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2018 bombing of Damascus and Homs

On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time (UTC+3),[5] the United States, France, and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria.[6][7] They said it was in response to the Douma chemical attack against civilians on 7 April, which they attributed to the Syrian government.[8][9] The Syrian government denied involvement in the Douma attacks[9] and called the airstrikes a violation of international law.[8]

2018 bombing of Damascus and Homs
Part of the American-led intervention in Syria,
US attacks against the Syrian government,
and the foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
US DoD April 2018 attack on Syria.jpg
A map of the attack sites, according to the US Department of Defense
Location  Syria
Planned by United States United States
France France
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Commanded by United States Donald Trump
France Emmanuel Macron
United Kingdom Theresa May
Objective Degrade Syria's facilities for production of chemical weapons and deter their use.[1][2][3]
Date 14 April 2018
Executed by
Casualties 6 Syrian soldiers and 3 civilians injured (Syrian government claim)[4]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Amidst a Syrian government offensive in Eastern Ghouta, a suspected chemical attack was carried out in the Syrian city of Douma on 7 April 2018, with at least 70 people reported as killed, and one pro-opposition source asserted a 1,000 individuals had suffered from the effects.[10] The Jaysh al-Islam rebel group controlled Douma,[11] and they reported Syrian Army helicopters had dropped barrel bombs; this was also reported by several medical,[12] monitoring, and activist groups, including the White Helmets (Syria Civil Defence).[13][14][15][16][17] The bombs were suspected to be filled with chemical munitions such as chlorine gas and sarin.[18][19] The World Health Organization said it received reports from partner agencies that some 500 people arrived at health facilities showing "signs and symptoms consistent with exposure to toxic chemicals."[20]

As with previous incidents, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other nations accused the Syrian government of being responsible for the use of chemical weapons. Russia and Iran, the Syrian government's main allies, denied chemical weapons had been used, claiming it was a false flag operation.[21][22] Russia has said video of the chemical attack was staged by members of the White Helmets.[23][24] The Syrian Arab News Agency reported Saudi Arabian-backed[25] Jaysh al-Islam rebel coalition was making "chemical attack fabrications in an exposed and failed attempt to obstruct advances by the Syrian Arab Army".[26]

In May 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron said the use of chemical weapons in Syria would be a red line requiring immediate reprisal.[27] France and the United States cited positive urine and blood samples collected as proof of chlorine being used in Douma.[28]

In the early hours of 9 April 2018, an airstrike was conducted against Tiyas Military Airbase in Syria.[29] The United States denied launching the airstrike, and an Israeli spokeswoman declined to comment.[30] On 10 April, an emergency United Nations Security Council meeting was held where competing solutions were presented on how to handle the response to the alleged chemical attack; all were ultimately vetoed.[31][32] By 11 April, each of the Western nations began to consider military action in Syria, seeking a "strong joint response."[33][28][34]

On 11 April, the Syrian government said it had invited the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to investigate the sites of the alleged attacks. "Syria is keen on cooperating with the OPCW to uncover the truth behind the allegations that some western sides have been advertising to justify their aggressive intentions," said the state news agency SANA, quoting an official source in the Foreign Ministry.[35] Russia denied chemical weapons were used, then alleged on 13 April that Britain had staged the event in order to provoke US airstrikes.[36][37]

By 12 April, British Prime Minister Theresa May had ordered Royal Navy submarines in the Mediterranean to move within striking range of Syria in readiness to attack ground targets with cruise missiles by the end of the week.[38] British military sources later told The Times that days before the bombings a British Astute-class submarine armed with Tomahawk missiles and approaching within firing range of Syrian military targets was chased by "one, and possibly two" Russian Kilo-class submarines from the Russian naval base at Tartus. The Russian submarines were supported by two frigates and an antisubmarine aircraft, while the British submarine was assisted by a US Navy P-8 Poseidon patrol aircraft. Ultimately no British submarine took part in the strikes.[39]

Military actionEdit

International lawEdit

The United Nations Charter requires a mandate from the United Nations Security Council for sovereign states to use force for the purpose of maintaining international security, but not for acting in self-defence or the protection of populations threatened by extermination at the hands of their own government. Since the UN Charter came into effect in 1945, military action in retaliation or reprisal to the act of another state has been prohibited; but a reprisal may be justified if its aim is to force the other state into compliance with its international obligations. Russia's use of its veto meant there was no prospect of the Security Council authorizing the use of force. Therefore, the legality of military action relies on an international public order argument based on defending the credibility of the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons, enforcing Syria's obligations under the terms of its membership of the Chemical Weapons Convention, and protecting civilians from further chemical weapon attacks to alleviate humanitarian suffering.[40][41]

