% 7,135 –29% 5,000 –4% 4,760 17% 5,596
Minas Gerais 2,067 48% 3,067 –44% 1,710 83% 3,134 –30% 2,179 –24% 1,647 77% 2,919
Mato Grosso do Sul 1,421 –28% 1,017 112% 2,165 14% 2,486 3% 2,583 –54% 1,171 285% 4,510
Mato Grosso 8,396 40% 11,811 –21% 9,278 56% 14,496 –31% 9,872 –19% 7,915 95% 15,476
Pará 3,810 145% 9,347 –6% 8,776 0% 8,704 25% 10,919 –62% 4,068 164% 10,747
Paraíba 72 75% 126 –35% 81 –4% 77 –48% 40 100% 80 1% 81
Pernambuco 174 –2% 170 43% 244 –58% 102 22% 125 –18% 102 29% 132
Piauí 1,666 122% 3,708 –23% 2,840 –2% 2,765 –36% 1,749 104% 3,569 –21% 2,818
Paraná 1,361 –9% 1,227 0% 1,234 52% 1,877 –9% 1,698 –9% 1,531 18% 1,810
Rio de Janeiro 192 133% 448 –21% 354 7% 379 –33% 251 –42% 144 175% 396
Rio Grande do Norte 71 –7% 66 28% 85 –32% 57 21% 69 44% 100 –32% 68
Rondônia 817 266% 2,990 31% 3,934 10% 4,349 –16% 3,624 –37% 2,270 183% 6,441
Roraima 951 85% 1,759 –14% 1,499 136% 3,541 –82% 622 218% 1,982 132% 4,608
Rio Grande do Sul 890 69% 1,505 –40% 901 188% 2,601 –37% 1,619 –35% 1,039 95% 2,029
Santa Catarina 969 –32% 652 0% 646 147% 1,600 –29% 1,133 –22% 883 25% 1,107
Sergipe 155 –56% 68 122% 151 –53% 71 –4% 68 11% 76 –18% 62
São Paulo 1,385 81% 2,515 –54% 1,148 100% 2,302 –29% 1,613 37% 2,212 –26% 1,616
Tocantins 4,436 38% 6,132 –16% 5,130 55% 7,962 –31% 5,461 –25% 4,047 59% 6,436
Total 40,166 60% 64,632 –8% 58,936 32% 78,263 –23% 59,672 –23% 45,656 80% 82,285

By August 29, 80,000 fires had broken out in Brazil which represents a 77% rise on the same period in 2018, according to BBC.[67] INPE reported that in the period from January 1 to August 29, across South America, and not exclusive to the Amazon rainforest, there were 84,957 fires in Brazil, 26,573 in Venezuela, 19,265 in Bolivia, 14,363 in Colombia, 14,969 in Argentina, 10,810 in Paraguay, 6,534 in Peru, 2,935 in Chile, 898 in Guyana, 407 in Uruguay, 328 in Ecuador, 162 in Suriname, and 11 in French Guiana.[68]

First media reportsEdit

While INPE's data had been reported in international sources earlier, news of the wildfires were not a major news story until around August 20, 2019. On that day, the smoke plume from the fires in Rondônia and Amazonas caused the sky to darken at around 2 p.m. over São Paulo—which is almost 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) away from the Amazon basin on the eastern coast.[5][69][70] NASA and US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) also published satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellitein alignment with INPE's own, that showed smoke plumes from the wildfires were visible from space.[63][18] INPE and NASA data, along with photographs of the ongoing fires and impacts, caught international attention and became a rising topic on social media, with several world leaders, celebrities, and athletes expressing their concerns.[71]

According to Vox, of all the concurrent wildfires elsewhere in the world, the wildfires in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil were the most "alarming".[70]

Responses of the Brazilian governmentEdit

Official pronouncement of Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro.

In the months prior to August 2019, Bolsonaro mocked international and environmental groups that felt his pro-business actions enabled deforestation.[72][22] At one point in August 2019, Bolsonaro jokingly calling himself "Captain Chainsaw" while asserting that INPE's data was inaccurate.[52] After INPE announced an 88% increase of wildfires in July 2019, Bolsonaro claimed "the numbers were fake" and fired Ricardo Magnus Osório Galvão, the INPE director.[20][44][73][74] Bolsonaro claimed Galvão was using the data to lead an "anti-Brazil campaign".[75][76][77][78] Bolsonaro had claimed that the fires had been deliberately started by environmental NGOs, although he provided no evidence to back up the accusation.[76] NGOs such as WWF Brasil, Greenpeace, and the Brazilian Institute for Environmental Protection countered Bolsonaro's claims.[79]

Bolsonaro, on August 22, argued that Brazil did not have the resources to fight the fires, as the "Amazon is bigger than Europe, how will you fight criminal fires in such an area?".[80]

Historically, Brazil has been guarded about international intervention into the BLA, as the country sees the forest as a critical part of Brazil's economy.[81] Bolsonaro and his government have continued to speak out against any international oversight of the situation. Bolsaonaro considered French President Emmanuel Macron's comments to have a "sensationalist tone" and accusing him of interfering in what he considers is a local problem.[82] Of Macron and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Bolsonaro stated: "They still haven't realized that Brazil is under new direction. That there's now a president who is loyal to [the] Brazilian people, who says the Amazon is ours, who says bad Brazilians can't release lying numbers and campaign against Brazil."[52]

Bolsonaro's foreign minister Ernesto Araújo has also condemned the international criticism of Bolsonaro's reaction to the wildfires, calling it "savage and unfair" treatment towards Bolsonaro and Brazil.[83] Araújo stated that: "President Bolsonaro's government is rebuilding Brazil", and that foreign nations were using the "environmental crisis" as a weapon to stop this rebuilding.[83] General Eduardo Villas Bôas, former commander of the Brazilian Army, considered the criticism of world leaders, like Macron and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, to be directly challenging "Brazilian sovereignty", and may need to be met with military response.[84]

'National Force sends 30 firefighters to act against Amazon fires' - video published by the Bolsonaro government on August 25, 2019

