Open main menu

2018–19 European windstorm season

The 2018–19 European windstorm season is the fourth instance of seasonal European windstorm naming in Europe. Most storms form between September and March. The first named storm, Ali affected primarily Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland on the 19 September.[1]

2018–19 European windstorm season
First storm formed16 September 2018
Last storm dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm1Callum (938 hPa)
Strongest wind gustAdrian (117 mph (188 km/h))
Total storms10
Total damage≥ £3.42 billion (≥ €3.81 billion) (2018)
Total fatalities32
1Strongest storm is determined by lowest pressure and maximum recorded non-mountainous wind gust is also included for reference.
2019–20 →


Background and namingEdit

In 2015, the Met Office and Met Éireann announced a pilot project to name storm warnings as part of the Name our Storms project for wind storms and asked the public for suggestions. The meteorological offices produced a full list of names for 2015–16 through to 2017–18, common to both the UK and Ireland. A new list of names was released on 11 September 2018 for the 2018–19 season.[2][3] Names in the UK will be based on the National Severe Weather Warning Service, when a storm is assessed to have the potential for an Amber 'be prepared' or Red 'take action (danger to life)' warning.

There are two main naming lists, created by the national meteorological agencies of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and France, Spain and Portugal respectively. Additionally, former Atlantic hurricanes will retain their names as assigned by the National Hurricane Center of the United States, as happened with Storm Helene in September.

United Kingdom and IrelandEdit

  • Ali (19 September)
  • Bronagh (20–21 September)
  • Callum (12–13 October)
  • Deirdre (15–16 December)
  • Erik (unused)
  • Freya (unused)
  • Gareth (unused)
  • Hannah (unused)
  • Idris (unused)
  • Jane (unused)
  • Kevin (unused)
  • Lily (unused)
  • Max (unused)
  • Niamh (unused)
  • Oliver (unused)
  • Peggy (unused)
  • Ross (unused)
  • Saoirse (unused)
  • Tristan (unused)
  • Violet (unused)
  • Wyn (unused)

France, Spain and PortugalEdit

This will be the second year in which the meteorological agencies of France, Spain and Portugal will be naming storms which affect their areas. This naming scheme is partially overlapping with that used by the UK and Ireland, as storms named by the other group of agencies will be used reciprocally.[4][5]

  • Adrian (28–31 October)
  • Beatriz (6–9 November)
  • Carlos (16–18 November)[6]
  • Diana (27–28 November)
  • Etienne (3 December)
  • Flora (13 December)
  • Gabriel (unused)
  • Helena (unused)
  • Isaias (unused)
  • Julia (unused)
  • Kyllian (unused)
  • Laura (unused)
  • Miguel (unused)
  • Nicole (unused)
  • Oscar (unused)
  • Patricia (unused)
  • Roberto (unused)
  • Sara (unused)
  • Teo (unused)
  • Vanessa (unused)
  • Walid (unused)

Additionally to these naming systems the Free University of Berlin also names high and low pressure areas through its "Adopt a vortex" programme. The Nordic nations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden also name storms with more limited reciprocation.[7] Other nations may also name storms either through their national meteorological institutions or popularly.

Season summaryEdit

Hurricane Leslie (2018)Hurricane Helene (2018) 

The season began on 16 September with the naming of Storm Helene, a former Atlantic hurricane, by the Met Office and Met Eireann; however, as it weakened considerably while approaching the British Isles, all warnings for Helene were discontinued on 18 September. Later that day, the second storm of the season, Storm Ali, was named by the Met Office and Met Eireann with the issuance of amber wind warnings for the following day. The third storm of the season, Bronagh, was named on 20 September; the earliest third named storm in a season since naming began.


The season was prefaced by the extra-tropical remnants of Hurricane Helene which affected the UK and Ireland on the 17–18 September. This began an active period of storm formation under a fast moving jet stream over the Atlantic.