The strikes came hours before inspectors from the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) were due to arrive in Syria to investigate the alleged attack;[42] it had previously been reported that even when the inspectors did have access, they were not allowed into the parts of the sites used for manufacturing and maintenance of chemical weapons.[43]

The United Kingdom published its legal position regarding military action which concluded limited strikes are justified on humanitarian grounds.[3][44] After the strikes, the UK Parliament debated the considerations under international law regarding the urgency of the intervention, and whether there was a lack of practical alternatives.[45]

Forces involvedEdit

 
US Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford briefing reporters on the attack
 
A B-1B of 28th Bomb Wing preparing to launch a strike mission from Al Udeid Air Base

The strikes were carried out by the forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, and France[46] and were delivered by ship-launched, submarine-launched and airborne cruise missiles.[47] All of the missiles launched by British and French forces were variants of the Storm Shadow missile, known as SCALP EG and Missile de Croisière Naval (MdCN for Naval Cruise Missile) in French service.

Flying from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus,[48] four British Tornado GR4s supported by four Eurofighter Typhoons[49] fired a total of eight Storm Shadow missiles.[47][50] The French Navy deployed a strike group in the Eastern Mediterranean consisting of one Cassard-class frigate, one Georges Leygues-class frigate, one Durance-class tanker, and the FREMM multipurpose frigates Aquitaine (D650), Auvergne (D654), and Languedoc (D653); the latter ship fired three MdCN land attack missiles.[51] From bases in France,[52] the French Air Force sent five Rafale jets, each carrying two SCALP EG missiles, four Mirage 2000-5F air superiority fighters, two E-3F airborne early warning and control planes, and six C-135FR tankers.[53][54]

The US forces included two B-1 bombers from the 34th Bomb Squadron, which fired a total of nineteen JASSM missiles after taking off from Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar.[55] (At the time this was claimed to be the long-range JASSM-ER version, but five days later, the U.S. Air Forces Central Command issued a correction saying that they were actually the older JASSM-A version.[56]) Seven Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired from the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Laboon (DDG-58) and thirty from the Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Monterey (CG-61) from a position in the Red Sea. The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Higgins (DDG-76) fired twenty-three Tomahawks from a position in the Northern part of the Persian Gulf, while the Virginia-class submarine USS John Warner (SSN-785) launched six Tomahawks from the Mediterranean Sea.[57][58] US Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis said twice as many weapons were used in the strike as in the 2017 Shayrat missile strike;[59] an anonymous US Defense Department official quoted by The Washington Post said about 100 Tomahawk missiles were fired by the US.[9]

According to US military's Joint Staff, the allocation of missiles to targets was:[60]

Syria responded using its air defense systems, and its state media aired a video purporting to show a successful missile interception.[61] The Syrian state news agency SANA and Colonel-General Sergei Rudskoi of the Russian military said Syria used Russian and Soviet air defense systems Pantsir-S1, S-125, S-200, Buk, and Kvadrat.[47][62][63]

StrikesEdit

President Trump delivers his announcement at 21:00 EST (0100 UTC).

President Donald Trump announced the strikes at 9 pm EDT, 13 April (4 AM, 14 April in Syria, 2 AM in London, 3 AM in Paris) along with allies France and the United Kingdom. Explosions were heard in Damascus, the capital of Syria, just as Trump was speaking.[8] According to US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford, Russia had not been warned in advance of the incoming attack;[64] he was contradicted by other American and French officials.[65]

Explosions near Dummar, Syria

US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford said three sites were targeted: a research center in Damascus, a chemical weapons storage facility near Homs, and an equipment storage facility and command post also near Homs.[66] The UK Ministry of Defence reported British aircraft struck chemical weapons sites in Homs.[67] Witnesses reported loud explosions and smoke in the capital Damascus in the early morning, including in the Barzeh neighborhood, the site of the Barzah scientific research centre, a major research establishment.[8] The strike destroyed what employees of the facility characterised as a Syrian antivenom medical center, but which US General Joseph Dunford described as a center for research, development, production and testing of chemical and biological weapons.[68][69] The pro-opposition Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said the attack sites included two scientific research centers in Damascus and another in the Homs area, as well as military bases in Damascus.[8]