With increased pressure from the international community, Bolsonaro appeared more willing to take proactive steps against the fires, saying by August 23, 2019, that his government would take a "zero tolerance" approach to environmental crimes.[85] He engaged the Brazilian military to help fight the wildfires on August 24, which Joint Staff member Lt. Brig. Raul Botelho stated was to create a "positive perception" of the government's efforts.[86][87] Among military support included 43,000 troops as well as four firefighting aircraft, and an allocated US$15.7 million for fire-fighting operations.[88][89] Initial efforts were principally located in the state of Rondônia, but the Defense Ministry stated they plan to offer support for all seven states affected by the fires.[90] On August 28, Bolsonaro signed a decree banning the setting of fires in Brazil for a period of 60 days, making exceptions for those fires made purposely to maintain environmental forest health, to combat wildfires, and by the indigenous people of Brazil. However, as most fires are set illegally, it is unclear what impact this decree could have.[67]

Rodrigo Maia, president of the Chamber of Deputies, announced that he would form a parliamentary committee to monitor the problem. In addition, he said that the Chamber will hold a general commission in the following days to assess the situation and propose solutions to the government.[91]

After a report from Globo Rural reveal that a WhatsApp group of 70 people was involved with the Day of Fire,[92] Jair Bolsonaro determined the opening of investigations by Federal Police.[93]

Brazil banned clearing land by setting fire to it on 29 August 2019.[94]

More measures taken by the Brazilian government of Jair Bolsonaro to stop the fires include:

  • Accepting 4 planes from Chile to battle the fires.
  • Accepting 12 million dollars of aid from the United Kingdom government
  • Softening his position about aid from the G7.
  • Appealing for an international conference to preserve the Amazon with participation of all countries that have some part of the Amazon rainforest in their territory[95][96]

Protests against Brazilian government policiesEdit

'Crowd march in defense of the Amazon and against the environmental policies of Bolsonaro' - video news report from Abya Yala TV in Bolivia.

In regards to the displacement of the indigenous people, Amnesty International has highlighted the change in protection of lands belonging to the indigenous people, and have called on other nations to pressure Brazil to restore these rights, as they are also essential to protecting the rainforest.[97] Ivaneide Bandeira Cardoso, founder of Kanindé, a Porto Velho-based advocacy group for indigenous communities, said Bolsonaro is directly responsible for the escalation of forest fires throughout the Amazon this year. Cardoso said the wildfires are a "tragedy that affects all of humanity" since the Amazon plays an important role in the global ecosystem as a carbon sink to reduce the effects of climate change.[98]

Thousands of Brazilian citizens held protests in several major cities from August 24, 2019, onward to challenge the government's reaction to the wildfires.[99][100] Protesters around the world also held events at Brazilian embassies, including in London, Paris, Mexico City, and Geneva.[101]

Protest in Porto Alegre on August 24, 2019

Impact on the indigenous peoples of BrazilEdit

In addition to environmental harm, the slash-and-burn actions leading to the wildfires have threatened the approximately 306,000 indigenous people in Brazil who reside near or within the rainforest.[27][102] Bolsanaro had spoken out against the need to respect the demarcation of lands for indigenous people established in the 1988 Constitution of Brazil.[85] According to a CBC report on Brazil's wildfires, representatives of the indigenous people have stated that farmers, loggers, and miners, emboldened by the Brazilian government's policies, have forced these people out of their lands, sometimes through violent means, and equated their methods with genocide.[97] Some of these tribes have vowed to fight back against those engaged in deforestation to protect their lands.[103]

International responsesEdit

Video news report from Todo Noticias based in Argentina, showing burned forest

International leaders and environmental NGOs have condemned President Bolsonaro for the extent of the wildfires within the Brazilian portion of the Amazon.

Several international governments and environmental groups raised concerns at Bolsonaro's stance on the rainforest and the lack of attempts by his government to slow the wildfires. Among the most vocal was Macron, given the proximity of French Guiana to Brazil.[104][105][106][107][108] Macron called the Amazon wildfires an "international crisis", while claiming the rainforest produces "20% of the world's oxygen"—a statement disputed by academics.[a][b] He said, "Our house is burning. Literally."[111]

Discussion about the fires came into the final negotiations of the EU–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Mercosur, a trade bloc of Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay.[112] With the wildfires on-going, both Macron and Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar have stated they will refuse to ratify the trade deal unless Brazil commits to protecting the environment.[105]

Finance minister of Finland Mika Lintilä suggested the idea of a EU ban on Brazilian beef imports until the country takes steps to stop the deforestation.[35][113]

Fires in BoliviaEdit

GOESEast imagery of the southern edge of the Amazon Rainforest, plumes of smoke from agricultural fires burning in Bolivia and Brazil on Aug. 4, 2019

BackgroundEdit

In Bolivia, chaqueo is an annual seasonal agricultural practice and commonly relies on the controlled use of fire. Is was first authorized in 2001 during the government of Hugo Banzer Suarez.[114]

Bolivia has 7.7 percent of the Amazon rainforest within its borders.[115] The Bolivian Amazon covers 19.402 million hectares (47.94 million acres) which comprise 37.7 percent of Bolivia's forests and 17.7 percent of Bolivia's land mass.[116] Bolivia's forests cover a total of 51.407 million hectares (127.03 million acres), including the Chiquitano dry forests which is part of the Amazon biome and a transition zone between the Amazon rainforest and the drier forests of the southern Chaco region.[117]

By September 14, 2019, Bolivia—which is one-eighth the size of Brazil—lost nearly 6 million acres (2.4 million hectares) of "forest and savanna".[118] The fires destroyed about the same number of acres/hectares in Brazil.[118]

Santa Cruz DepartmentEdit

By August 16, Bolivia's Santa Cruz had declared a departmental emergency because of the forest fires.[119][120] From August 18 to August 23, approximately 800 thousand hectares (2.0 million acres) of the Chiquitano dry forests were destroyed, more than what was lost over a typical two-year period.[121] By August 24, the fires had already affected 1,011 thousand hectares (2.50 million acres) of forestland in the Santa Cruz and were burning near Santa Cruz, Bolivia.[122] By August 26, wildfires had reached over 728 thousand hectares (1.80 million acres) of Bolivia's savanna and tropical forests, according to the Bolivian Information Agency (BIA).[123] Over a period of five days, from August 18 to August 22, 450 thousand hectares (1.1 million acres) of forest near Roboré were burned.[124]