Ex-Hurricane HeleneEdit

Area affectedPortugal, Spain, Ireland, United Kingdom
Date of impact16–18 September
Maximum wind gust78 mph (126 km/h), Cairngorms, Scotland[8]
Lowest pressure987 hPa (29.1 inHg)[9]
Power outagesNone

While still a tropical cyclone, Hurricane Helene affected the Azores from 15–16 September. The system subsequently completed an extratropical transition on 16 September as it accelerated north-eastwards towards the British Isles,[10] with the outer bands of Storm Helene causing minimal impacts in north-western Spain and Portugal.

Storm Helene crossed the UK and Ireland on 17–18 September, with the Met Office and Met Eireann issuing yellow wind warnings.[11] [12] The Met Office's yellow warning of wind covered southern England, the Midlands and Wales overnight from 17–18 September, with forecasts predicting winds of up to 60 to 70 mph (97 to 113 km/h).

Helene was downgraded as it approached the British Isles, with winds gusting to only 40 to 50 mph (64 to 80 km/h) in isolated locations; as a result, all warnings were cancelled on 18 September as Helene was still crossing the United Kingdom.

Hurricane Helene developing into an extratropical cyclone on 16–17 September 2018. Tropical Storm Joyce can be seen to the southwest of Helene.

Storm AliEdit

Area affectedIreland, Norway, United Kingdom
Date of impact18–20 September
Maximum wind gust102 mph (164 km/h) recorded at Tay Road Bridge, Scotland[13]
Lowest pressure967 hPa (28.6 inHg)[14]
Power outages286,000+
Damage≥ £7.9 million (≥ €8.8 million)[15]
Repairs underway to a house in Sheffield on 20 September that had had its roof ripped off by Storm Ali.

Storm Ali was named on 18 September by Met Éireann and Met Office, who both issued Amber weather warnings for wind associated with Ali. The centre of circulation of Ali made landfall in south-western Ireland in the early hours of 19 September, crossing into Northern Ireland before re-emerging into the Atlantic and then making a second landfall close to Ullapool in north-western Scotland at around 14:00. The highest wind gust recorded in the Republic of Ireland was 143 kilometres per hour (89 mph) at Mace Head weather station in County Galway.[16][17] The highest gust record in the United Kingdom was 102 miles per hour (164 km/h) recorded on the Tay Road Bridge in Scotland.[18] The winds on this storm were equivalent to a Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

Storm Ali killed two people in Ireland and the United Kingdom. A caravan was blown over a cliff onto a beach near the village of Claddaghduff in County Galway, killing a woman who was visiting from Switzerland.[19] In County Armagh, a man in his 20s was killed by a falling tree.[20] Falling trees also severely injured a woman in Cheshire.[13] There was also severe tree damage in the Galway City and County region, which led to numerous school and road closures. Electricity supplies were lost to more than 100,000 homes across Northern Ireland, with more than 25,000 remaining without power into the following morning; the worst affected areas for power outages were Omagh, Dungannon and Enniskillen.[20] Across the border in the Republic of Ireland, more than 186,000 properties lost electricity during Ali, of which 119,000 had power restored by the end of the day.[20]

In County Antrim, the M1 motorway was closed in both directions for several hours after power cables fell across the carriageways.[21] Enterprise trains between Belfast and Dublin were delayed for up to seven hours due to debris on the tracks.[20] Services between Belfast and Derry were suspended, and a blanket speed restriction of 50 mph was enforced on all NI Railways services pending track inspections, causing widespread delays.[20] There were also delays to flights at Belfast International Airport.[20] In Greenock in Scotland, the MS Nautica cruise ship broke free from her moorings and drifted for several hours before being rescued by tugboats.[13]