 
Buildings destroyed by allied missile strikes, 14 April 2018

The US armed forces said all missiles hit their intended targets without interference,[63] and according to Lieutenant General Kenneth McKenzie, the Syrian air defences fired 40 intercepting surface-to-air missiles but failed to hit any of the targets. He said most were fired after the last incoming missile had struck its target.[70] Similarly, France said none of the twelve missiles it fired appear to have been intercepted,[71] although there were reports that between three and seven French missiles were not fired due to malfunctions.[72] The Syrian army said it "intercepted most of the missiles",[63] while the Syrian state media reported its air defenses shot down 13 incoming missiles near Al-Kiswa, south of Damascus.[47] The Russian military reported Syria's air defences shot down 71 of 103 cruise missiles,[62][63] and listed various airports and airbases, not mentioned by US military sources, as having been targeted partly or completely unsuccessfully.[73] The SOHR reported no known casualties, but stated there was considerable material damage while also saying that Syrian air defences intercepted and downed at least 65 missiles.[74][75] Syria's state-run TV news reported three civilians injured at Homs, and that the missile strike there was "aborted".[76]

AftermathEdit

 
Pro-government Syrians demonstrating with Syrian, Iranian, and Russian flags, following the attacks

Hours after the strikes, hundreds of Syrians in Damascus were seen protesting, denouncing the attack. Demonstrators were seen waving Iranian, Syrian, and Russian flags while also shouting slogans of allegiance to President Bashar al-Assad.[77] Workers at a destroyed laboratory denied ever making any chemical weapons.[78]

Russia called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council on 14 April, but the resolution it brought to the session condemning the attacks failed to pass, with only Bolivia and China supporting the motion.[77][79] Nikki Haley, Permanent Representative of the United States to the UN, said the United States was "locked and loaded", should the Syrian government use chemical weapons again.[77] A further meeting of the Security Council was scheduled to be held on 16 April, to discuss a resolution presented jointly by France, the UK, and the US. The resolution calls for an independent inquiry into the use of chemical weapons in Syria, medical evacuations, and the safe passage of aid convoys across the country.[80]

The effectiveness and impact of the strike has been downplayed by analysts.[81] In Syria, the strikes were interpreted as a victory for Assad because their limited scope was seen as indicating that Western countries no longer intended to continue seriously challenging his rule.[82] According to Russian state media, the governor of Russia's autonomous Khanty-Mansiysk district said after meeting with Assad that "President Assad was in absolutely positive spirits. He is in a good mood."[82] American Director of the Joint Staff, Lieutenant General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr., said the air strikes were a "severe blow" to the development of Syria's chemical weapons and that the United States military is "ready anytime" in the event of retaliation by the Syrian government.[83]

The activity of Russian internet trolls increased by "2,000%", according to Chief Pentagon spokesperson Dana W. White.[84][85] The UK's National Cyber Security Centre, the FBI and the US Department of Homeland Security issued a joint alert warning of a Russian global hacking campaign.[86][87]

According to Syrian state television, Syrian air defenses intercepted missiles that targeted Shayrat Airbase "late Monday night" (April 16); however, the Pentagon spokesman said the US military was not active at the time, while an Israeli military spokesman declined to comment.[88][89] Reuters reported the Pro-Iranian Hezbollah militia's media unit claimed the Syrian air defenses had also intercepted three missiles which targeted Al-Dumayr Military Airport;[90] a pro-Assad commander told Reuters it was a false alarm and part of an "electronic attack" by Israel and the US on the Syrian radar system.[91]

According to Syrian state television, two days after the strikes, Syrian forces discovered two unexploded missiles and handed them over the Russian military. The cruise missiles had been used to attack Syria on April 14 but failed to detonate for unknown reasons. Russia’s defence ministry did not confirm the report, but the weapons were reportedly shipped by aircraft to Moscow on April 17.[92][93]

AnalysisEdit

Some analysts, cited by USA Today, assessed Syria's claim of shooting down missiles as not credible. Syria's pre-civil war air defenses used to be formidable, but have subsequently been critically weakened due to years of conflict. Part of the incredulity stems from the observation that even a stronger air defense system would have struggled to repel the strike, given the quantity and sophistication of the incoming low-flying missiles, and given that the coalition likely took measures to jam Syrian radar.[94]