On August 25, 4,000 state employees and volunteers were fighting the fires.[123] By August 25, the Chiquitano regions has seen 650 thousand hectares (1.6 million acres) of tropical forest burned within both the Amazon and the dry forests, mostly within the Santa Cruz province; like the Brazil fires, such fires occur during the dry season, but the number of fires in 2019 were larger than in previous years.[125] Throughout August, wildfires have been spreading across four states.[122] [By August 26, fires in the Dionisio Foianini Triangle—the Brazil-Bolivia-Paraguay triangle had reached savannah and tropical forest "near Bolivia's border with Paraguay and Brazil".[126]

The Bolivian government interviened after it was clear that the fires had surpassed local and rigional response capabilities. In the week of August 18, Morales dispatched soldiers and three helicopters to fight fires in an area about the size of Oregon.[122] On August 22, Morales contracted the Colorado-based Boeing 747 Supertanker (also known as Global SuperTanker) to conduct firefighting missions over the Bolivian Amazon.[122] The 747 Supertanker is the largest firefighting aircraft in the world, which can hold approximately 19,000 gallons of water per trip.[127][128] Morales has stated that the governments of many conutries includin Spain, Chile, Perú, France, the EU, among others have reached out to him to provide help for fighting the fires.

The government had been trying to determine the cause of the fires, with the Bolivian land management authority attributing 87% of the fires present in areas without outhorization.[125] Multiple NGOs assert that deforestation rates in Bolivia increased 200 percent after the government quadrupled available land for deforestation to small farmers in 2015.[122][129]

Political opponents of Morales alleged that the Supreme Decree 3973, a mandate to further beef production in the Amazon region, is a major cause of the Bolivian fires.[125][130] However, this Supreme Decree only extends the authorized but regulated use of fire already legal in Santa Cruz to the Beni Department, where forest fire issues are not a significant issue.[131]

By September 9, total forests that had been affected by fires in Bolivia was estimated as 17,000 thousand hectares (42 million acres), more than double from estimates two weeks prior, but far less extended than the forest fires that occurred in 2004 and 2010. While some local government officials and opposition leaders have pled with Morales to update the situation from national emergengy to national disaster, but minister of communication Manuel Canelas said that Bolivia "is not overwhelmed" by fires to make this declaration, and that national emergency is sufficient to receive any type of foreign cooperation.[132]

Fires in Paraguay's PantanalEdit

Burn scars in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay captured by GOES-16 on August 22, 2019

By August 22, fire emergencies in Paraguay's Alto Paraguay district and the UNESCO protected Pantanal region were issued by its federal government. Paraguay President Mario Abdo Benítez was in close contact with Bolivia's Morales to coordinate response efforts.[133] By August 17, as wind direction changed, flames from fires in Bolivia began to enter northern Paraguay's Three Giants natural reserve in the Paraguayan Pantanal natural region. By August 24, when the situation had stabilized,[134] Paraguay had lost 39,000 hectares (96,000 acres) in the Pantanal. An Universidad Nacional de Asunción representative lamented the disaster failed to attract as much media attention as the fires in the Amazon rainforest.[135]

While most of the Pantanal regions—140,000 and 195,000 square kilometres (54,000 and 75,000 sq mi)—is within Brazil's borders in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, the natural region also extends into Mato Grosso and portions of Bolivia. It sprawls over an area estimated at between 140,000 and 195,000 square kilometres (54,000 and 75,000 sq mi).[136][137] Within the Pantanal natural region, which is located between Brazil and Bolivia, is the "world's largest tropical wetland area". According one of the engineers charged with monitoring satellite data showing the "evolution of the fires", the Pantanal is a "complex, fragile, and high-risk ecosystem because it's being transformed from a wetland to a productive system".[138] The Pantana is bounded by the Humid Chaco to the south, the Arid Chaco dry forests to the southwest, Cerrado savannas lie to the north, east and southeast, and the Chiquitano dry forests, to the west and northwest,[136] where thousands of hectares burned in Bolivia.

A national parks researcher said that outsiders only know the Amazon, which is a "shame because the Pantanal is a very important ecological place".[137] The Paraná River, which flows through Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, is the "second largest river system in South America".[139]

Fires in PeruEdit

Peru had nearly twice the growth in the number of fires in 2019 than Brazil, with most believed to be illegally set by ranchers, miners, and coca growers.[16] Much of the fires are in the Madre de Dios which borders Brazil and Bolivia, though the fires there are not a result of those started in the other countries, according to the regional authority. However, they are still concerned about the impact of downwind emissions, particularly carbon monoxide, on residents of Madre de Dios.[140] There were 128 forest fires reported in Peru in August 2019.[141]

Environmental impacts of the firesEdit

EmissionsEdit

 
Images created by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder which depict carbon monoxide caused by fires in the Amazon region of Brazil from Aug. 8-22, 2019.[142]
 
Locations of active wildfires (marked in orange) in the Amazon as of 22 August 2019

By August 22, NASA's AIRS published maps of increased carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide resulting from Brazil's wildfires.[143][142] On the same day, the European Union's Copernicus Climate Change Service reported a "discernible spike" in emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide generated by the fires.[144]

Areas downwind of the fires have become covered with smoke, which can potentially last upwards of months at a time if the fires are left to burn out. Hospitals in cities like Porto Velho had reported over three times the average number of cases of patients suffering from the effects of smoke over the same year-to-year period in August 2019 than in other previous years. Besides hindering breathing, the smoke can exacerbates patients with asthma or bronchitis and have potential cancer risk, generally affecting the youth and elderly the most.[145]

BiodiversityEdit

Scientists at the Natural History Museum in London, described how while some forests have adapted to fire as "important part of a forest ecosystem's natural cycle", the Amazon rainforest—which is "made up of lowland, wetland forests"—is "not well-equipped to deal with fire". Other Amazon basin ecosystems, like the Cerrado region, with its "large savannah, and lots of plants there have thick, corky, fire resistant stems", is "fire adapted".[146]

Mazeika Sullivan, associate professor at Ohio State University's School of Environment and Natural Resources, explained that the fires could have a massive toll on wildlife in the short term as many animals in the Amazon are not adapted for extraordinary fires. Sloths, lizards, anteaters, and frogs may unfortunately perish in larger numbers than others due to their small size and lack of mobility. Endemic species, like Milton's titi and Mura's saddleback tamarin, are believed to be beset by the fires. Aquatic species could also be affected due to the fires changing the water chemistry into a state unsuitable for life. Long-term effects could be more catastrophic. Parts of the Amazon rainforest's dense canopy were destroyed by the fires therefore exposing the lower levels of the ecosystem, which then alters the energy flow of the food chain.[34]