A major incident was declared by police in Dumfries and Galloway after many people were injured by flying debris; schools were placed on lockdown for the safety of students, as Ali's highest winds in this area occurred around the end of the school day.[13] On the Highland Main Line, a freight train was derailed after striking fallen tree branches.[13] In Cumbria, fallen trees and power lines caused disruption to transport and left homes without power; overturned lorries caused the M6 motorway to close for several hours, and Virgin Trains services along the West Coast Main Line were delayed or cancelled between Preston and Glasgow Central.[13] Dozens of trees fell or were damaged across the city of Sheffield, where council housing stock suffered considerable damage, including one housing block which had its roof ripped off in the Gleadless Valley area of the city.[22]

After clearing the UK, Ali made landfall in Norway, where several thousand homes were left without power in the west of the country.[23]

Storm BronaghEdit

Area affectedIreland, Norway, United Kingdom, Denmark, Germany, Poland
Date of impact20–25 September
Maximum wind gust96 mph (154 km/h), Høllen, Norway
Lowest pressure969 hPa (28.6 inHg)[24]
Damage≥ £7.9 million (≥ €8.8 million)[25]
Storm Bronagh broke the record for the wettest September day ever recorded in Sheffield, resulting in the city's most serious flooding event since June 2007.

Bronagh first developed as a wave depression close to the southeast coast of Ireland.[26] The storm was named on 20 September, and was expected to develop further over the British Isles. Yellow weather warnings were issued with the "possibility" that further upgrades to Amber warnings may be needed depending on how Bronagh developed over the UK. However, Bronagh did not develop over the Isles, and instead strengthened over the North Sea. Thus, no Amber alert for Bronagh was issued by the UK Met Office.[27]

Bronagh brought heavy rainfall to southern Ireland, Wales, and northern England. Heavy rainfall fell across Wales and northern England on 20 September as Bronagh approached. In Sheffield, 66.2 millimetres (2.61 in) of rain fell in a 24 hour period, breaking the previous record of 58.9 millimetres (2.32 in) set on 14 September 1994 for the city's wettest September day since records began.[28] Rainfall accumulations reached 70 millimetres (2.8 in) widely across Wales and northern England, with some parts of Wales recording up to 100 millimetres (3.9 in) of rain.[citation needed]

As a result of heavy rainfall from Bronagh, widespread flooding was reported. Flash flooding in Sheffield was the worst to affect the city since June 2007. Along the A6178 Sheffield Road between Sheffield and Rotherham, rapidly rising floodwaters caused cars and vans to become stranded.[29] In nearby Tinsley, a woman had to be rescued from her car after becoming trapped in rising water.[30] East Midlands Trains reported that severe flooding from the River Sheaf and Porter Brook was affecting Sheffield station, with services delayed or cancelled as a result.[29] Bus services across the city were also suspended as the flooding peaked during the evening rush hour, stranding thousands of people. Flooding was additionally reported in Sheffield City Centre, Bradway, Intake, Meersbrook, Nether Edge and Woodseats amongst other districts.[31]

The storm continued to intensify over the North Sea, tracking toward Norway. The island of Heligoland and the Alte Weser lighthouse on the German coast recorded gusts of 107 km/h, while the Lindesnes Lighthouse in Norway recorded the highest wind speed at 154 km/h.[32] A truck driver in Hamburg suffered injuries after his truck was hit by a shipping container.[33]

Storm CallumEdit

Area affectedIreland, United Kingdom
Date of impact10–13 October
Maximum wind gust76 mph (122 km/h)
Lowest pressure938 hPa (27.7 inHg)[34]

On 10 October, a tropical depression to the south of Spain organised into Storm Callum. Callum moved further northeastward while strengthening in particularly favourable conditions along with low wind shear. The system then underwent explosive cyclogenesis, as it was forced toward the United Kingdom by a jet stream.[35] On 11 October Callum began to show signs of an eye as it reached its' peak intensity on approach to Cardiff, Wales. Only then did it encounter colder waters and the low-level eye was exposed to westerly wind shear, which had an adverse effect on Callum before it made impact on land. The system then brought intense winds with speeds of up to 76 mph (122 km/h) to parts of northern England, along with torrential rains to parts of Wales with 95.6 mm (3.76 in) recorded in Libanus but overall only made a minimal impact on land.[36]Unexpected warm weather was reported soon after, with Donna Nook in Lincolnshire reaching 26.5 degrees Celsius in the afternoon.[37] At 21:00 UTC, colder water surface temperatures and high vertical wind shear affected Callum, and the system soon transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.