Statements and reactionsEdit

Syrian state media called the attack a "flagrant violation of international law".[8]

Belligerent nationsEdit

French President Emmanuel Macron said in a statement on 14 April that France's "red line has been crossed", in reference to the previous attacks on Douma.[95] While announcing the strikes, UK Prime Minister Theresa May said there was "no practicable alternative to the use of force" to deal with the Syrian government's use of chemical weapons.[67] Opposition politicians condemned the strikes, with many questioning May's decision to press ahead without obtaining parliamentary approval first. Leader of the Opposition Jeremy Corbyn called the strikes "legally questionable" and said "Bombs won't save lives or bring about peace".[96] He also urged the British government to push the United States and Russia to allow an independent investigation into the gas attack led by the United Nations.[97] US President Donald Trump announced the strikes in a televised address, arguing they were part of the effort to stop Assad from using chemical weapons, and said the US was "prepared to sustain this response" until this was achieved.[47] Dana W. White, The Pentagon Chief Spokesperson, said "this operation does not represent a change in US policy or an attempt to depose the Syrian regime".[70] The New York Times reported the reactions initially broke among partisan lines, with members of the Republican Party—the party of President Donald Trump—being generally supportive while the Democrats were generally critical.[98] Republicans Tom Cotton and Orrin Hatch praised the strikes.[99] Other lawmakers, in particular Democrats, although generally supportive of a limited strike to punish Assad for using banned chemical weapons, criticized the Trump administration for not seeking Congressional approval and for not having a "coherent Syria Strategy".[99] Democratic senator Tim Kaine re-emphasized his long-held belief that the military intervention without Congressional authorization and long-term strategy are "illegal" and "reckless".[100][101]

On 19 April, at a Pentagon press briefing, American Director of the Joint Staff Lt. Gen. Kenneth McKenzie Jr. affirmed that Russian air defenses were active but did not engage any missiles during the operation. "Russian air defenses were energized. They were scanning. They had a main state [sic] air defense aircraft up. They did not choose to engage, so I cannot speculate about why they did or did not do that," McKenzie stated, while denying that any missiles were shot down by Syrian air defenses.[102][103]

Syrian-allied statesEdit

The Iran Foreign Ministry condemned the missile strikes, said there is "no proof" of Syrian responsibility in the chemical attack on Douma, and criticized the United States for attacking without waiting for an Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons investigation.[104] Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, called Trump, May and Macron "criminals" and warned "they will gain nothing" from the strike.[105]

Russia referred to the strike as a terrorist attack and compared it to Operation Barbarossa.[106] Russian President Vladimir Putin described the strikes as an "act of aggression".[77] Russia also called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[107] Anatoly Antonov, the Russian ambassador to the United States, strongly condemned the coalition attacks on Syria and warned the Western countries of "consequences".[108] Sergei Rudskoi, the Russian Colonel-General, in a TV briefing, said Russia may consider sending S-300 surface-to-air missile systems to Syria and other countries.[107]

Other NATO member statesEdit

Albania,[109][110][111] Bulgaria,[112] Canada,[113] Croatia,[114] the Czech Republic,[115][116] Denmark,[117] Estonia,[118] Germany,[119] Greece,[120] Italy,[121][122] the Netherlands,[123] Poland,[124][125][126] Romania,[127] Spain,[128] and Turkey[129][130][131] all agreed the decision to attack was justified.

Supranational organizationsEdit

The permanent council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization condemned the strikes as violating norms of international law and the charter of the United Nations.[132] Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres called for restraint from all states.[133]

President of the European Council Donald Tusk confirmed the European Union's support for the strikes[134] as did High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini.[135] Secretary General of NATO Jens Stoltenberg supported the strikes in a statement.[136]

Non-state organizationsEdit

Mohammad Alloush, a key member of Army of Islam coalition of Salafist and Islamist rebel groups,[137] wrote that US-led military strikes in Syria were a "farce" as long as President Assad remained in power.[138] The Hamas government in the Gaza Strip has condemned the bombing.[139] The Lebanese Shia militant resistance group/political party Hezbollah sharply condemned the US, French, and British airstrikes on Syria, praising the Arab neighbor's air defense for confronting the missile attacks.[140]

See alsoEdit

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