International actionsEdit

On August 22, the Bishops Conference for Latin America called the fires a "tragedy" and urged the UN, the international community, and governments of Amazonian countries, to "take serious measures to save the world's lungs".[80] Colombian President Ivan Duque stated he wanted to lead a conservation pact with the other nations that share the Amazon rainforest with plans to present this to the UN General Assembly. Duque said, "We must understand the protection of our Mother Earth and our Amazon is a duty, a moral duty."[90]

United Nations Secretary General António Guterres stated on August 23, that: "In the midst of the global climate crisis, we cannot afford more damage to a major source of oxygen and biodiversity."[83]

G7 Summit and emergency aidEdit

Attention to the wildfires increased in the week prior to the G7 summit discussions on August 24–26 in Biarritz, France, led by President Macron. Macron stated his intent to open discussions related to the wildfires in the Brazilian part of the Amazon and Bolsonaro's response to them.[104][147][148] Merkel has also backed Macron's statements and planned to make the issue a part of the G7 discussions; via a spokesperson, Merkel stated: "The extent of the fires in the Amazon area is shocking and threatening, not only for Brazil and the other affected countries, but also for the whole world."[83] Macron further stated that possible international statute to protect the rainforest may be needed "if a sovereign state took concrete actions that clearly went against the interest of the planet".[149] Bolsonaro expressed concern to United States president Donald Trump, that with Brazil not part of the G7, the country would be unrepresented in any such debate.[150] Trump offered to take the position of the Brazilian government to the meeting and said that the US government did not agree to discuss the issue without Brazil's presence.[151][152] Trump himself was absent from the environmental portion of the summit held on August 26, 2019, that discussed the fires and climate change, though members of his advisory team were in attendance.[153]

During the summit, Macron and Chilean president Sebastián Piñera negotiated with the other nations to authorize US$22 million in emergency funding to Amazonian countries to help fight the fires.[90][154] The Trump administration did not approve of the measure as the funding set certain requirements on its use.[150] When the final negotiations were completed, Bolsonaro stated that he would refuse those funds for Brazil, claiming that Macron's interests were about protecting France's agricultural business in French Guiana from Brazil's competition. Bolsonaro also criticised Macron by comparing the Amazon fires to the Notre-Dame de Paris fire earlier in 2019, suggesting Macron should take care of their internal fires before reaching out internationally.[155] The governors of the states of Brazil most affected by the fires pressured Bolsonaro to accept the aid given.[156] Bolsonaro later clarified that he would accept foreign aid for the fires, but only if Brazil has the authority to determine how it is used.[3]

Amazon country summitEdit

Brazil's Bolsonaro stated on August 28, 2019, that the countries sharing the Amazon rainforest, excluding Venezuela, will hold a summit in Colombia on September 6, 2019, to discuss the ongoing Amazon fire situation.[157] Representatives from seven countries attended: Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname. The countries signed a pact to coordinate monitoring of the Amazon forest and disaster response, and a better information network to coordinate their responses. The pact will also seek cooperative efforts to reduce the need for illegal deforestation in their countries.[158]

2019 wildfires in the mediaEdit

'Bolivia and Paraguay agree to work together to mitigate fire in the Amazon' - video news report from Abya Yala TV in Bolivia.

The media coverage had also broadly overshadowed the Amazon fires in Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay by the fires and international impact of those in the BLA.[11] The Amazon wildfires also occurred shortly after major wildfires reported in Greenland and Siberia after a globally hotter-than-average June and July, drawing away coverage of these natural disasters.[70]

Some of these photographs shared on social media were from past fire events in the Amazon or from fires elsewhere.[159][160][161] Agence France-Presse and El Comercio published guides to help people "fact-check" on misleading photos.[162][163]

Celebrity responses to Amazon wildfiresEdit

American actor Leonardo DiCaprio said his environmental organization Earth Alliance is donating $5 million to local groups and indigenous communities to help protect the Amazon.[164]

Other celebrities who made public contributions include actresses Vanessa Hudgens and Lana Condor, and Japanese musician Yoshiki.[165][166]

On August 26, 2019, Europe's richest man, Bernard Arnault, declared that his LVMH group will donate $11 million to aid in the fight against the Amazon rainforest wildfires.[167]