As of 13 October 2018, the storm has caused two indirect fatalities; a 33 year old man and a 35 year old woman are said to have encountered difficulties in the Penarth Marina. The storm has caused one direct fatality; a person died after a landslide in Cwmduad. [38]

Ex-Hurricane LeslieEdit

Area affectedPortugal, Spain, France
Date of impact13–16 October
Maximum wind gust110 mph (180 km/h), Figueira da Foz, Portugal[39]
Lowest pressure984 hPa (29.1 inHg) (while extratropical)
Power outages324,000
Damage≥ £395 million (≥ €440 million)[40]

While still a tropical cyclone, the centre of Hurricane Leslie passed within 100 mi (160 km) of Madeira. This prompted the issuance of tropical storm warnings to the archipelago on 11 October,[41] the first ever tropical cyclone warnings issued in Europe.[42] Beaches and parks were closed,[43] 180 sports matches were postponed[44] and dozens of flights were cancelled until Leslie began to move away from the archipelago and all warnings were cancelled on 13 October.[45]

Leslie transitioned into a powerful extratropical cyclone on 13 October and made landfall in Figueira da Foz in central Portugal with sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) at 21:10 UTC that day. Red weather warnings were issued for 13 out of 18 districts in Portugal by the time Storm Leslie made landfall, including Lisbon.[46] Extreme wind gusts, associated with a sting jet, were recorded in the Figueira da Foz area after landfall, gusting as high as 110 mph (180 km/h).[47]

High winds and flooding from heavy rainfall caused damage across Portugal and Spain, leaving 324,000 homes without power in Portugal at the height of the storm. Sixty people were evacuated from their homes during the storm, and more than 1,000 trees were blown down across Portugal.[48] Storm Leslie caused two fatalities and 28 injuries in mainland Portugal,[49] and damage estimated at more than €100 million across the Iberian peninsula.[50]

Storm Leslie weakened as it moved across the Iberian peninsula, with winds gusting up to a maximum of 60 mph (97 km/h) reported across Spain. However, heavy rainfall from the system persisted and later fed into a low-pressure system to the north, resulting in record-breaking rainfall across southern France.[51] Severe thunderstorms and flash flooding were reported, with Carcassonne recording 180 mm (7.1 in) of rainfall in a five-hour period on 14 October. The worst affected town was Villegailhenc in Aude; the Aude River rose to a height of 7 m (23 ft) above average, its highest level since 1891, and flooding in Villegailhenc resulted in 14 fatalities.[52] Wind gusts of 70 mph (110 km/h) and wave heights of 7.8 m (26 ft) were recorded in Sète.[53] In total, damage from Storm Leslie in southern France was estimated at more than €200 million.[54]

Storm AdrianEdit

Area affectedBalearic Islands; Belgium; France; Italy; Netherlands; United Kingdom; Tunasia; Morocco; Algeria
Date of impact28–31 October
Maximum wind gust117 mph (189 km/h), Cap Pertusato [fr], France[55]
Lowest pressure977 hPa (28.9 inHg)[56]
Power outages200,000+[59]
Damage≥ £2.9 billion (≥ €3.3 billion)[60]

Storm Adrian formed on 28 October over the western Mediterranean Sea, becoming the sixth named storm of the season and the first to be named by Météo-France. Adrian strengthened as it tracked between the Balearic Islands and Corsica, later making landfall in Corsica on 29 October with winds gusting up to 117 mph (188 km/h).[61] In the city of Ajaccio, winds gusts of up to 73 mph (117 km/h) were recorded, the second highest ever measured in the city.[62]

Adrian subsequently continued northwards and made landfall along the French Riviera later that day, bringing high winds, heavy rain, thunderstorms and a severe storm surge along the south coast of France.[63] Severe coastal erosion damaged the beaches at Nice.[64] A trailing weather front from Adrian advanced into northern Italy causing severe coastal flooding, the Italian Riviera was severely damaged, the port of Rapallo completely destroyed with two hundred damaged and sunken boats, partially isolated Portofino by land with destruction of the coastal road, while on Adriatic coast, has killed six people in Venice and has damaged the Basilica of San Marco and left 75% of the city underwater;[65] across northern Italy, flooding and landslides from heavy rainfall killed a further four people.[66][67] Two tornadoes touched down in the centre of Terracina, killing one person and injuring ten others.[68]

Heavy snowfall was reported in central France as the centre of Storm Adrian advanced northwards, and 200,000 houses lost power.[69] 28 departments of central France were placed under an orange alert for severe snow and ice, with up to 15 cm (5.9 in) of snow falling over a wide area and up to 50 cm (20 in) falling over higher ground.[70] A 75-year-old woman was killed and four other people were injured in a multiple-vehicle road accident in Aveyron caused by heavy snowfall.[71]

On 30 October, Adrian continued northwards into Belgium and the Netherlands before emerging into the North Sea, having weakened considerably over land. Late on 30 October, Adrian brought heavy rainfall and moderate winds to south-east England and East Anglia,[72][73] before moving into the Norwegian Sea and dissipating off the coast of Norway on 31 October. The wider circulation of Adrian additionally caused dust storms in Algeria, Tunisia and Libya starting on 28 October, subsequently directing a dense plume of Saharan dust over Italy on 29 October and into Greece on 30 October.

Storm BeatrizEdit

Date of impact6 November–9 November
Maximum wind gust104mph
Lowest pressure960 hPa (28 inHg)

Storm Beatriz formed on 6 November over the central Atlantic Ocean, being named by the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología of Spain. Remaining largely stationary over the middle of the Atlantic, Beatriz steadily strengthened, reaching a central pressure of 960 hPa (28 inHg) on 7 November.

Beatriz had been forecasted to bring strong winds and heavy rainfall for northern Spain, France and southern England on 9 November, and weather warnings were issued in advance of the arrival of Beatriz in these areas.

Storm CarlosEdit

Date of impact15 November
Damage≥ £111 million (≥ €123 million)[74]

Storm DianaEdit

Area affectedAzores, Ireland, United Kingdom
Date of impact28 November

Storm Diana was named by the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA) on 24 November, with an orange warning being issued for the Azores.[75]

Storm EtienneEdit

Date of impact4 December

Other systemsEdit

The fully extratropical remnants of Tropical Storm Ernesto crossed Ireland and the United Kingdom on 18–19 August, bringing heavy rainfall and winds of up to 40 mph (64 km/h),[76][77] unseasonably strong for the time of year.[78] The heavy rainfall from the remnants of Ernesto caused some flooding across the two countries.[79][80] Additionally, Ernesto dragged up warm tropical air over the British Isles, resulting in unusually warm and humid weather.[81][82] No warnings were issued in advance of Ernesto by either Met Eireann or the Met Office, and no damage was reported.

Cyclone Fabienne, named by the Free University of Berlin, affected Germany on 23 September with winds of up to 158 km/h (98 mph), causing widespread damage across southern and central Germany.[83] One person, a 78-year-old woman, was killed after being struck by a falling tree at a campsite in Bamberg.[84] A four-year-old boy suffered critical injuries after being struck by a falling tree in Epfenbach.[85] Structural damage to properties was reported from a possible tornado in Erzgebirgskreis.[86] Air and rail travel was disrupted across Germany, Austria and Switzerland due to high winds and fallen trees on train tracks.[87][88] In the Czech Republic, more than 140,000 buildings were left without power during the height of Fabienne overnight on 23–24 September, and 23 buildings in Prague suffered structural damage.[89] Two people were injured in Olomouc when a tree fell into their house.[90]

Cyclone Zorbas formed over the Mediterranean Sea on 25 September. Beginning on 27 September, the system began to acquire some subtropical and then tropical characteristics, becoming a Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone. Heavy rainfall from Zorbas resulted in flash flooding which killed five people in Tunisia and three people in Greece.