American restaurateur Eddie Huang said he is going vegan as a result of the 2019 Amazon fires.[168] Khloé Kardashian urged her 98 million Instagram followers to adopt a plant-based diet for the same reason.[169]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ BBC (2019): "Many claim on social media that the Amazon produces about 20% of the world's oxygen. [...] But academics say this is a very common misconception, and that the figure is less than 10%."[109]
  2. ^ Scientific American (2019): "The oft-repeated claim that the Amazon rainforest produces 20% of our planet's oxygen is based on a misunderstanding. In fact nearly all of Earth's breathable oxygen originated in the oceans, and there is enough of it to last for millions of years. There are many reasons to be appalled by this year's Amazon fires, but depleting Earth's oxygen supply is not one of them."[110]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b [1]
  2. ^ Rachel Tesler (August 26, 2019). "The cost of the Amazon wildfires". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "Brazil's Bolsonaro says he will accept aid to fight Amazon fires". CBS News. August 27, 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  4. ^ Moreira, Rinaldo; Valley, Jamari (August 15, 2019). "Casal morre abraçado ao tentar fugir de queimada em RO" [Couple die hugged while trying to escape burnt out RO]. G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "'Record number of fires' in Brazilian rainforest". BBC News. August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  6. ^ D'Amore, Rachael (August 21, 2019). "Amazon rainforest fires: What caused them and why activists are blaming Brazil's president". Global News. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  7. ^ Melillo, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Moore III, B.; Vörösmarty, C.J.; Schloss, A.L. (May 20, 1993). "Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production". Nature. 363 (6426): 234–240. Bibcode:1993Natur.363..234M. doi:10.1038/363234a0.
  8. ^ Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich III, J.; Moore III, B.; Vörösmarty, C.J. (July 2000). "Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems". Global Ecology and Biogeography. 9 (4): 315–335. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00198.x.
  9. ^ Brienen, R. J. W.; Phillips, O. L.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Gloor, E.; Baker, T. R.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Lewis, S. L.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Alexiades, M.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Arroyo, L.; C, G. A. Aymard; Bánki, O. S.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Boot, R. G. A.; Camargo, J. L. C.; Castilho, C. V.; Chama, V.; Chao, K. J.; Chave, J.; Comiskey, J. A.; Cornejo Valverde, F.; da Costa, L.; de Oliveira, E. A.; Di Fiore, A.; Erwin, T. L.; Fauset, S.; Forsthofer, M.; Galbraith, D. R.; Grahame, E. S.; Groot, N.; Hérault, B.; Higuchi, N.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Keeling, H.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Laurance, S.; Licona, J.; Magnussen, W. E.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza, C.; Neill, D. A.; Nogueira, E. M.; Núñez, P.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Parada, A.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Claros, M.; Pickavance, G. C.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Poorter, L.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Restrepo, Z.; Roopsind, A.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Schwarz, M.; Silva, N.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Stropp, J.; Talbot, J.; ter Steege, H.; Teran-Aguilar, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Toledo, M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Umetsu, R. K.; van der Heijden, G. M. F.; van der Hout, P.; Guimarães Vieira, I. C.; Vieira, S. A.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.; Zagt, R. J. (March 19, 2015). "Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink". Nature. 519 (7543): 344–348. doi:10.1038/nature14283. ISSN 1476-4687. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  10. ^ Yude Pan; Richard A. Birdsey; Jingyun Fang; Richard Houghton; Pekka E. Kauppi; Werner A. Kurz; Oliver L. Phillips; Anatoly Shvidenko; Simon L. Lewis; Josep G. Canadell; Philippe Ciais; Robert B. Jackson; Stephen W. Pacala; A. David McGuire; Shilong Piao; Aapo Rautiainen; Stephen Sitch; Daniel Hayes (2011). "A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests". Science. 333 (6045): 988–993. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..988P. doi:10.1126/science.1201609.
  11. ^ a b c Mufson, Steven; Freedman, Andrew (August 27, 2019). "What you need to know about the Amazon rainforest fires". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  12. ^ Poveda, German; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F. (January 3, 2014). "Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers". Water Resources Research. 50: 98–118. doi:10.1002/2013WR014087.
  13. ^ "Flying Rivers – how forests affect water availability downwind and not just downstream". Food and Agriculture Organization. July 15, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  14. ^ Yadvinder Malhi; Luiz E. O. C. Aragão; David Galbraith; Chris Huntingford; Rosie Fisher; Przemyslaw Zelazowski; Stephen Sitch; Carol McSweeney; Patrick Meir (December 8, 2009). "Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (49): 20610–20615. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804619106. PMC 2791614. PMID 19218454.
  15. ^ Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Nobre, Carlos (February 21, 2018). "Amazon Tipping Point". Science Advances. 4 (2): 2340. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aat2340. PMC 5821491. PMID 29492460.
  16. ^ a b c Bristow, Matthew; Fieser, Ezra (August 29, 2019). "Brazil's Neighbors Are Also Burning and Poisoning the Amazon". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  17. ^ a b Julia Rosen (August 26, 2019). "The Amazon rainforest is on fire. Climate scientists fear a tipping point is near". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c "MODIS Web". Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  19. ^ Team, The Visual and Data Journalism (August 28, 2019). "Amazon fires: How bad have they got?". Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  20. ^ a b c d "Forest fires in the Amazon blacken the sun in São Paulo - Darkness on the edge of town", The Economist, August 22, 2019, retrieved August 22, 2019
  21. ^ a b Paraguassu, Lisandra (August 20, 2019). "Amazon burning: Brazil reports record forest fires". Euronews. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d Young, Jessie (August 22, 2019). "Blame humans for starting the Amazon fires, environmentalists say". CNN. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  23. ^ a b Symonds, Alexandria (August 23, 2019). "Amazon Rain Forest Fires: Here's What's Really Happening". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  24. ^ Schwartz, John (September 21, 2015). "As Fires Grow, a New Landscape Appears in the West". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  25. ^ a b Borunda, Alejandra (August 29, 2019). "See how much of the Amazon is burning, how it compares to other years". National Geographic. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  26. ^ "Deforestation dropped 18% in Brazil's Amazon over past 12 months". The Guardian. Sao Paulo. Associated Press. November 26, 2014. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  27. ^ a b c d Alexander Zaitchik (July 6, 2019). "In Bolsonaro's Brazil, a Showdown Over Amazon Rainforest". The Intercept and Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved August 21, 2019.With contributions by Mauro Toledo Rodrigues