Storm Kuisma, named by the Finnish meteorological service, made landfall in southern Finland on 27 September, causing a storm surge of up to 123 cm (48 in) in Hamina and 92 cm (36 in) in Helsinki.[91] The storm surge and heavy rainfall resulted in some coastal flooding.[92] Kuisma brought winds gusting up to 31.7 m/s (71 mph),[93] bringing down trees and power lines; however, damage was lower than initially expected. Around 4,500 properties were left without power.[94]

Season effectsEdit

Storm Dates active Highest wind gust Lowest pressure Casualties Damage Affected areas
Helene 16 – 18 September 78 mph (126 km/h) 987 hPa (29.15 inHg) None Unknown Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Ireland
Ali 18 – 20 September 102 mph (164 km/h) 967 hPa (28.56 inHg) 2 ≥ £7.9 million (≥ €8.8 million) Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway
Bronagh 20 – 25 September 96 mph (154 km/h) 969 hPa (28.61 inHg) None ≥ £7.9 million (≥ €8.8 million) Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Poland
Callum 10 – 13 October 76 mph (122 km/h) 938 hPa (27.70 inHg) 3 Unknown Ireland, United Kingdom, Wales
Leslie 13 – 15 October 110 mph (180 km/h) 984 hPa (29.06 inHg) 15 ≥ £395 million (≥ €440 million) Portugal, Spain, France
Adrian 28 – 31 October 117 mph (188 km/h) 977 hPa (29.09 inHg) 12 ≥ £2.9 billion (≥ €3.3 billion) Belgium, France, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom
Beatriz 6 – 9 November Unknown 960 hPa (28.35 inHg) None Unknown Iberian Peninsula
Carlos 15 November Unknown Unknown None ≥ £111 million (≥ €123 million) Unknown
Diana 28 November Unknown Unknown None Unknown Azores, Ireland, United Kingdom
Etienne 4 December Unknown Unknown None Unknown Unknown
10 windstorms 16 September – season ongoing 117 mph (189 km/h) 938 hPa (27.70 inHg) 32 ≥ £3.42 billion (≥ €3.81 billion)

Co-ordination of storms named by European meteorological servicesEdit

2018–19 named storms table
Helene (NHC) 17 September 2018.
Ali (UK/IE), Dorcas (Free University of Berlin) 19 September 2018.
Bronagh (UK/IE), Elena (FUB),[95] Knud (Danish Meteorological Institute, also Norway and Sweden),[96][97] Mauri 18 (Finland).[98] 19–20 September 2018.
Fabienne (FUB) 23 September 2018.
Kuisma (Finland), Gertraud (FUB) 26 September 2018.
Callum (UK/IE), Nevine (FUB) 11–12 October 2018.
Leslie (NHC) 13–15 October 2018.
Adrian (Météo-France) – a Mediterranean storm,[99] Vaia (FUB).
Beatriz (AEMET),[100] Yaprak II (FUB).
Carlos (IPMA)[101], Cornelia (FUB) 15 November 2018.
Diana (IPMA)[102][103], Halka (FUB).[104]
Etienne (IPMA), Luana (FUB) 4 December 2018.
Deirdre (UK/IE), Oswalde (FUB) 15 December 2018


  1. ^ "High winds warning as Storm Ali hits". BBC News. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Storm names for 2018–19 announced". Met Office. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  3. ^ "Storm Names 2018–19 Announced". Met Éireann. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Les listes des noms de tempêtes 2018–2019 rendues publiques" (in French). Météo France. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  5. ^ Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de (1 October 2018). "Nueva temporada de nombramiento de borrascas con gran impacto – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología – AEMET. Gobierno de España". (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Las listas de los nombres de borrascas para 2018–2019 – Revista del Aficionado a la Meteorología". Revista del Aficionado a la Meteorología (in Spanish). 13 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Peak gusts, Table: UK/Europe : Current weather". Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  9. ^
  10. ^ Daniel Brown (September 16, 2018). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Helene Advisory Number 37". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  11. ^ "Met Éireann briefing on Ex Tropical Storm Helene 4pm Monday 17th September – Met Éireann – The Irish Meteorological Service". Met Éireann. 17 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  12. ^ "Will Tropical Storm Helene affect the UK?". Met Office. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Two killed as Storm Ali brings 100mph winds". 19 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018 – via
  14. ^ "18092000 UKMet Analysis". archived by Met Office. 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  15. ^
  16. ^ @MetEireann (18 September 2018). "Status Orange – Wind warning for Cavan, Monaghan, Donegal, Dublin, Kildare, Louth, Meath, Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Sligo, Clare and Kerry" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  17. ^ "BBC Weather – UK Warnings". BBC Weather. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  18. ^ "Two killed as Storm Ali brings 100mph winds". BBC News. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  19. ^ "Woman dies as caravan is blown off cliff". BBC News. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Man killed by tree during Storm Ali". 19 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018 – via
  21. ^ "M1 reopens after fallen cables cleared". 19 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018 – via
  22. ^ "Storm Ali: Strong winds blow roof off house in Sheffield". Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  23. ^ Løset, Oddleif (20 September 2018). "Kraftig vind har teke straumen frå fleire tusen". NRK (in Norwegian Nynorsk). Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  24. ^ "Met Office analysis chart 12 UTC Friday 21 September 2018". archived at Met Office. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Update on Atlantic Storms near Ireland – Met Éireann – The Irish Meteorological Service". 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  27. ^ "Storm Bronagh". Met Office. 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  28. ^ "Sheffield suffers wettest September day EVER, as nearly 7cm of rain falls in 24 hours". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Storm Bronagh brings travel problems". 21 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018 – via
  30. ^ "Woman rescued from car stranded in flood". BBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Live updates as Storm Bronagh hits Sheffield – roads flooded and traffic chaos caused by heavy rain across region". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  32. ^ "Messwerte vom 21.09.2018, 16:00 Uhr – Deutschland". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  33. ^ Khan, Miriam. "Zahlreiche Schäden: Erster Herbststurm des Jahres fegt über Hamburg". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ "Cyclone Leslie slams into Portugal, leaves 27 injured". Associated Press. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  40. ^ Global Catastrophe Recap November 2018 (PDF). AON (Report). AON. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  41. ^ Eric S. Blake (October 12, 2018). Hurricane Leslie Advisory Number 63 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  42. ^ Eric S. Blake (October 12, 2018). Hurricane Leslie Discussion Number 63 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  43. ^ "Arquipélago da Madeira em "alerta máximo" devido ao furacão Leslie" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  44. ^ "Furacão Leslie: mais de 180 jogos cancelados na Madeira e duas exceções nas modalidades" (in Portuguese). O Jogo. October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  45. ^ Lixion A. Avila (October 13, 2018). Hurricane Leslie Intermediate Advisory Number 68A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  46. ^ "Storm Leslie: Portugal hit by 110mph winds as thousands of homes lose power". Sky News. October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  47. ^ "STING JET ASSOCIADO AO LESLIE". (in Portuguese). 