  28. ^ Press, Associated (August 20, 2019). "Brazil's environmental changes under a far-right climate skeptic". New York Post. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  29. ^ "Tras incendios en Santa Cruz, Morales justifica los chaqueos" (in Spanish). Diario Pagina Siete. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  30. ^ a b c Liotta, Edoardo (August 23, 2019). "Feeling Sad About the Amazon Fires? Stop Eating Meat". Vice. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  31. ^ Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, T. D.; Castel, Vincent (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-105571-7.
  32. ^ Sergio Margolis. "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon." World Bank Working Paper No. 22. The World Bank. 2004.
  33. ^ Center for International Forestry Research (October 27, 2007). "Beef exports fuel loss of Amazonian Forest". Center for International Forestry Research. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  34. ^ a b Daly, Natasha (August 23, 2019). "What the Amazon fires mean for wild animals". National Geographic. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  35. ^ a b Mackintosh, Eliza (August 23, 2019). "The Amazon is burning because the world eats so much meat". CNN. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  36. ^ Pasquini, Maria; Herbst, Diane (August 23, 2019). "Amazon Wildfire Crisis Linked to Meat Consumption: 'These Forests Are Not Burned By Accident'". People. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Situação Atual". queimadas.dgi.inpe.br (in Portuguese). August 26, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  38. ^ Rosen, Julia (August 26, 2019). "The Amazon rainforest is on fire. Climate scientists fear a tipping point is near". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  39. ^ a b Cesar Guerreiro Diniz; Arleson Antonio de Almeida Souza; Diogo Corrêa Santos; Mirian Correa Dias; Nelton Cavalcante da Luz; Douglas Rafael Vidal de Moraes; Janaina Sant'Ana Maia; Alessandra Rodrigues Gomes; Igor da Silva Narvaes; Dalton M. Valeriano; Luis Eduardo Pinheiro Maurano; Marcos Adami (July 2015). "DETER-B: The New Amazon Near Real-Time Deforestation Detection System". IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 8 (7): 3619–3628. Bibcode:2015IJSTA...8.3619D. doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2437075.
  40. ^ Koebler, Jason (April 15, 2014). "The Amazon Is Burning, and It Doesn't Have the Firefighters to Stop It". Vice. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  41. ^ Javier Godar; Toby A. Gardner; E. Jorge Tizado; Pablo Pacheco (June 9, 2015). "Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (43): 15591–15596. doi:10.1073/pnas.1322825111.
  42. ^ Tollefson, Jeff. "Populist President Sparks Unprecedented Crisis for Brazilian Science". Scientific American. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  43. ^ Escobar, Herton (July 28, 2019). "Deforestation in the Amazon is shooting up, but Brazil's president calls the data 'a lie'". Science. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  44. ^ a b Phillips, Dom (August 2, 2019). "Brazil space institute director sacked in Amazon deforestation row". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  45. ^ Watts, Jonathan (August 21, 2019). "Jair Bolsonaro claims without evidence that NGOs are setting fires in Amazon rainforest". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  46. ^ "Burned Program". Portal do Programa Queimadas do INPE. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  47. ^ a b Carolina Moreno, Ana (July 3, 2019). "Desmatamento na Amazônia em junho é 88% maior do que no mesmo período de 2018". Natureza (in Portuguese). Globo. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  48. ^ a b c d de Pierro, Bruno (April 2018). "Help facing the fire". Revista Pesquisa (FAPESP). Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  49. ^ "Perguntas Frequentes". Programa Queimadas.
  50. ^ "Amazonas oficializa pedido, e sete estados já autorizam Forças Armadas no combate a queimadas". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  51. ^ a b Watts, Jonathan (July 25, 2019). "Amazon deforestation accelerating towards unrecoverable 'tipping point'". The Guardian. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  52. ^ a b c Freitas Jr., Gerson (August 6, 2019). "Amazon Forest Destruction Surges Under Brazil's 'Captain Chainsaw'". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  53. ^ "Assessing the Global Climate in July 2019". National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  54. ^ "London climate change protesters daub Brazilian embassy blood red". Reuters. August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  55. ^ Cereceda, Rafael (August 11, 2019). "Amazonas state declares state of emergency over rising forest fires". euronews. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  56. ^ "Amazon rainforest hits a wildfire record as concerns grow". The Washington Post. Reuters. August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  57. ^ a b c d {{cite news Andreoni, Manuela; Hauser, Christine (August 21, 2019). "Fires in Amazon Rain Forest Have Surged This Year". The New York Times. Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  58. ^ "Dia do Fogo- Produtores planejam data para queimada na região" [Day of Fire- Producers plan date for burning in the region]. August 6, 2019. Archived from the original on August 6, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  59. ^ Rojanasakul, Mira; Freitas, Tatiana (August 23, 2019). "Here's Where the Amazon Is Burning and Why It's Going to Get Worse". Bloomburg Businessweek. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  60. ^ "Forecast - Global Fire Emissions Database". www.globalfiredata.org.
  61. ^ "A Record Number of Fires Are Currently Burning Across the Amazon Rainforest". Time. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  62. ^ Pearson, Samantha; Magalhaes, Luciana (August 21, 2019). "Fires Destroy Amazon Rainforest, Blanketing Brazilian Cities in Smog". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  63. ^ a b c "Fires in Brazil". The Earth Observatory. NASA. August 16, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  64. ^ "Fires in Brazil". NASA. August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  65. ^ Gibbens, Sarah (August 21, 2019). "Brazil's Amazon is burning in historic wildfires—and deforestation is to blame". National Geographic. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  66. ^ "Uptick in Amazon Fire Activity in 2019". www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019. While drought has played a large role in exacerbating fires in the past, the timing and location of fire detections early in the 2019 dry season are more consistent with land clearing than with regional drought.
  67. ^ a b "Brazil seeks to curb Amazon fires with ban". BBC News. August 29, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  68. ^ "August 29, 2019 updates on wildfires (South America)". Portal do Programa Queimadas do INPE. INPE. August 29, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  69. ^ Garrand, Danielle (August 20, 2019). "Parts of the Amazon rainforest are on fire — and smoke can be spotted from space". CBS News. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  70. ^ a b c Irfan, Umair (August 20, 2019). "Amazon rainforest fire: Forests in Brazil, Greenland, and Siberia are burning". Vox. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  71. ^ Andreoni, Manuela; Casado, Letícia; Londoño, Ernesto (August 22, 2019). "With Amazon Rain Forest Ablaze, Brazil Faces Global Backlash". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  72. ^ Watts, Jonathan (August 21, 2019). "Jair Bolsonaro claims NGOs behind Amazon forest fire surge – but provides no evidence". The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  73. ^ Watts, Jonathan (August 21, 2019). "Jair Bolsonaro claims without evidence that NGOs are setting fires in Amazon rainforest". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  74. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (August 2, 2019). "Bolsonaro Fires Head of Agency Tracking Amazon Deforestation in Brazil". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  75. ^ "Diretor do Inpe é demitido após desafiar Bolsonaro" (in Portuguese). Congresso em Foco. August 2, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  76. ^ a b Watts, Jonathan (August 21, 2019). "Jair Bolsonaro claims NGOs behind Amazon forest fire surge – but provides no evidence". The Guardian. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  77. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (A August 2019). "Bolsonaro Fires Head of Agency Tracking Amazon Deforestation in Brazil". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  78. ^ Daley, Jim. "Brazil’s Sacked Space Director Speaks Out on Attacks on Science". Scientific American. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  79. ^ "ONGs rebatem fala de Bolsonaro sobre queimadas" [NGOs contered Bolsonaro's claims] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  80. ^ a b "Brazilian president says country lacks money to fight Amazon fires". The Telegraph. August 22, 2019.