14 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  48. ^ "'Zombie' storm Leslie smashes into Portugal". Agence France-Presse. October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  49. ^ "Leslie. 28 feridos e mais de duas mil ocorrências. O que se sabe até agora" (in Portuguese). SAPO 24. October 13, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  50. ^ "Prejuízos do furacão Leslie devem ultrapassar os 100 milhões de euros". Correio da Manhã (in Portuguese). Lusa. October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  51. ^ "Épisode pluvio-orageux exceptionnel dans l'Aude le 15 octobre". (in French). Keraunos. October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2018..
  52. ^ "France: le bilan des inondations dans l'Aude monte à 14 morts".
  53. ^ CASTAN Patrice (October 15, 2018). "Sète : des rafales de vent à 111 km/" (in French). MidiLibre. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  54. ^ Thomas Guien (October 21, 2018). "Inondations meurtrières dans l'Aude : le montant des dégâts estimé à 200 millions d'euros" (in French). La Chaîne Info. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^ "Borrasca Diana". (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  76. ^ Godlewski, Nina (18 August 2018). "Tropical storm Ernesto looks set to reach Ireland on Saturday night". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 October 2018. The strongest gusts of winds were expected to be between 30 and 40 mph
  77. ^ "Storm Ernesto on course for the UK and Ireland this weekend". Sky News. Retrieved 2 October 2018. Western Ireland will also see "thicker cloud, stronger winds and persistent rain", according to Sky News weather presenter Jo Edwards.
  78. ^ Laud, Georgina (17 August 2018). "Storm Ernesto path update: Where is Storm Ernesto now? When will it hit UK?". Retrieved 2 October 2018. According to the NHC: “Ernesto is moving quickly toward the northeast near 25 mph (41 km/h), and an even faster motion toward the northeast or east-northeast is expected during the next day or two.”
  79. ^ Godlewski, Nina (18 August 2018). "Tropical storm Ernesto looks set to reach Ireland on Saturday night". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 October 2018. But the storm was still set to bring heavy rains and some wind gusts to the islands off the coast of Ireland and the country itself by Saturday night and continuing into Sunday. Heavy rain was expected in some areas and was expected to lighten through the day Sunday to a drizzle, according to the Met Service. The storm could even bring rain to Scotland, Northern Ireland and other parts of the United Kingdom after passing over Ireland.
  80. ^ Godlewski, Nina (18 August 2018). "Tropical storm Ernesto looks set to reach Ireland on Saturday night". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 October 2018. About an inch of rain was expected to fall in most places as the storm traveled across the U.K. though some areas could see higher rainfall totals, AccuWeather reported. Areas where more rain falls could potentially cause flash flooding.
  81. ^ Tahir, Tariq (19 August 2018). "Britain to bake in 28C as the heatwave returns after tropical Storm Ernesto". The Sun. Retrieved 2 October 2018. “Ernesto’s warm and humid air stays here for the first half of the week, with 26-28C from Monday to Wednesday in the South, with mainly dry weather for most," said Met Office forecaster Steven Keates.
  82. ^ "Storm Ernesto on course for the UK and Ireland this weekend". Sky News. Retrieved 2 October 2018. Ernesto will leave behind a legacy of overcast and muggy conditions when it eventually clears into the North Sea late on Sunday.
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^ "Oberflächenanalyse Fr 21 September 2018 00 UTC". Free University of Berlin. 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  96. ^ "Stormen hedder Knud: DMI". (in Danish). 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  97. ^ "Ett potentiellt stormlågtryck på väg mot Sverige | SMHI". (in Swedish). 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  98. ^ "Gale winds at sea as autumn storm hits Finland". YLE. 22 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  99. ^ Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de. "Borrascas con gran impacto de la temporada 2018–2019 – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología – AEMET. Gobierno de España". (in Spanish).
  100. ^ "Beatriz, une tempête atlantique". (in French). 6 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  101. ^
  102. ^ "Cold gives way to rain and gales". Met Office. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  103. ^ "Informação especial, Assunto: Depressão Diana - Comunicado Nº 4". IPMA. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  104. ^ "Sturmtief Diana tobt über den Britischen Inseln – Sturmflut und Überschwemmungen drohen" (in German). 28 November 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.

External linksEdit