  81. ^ McCoy, Terrence; Lopes, Marina (August 23, 2019). "The world wants to save the Amazon rainforest. Brazil's Bolsonaro says hands off". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  82. ^ Phillips, Tom (August 22, 2019). "Amazon rainforest fires: Macron calls for 'international crisis' to lead G7 discussions". The Guardian. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  83. ^ a b c d Phillips, Tom (August 23, 2019). "Merkel backs Macron's call for G7 talks on Amazon fires". The Guardian. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  84. ^ "General Villas Bôas vê 'ameaça militar' em falas de Macron sobre Amazônia". Veja (in Portuguese). August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  85. ^ a b Simões, Mariana (August 27, 2019). "Brazil's Bolsonaro on the Environment, in His Own Words". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  86. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Andreoni, Manuela; Casado, Letícia (August 23, 2019). "Brazil Plans to Mobilize the Military to Fight Fires in the Amazon". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  87. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (August 24, 2019). "Brazil Military Mobilizes to Fight Amazon Fires, and Restore 'Positive Perception'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  88. ^ "Forças Armadas enviam aviões e 43 mil militares para a Amazônia" (in Portuguese). Poder360. March 24, 2019.
  89. ^ "Governo desbloqueia R$ 38,5 milhões para combate a incêndios" (in Portuguese). O Antagonista. March 25, 2019.
  90. ^ a b c Spring, Jake; Moraes, Ricardo (August 25, 2019). "Warplanes dump water on Amazon as Brazil military begins fighting fires". Reuters. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  91. ^ IstoÉ, ed. (22 August 2019). "Secretário-geral da ONU diz estar preocupado com incêndios na Amazônia". 22 August 2019
  92. ^ "Grupo usou whatsapp para convocar "dia do fogo" no Pará" [Group used whatsapp to summon "day of fire" in Pará] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on August 25, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  93. ^ "PF investigará se houve convocação para queimadas no Pará em 'dia do fogo'" [FP will investigate if there was a call for fires in Pará on 'day of fire'] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on August 25, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  94. ^ "Brazil seeks to curb Amazon fires with ban". BBC. August 29, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  95. ^ Rosane, Olivia (August 30, 2019). "Brazil Announces 60-Day Ban on Clearing Land With Fire". Ecowatch. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  96. ^ Darlington, Shasta (August 29, 2019). "Bolsonaro bans land-clearing fires in Amazon for 60 days". CNN. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  97. ^ a b Barrera, Jorge (August 24, 2019). "Amazon wildfires part of 'genocide' facing Brazil's Indigenous peoples, advocate says". CBC. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  98. ^ "Near the Amazon fires, residents are sick, worried, and angry". National Geographic. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  99. ^ Phillips, Dom (August 24, 2019). "Brazilian protesters rail against Bolsonaro as Amazon fires rage on". The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  100. ^ Osburn, Catherine (August 26, 2019). "SOS From Brazil's Amazon Fire Protesters: 'We Need The World's Help Right Now'". NPR. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  101. ^ Phillips, Tom; Phillips, Don (August 23, 2019). "Protesters besiege Brazilian embassies worldwide over Amazon fires". The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  102. ^ Simms, Shannon (August 27, 2019). "The Land Battle Behind the Fires in the Amazon". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  103. ^ Spring, Jake (August 23, 2019). "Brazil's indigenous people swear to fight for Amazon 'to last drop of blood'". Reuters. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  104. ^ a b Phillips, Tom; correspondent, Latin America (August 23, 2019). "Amazon rainforest fires: Macron calls for 'international crisis' to lead G7 discussions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  105. ^ a b "Amazon fires: France and Ireland threaten to block EU trade deal". BBC News. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  106. ^ BFMTV - Incendies en Amazonie: Bolsonaro accuse Macron d'avoir une "mentalité colonialiste", l'Elysée répond - 23/08/2019 - « La France est légitime en s'exprimant sur l'Amazonie car c'est un pays amazonien » ... « La Guyane a une frontière avec le Brésil et une partie de l'Amazonie est sur son territoire. »
  107. ^ French Minister for Overseas Answer to Jair Bolsonaro - La plus grande frontière terrestre de la France se partage avec le Brésil. La France est un pays amazonien. La forêt amazonienne, ce patrimoine écologique universel, dépasse les frontières des hommes. Nous avons le devoir d'agir, Monsieur Bolsonaro.
  108. ^ Le Monde - Emmanuel Macron assure le chef amazonien Raoni du soutien de la France - 16/5/2019 - « En tant que pays amazonien » avec la Guyane, « la France est naturellement engagée dans la lutte contre la déforestation » et « défend les droits des autochtones, notamment en tant qu'acteurs essentiels de la préservation des forêts et de la biodiversité, et par conséquent engagés dans la lutte contre les dérèglements climatiques »
  109. ^ "Amazon rainforest fires: Ten readers' questions answered". BBC News. August 23, 2019.
  110. ^ US, Scott Denning,The Conversation. "Destructive Amazon Fires Do Not Threaten Earth's Oxygen, Expert Says". Scientific American. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  111. ^ Thunberg, Greta (January 25, 2019). "'Our house is on fire': Greta Thunberg, 16, urges leaders to act on climate". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  112. ^ "Ireland, France set to block EU-Mercosur trade deal over Amazon". Al-Jazeera. August 23, 2019.
  113. ^ "Finland urges EU to consider banning Brazilian beef over Amazon fires". Reuters. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  114. ^ "Decreto Supremo Nº 26075, 16 de febrero de 2001".
  115. ^ Coca-Castro, Alejandro; Reymondin, Louis; Bellfield, Helen; Hyman, Glenn (January 2013), Land use Status and Trends in Amazonia (PDF), Amazonia Security Agenda Project, archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2016, retrieved August 25, 2019
  116. ^ Morales-Hidalgo, David; Oswalt, Sonja N.; Somanathan, E. (September 7, 2015). "Status and trends in global primary forest, protected areas, and areas designated for conservation of biodiversity from the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015". Forest Ecology and Management. Changes in Global Forest Resources from 1990 to 2015. 352: 68–77. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.011. ISSN 0378-1127.
  117. ^ "Central South America: Bolivia into Brazil". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  118. ^ a b Otis, John. "Bolivia Is Fighting Major Forest Fires Nearly As Large As In Brazil". NPR. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  119. ^ "Bolivia: Forest fire Emergency Situation Report No. 1 of the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT)". ReliefWeb. August 27, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  120. ^ "Amazon rainforest fires: What's happening now and how you can help". CNET. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  121. ^ Wordley, Claire F. R. (August 23, 2019). "It's not just Brazil's Amazon rainforest that's ablaze – Bolivian fires are threatening people and wildlife". The Conversation. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  122. ^ a b c d e Kurmanaev, Anatoly; Machicao, Monica (August 25, 2019). "As Amazon Burns, Fires in Next-Door Bolivia Also Wreak Havoc". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  123. ^ a b John, Tara (August 26, 2019). "Bolivia's Amazon is on fire too. More than 1.8 million acres have been burned". CNN.
  124. ^ Méndez, Carolina; Mercado, Isabel (August 22, 2019). "Environmental disaster in Bolivia: forest fires devastate Chiquitania forests". Mongabay Latam and Página Siete de Bolivia.
  125. ^ a b c Kurmanaev, Anatoly; MachicaoAuthorities, Monica (August 25, 2019). "As Amazon Burns, Fires in Next-Door Bolivia Also Wreak Havoc". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  126. ^ "All eyes are on the Amazon fires in Brazil, but Bolivia is burning too". CBC Radio. August 26, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  127. ^ 2019 (August 26, 2019). "Thousands of new wildfires burn across the Amazon". CBS. AP. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  128. ^ CNN, Alisha Ebrahimji. "A firefighting Supertanker plane from the US is helping in the Amazon rainforest". CNN. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  129. ^ "21 organizaciones civiles condenan decreto que permitió quema en el Bosque Seco Chiquitano". www.noticiasfides.com (in Spanish). Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  130. ^ "Bolivia legalises and expands 'savage' deforestation for China and Russia beef deals – bad-ag.info". www.bad-ag.info. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  131. ^ Ramos, Daniel; Machicao, Monica (August 22, 2019). "With forest wildfires raging, Bolivia seeks help from SuperTanker plane". Reuters. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  132. ^ Yueng, Jessie (September 9, 2019). "Fires destroy more than 4.2 million wild acres in Bolivia". CNN. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  133. ^ "SEN en alerta máxima por incendios forestales en el Chaco". La Nación. August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  134. ^ "Brazil's president U-turns position and sends army to help put out huge Amazon wildfires". The Independent. August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  135. ^ "Paraguay perdió 22 millones de hectáreas por incendios en los últimos 19 años". Ultima Hora (in Spanish). EFE. August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  136. ^ a b Rhett A. Butler. "Pantanal, the world's largest wetland, disappearing finds new report". mongabay.com. Retrieved January 10, 2006.
  137. ^ a b "The World's largest wetland". The Nature Conservancy. Archived from the original on January 23, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2008.
  138. ^ Martinez, Marta Rodriguez (August 27, 2019). "Satellite images show expanding fire at South American tri-border area". Euronews. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  139. ^ "The Paraguay-Paraná". The Nature Conservancy. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  140. ^ "Gobernador de Madre de Dios pide declarar en emergencia sanitaria tras incendios forestales". Perú.21. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  141. ^ "Reporta Perú 128 incendios forestales en las últimas tres semanas". El Siglo de Torreón (in Spanish). EFE. August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  142. ^ a b "NASA's AIRS Maps Carbon Monoxide from Brazil Fires". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  143. ^ "The Amazon is on fire - how bad is it?". BBC News. August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  144. ^ Solly, Meilan (August 22, 2019). "Three Things to Know About the Fires Blazing Across the Amazon Rainforest". Smithsonian. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  145. ^ Lopes, Marina (August 28, 2019). "As the Amazon burns, breathing problems spike". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  146. ^ Pavid, Katie (August 23, 2019). "Experts explain the effect of the Amazon wildfires on people, animals and plants". www.nhm.ac.uk. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  147. ^ "France's action at the G20 and the G7". diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved June 9, 2018. France will preside over the G7 in 2019
  148. ^ "Trump trade fury torpedoes Canada's G7 summit". France 24. June 9, 2018.
  149. ^ Lopes, Marina; McCoy, Terrence (August 27, 2019). "Brazil's Bolsonaro says he might accept G-7 offer to help fight Amazon fires — if Macron apologizes". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  150. ^ a b Nakamura, David (August 31, 2019). "How Brazil's nationalist leader built a bond with Trump and won his support in the Amazon fires dispute". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
  151. ^ "Trump levará posição brasileira ao G7". O Globo (in Portuguese). August 23, 2019.
  152. ^ Watts, Jonathan; Phillips, Tom; Borger, Julian (August 24, 2019). "G7 leaders to hold emergency talks over Amazon wildfires crisis". The Guardian.
  153. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (August 26, 2019). "G7: Trump skips talks on climate crisis and Amazon fires". The Guardian. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  154. ^ Da Silva Marques, Joao Vitor; Crowcroft, Orlando (August 26, 2019). "G7 countries to provide $20 million in emergency funding to combat Amazon fires". Euronews. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  155. ^ Andreoni, Manuela (August 27, 2019). "Brazil Says It Will Reject $22 Million in Amazon Aid Pledged at G7". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  156. ^ "Brazil governors push president to accept fire aid". August 28, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  157. ^ Iglesias, Simone Preissler; Douglas, Bruce (August 28, 2019). "Amazon Gold and Army Suspicion Fuel Bolsonaro's Rainforest Rage". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  158. ^ Acosta, Luis Jaime (September 6, 2019). "Amazon leaders sign rainforest preservation pact amid wildfire crisis". Reuters. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  159. ^ Chokshi, Niraj (August 23, 2019). "As Amazon Fires Spread, So Do the Misleading Photos". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  160. ^ "Amazon fires: How celebrities are spreading misinformation".
  161. ^ "Fake Amazon rainforest fire photos are misinforming on social media". August 22, 2019.
  162. ^ "#PrayforAmazonas: Thousands of people are sharing old pictures in posts about the Amazon rainforest fires". AFP Fact Check. August 21, 2019.
  163. ^ "Conoce cuáles son las fotos engañosas sobre los incendios en la Amazonía". August 23, 2019.
  164. ^ Falkenstein, Amante (August 26, 2019). "Leonardo DiCaprio gives $5m for Amazon rainforest". BBC News. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  165. ^ Singh, Olivia. "9 celebrities who donated money to Amazon fire relief efforts". INSIDER. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  166. ^ "Japanese Rock Star YOSHIKI Donates To Earth Alliance Amazon Forest Fund". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  167. ^ Dawkins, David. "Bernard Arnault's LVMH Donates $11 Million To Fight Amazon Wildfires". Forbes. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  168. ^ Yam, Kimberly (August 23, 2019). "Eddie Huang Declares He's Going Vegan Because Of Amazon Rainforest Fires". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  169. ^ Gilliver, Liam (August 22, 2019). "Khloe Kardashian Encourages 97.6 Million Followers To Go Plant-Based As Amazon Burns". Plant Based News. Retrieved August 30, 2019.

External linksEdit