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The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes (Japanese: 平成28年熊本地震?, Hepburn: Heisei 28-nen Kumamoto jishin) are a series of earthquakes,[2] including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 (16:25 UTC on April 15) beneath Kumamoto City of Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan, at a depth of about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi),[11] and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST (12:26 UTC) on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi).[4]

2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
Japan Shakemap 15 April 2016.jpg
United States Geological Survey shake map for the April 16 earthquake; a maximum Mercalli intensity scale value of 8.8 was observed just east of Kumamoto City.[1]
2016 Kumamoto earthquakes is located in Japan
2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
2016 Kumamoto earthquakes is located in Kyushu
2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
Date April 16, 2016 (2016-04-16)[2]
Origin time 16:25:06 UTC[2]
Magnitude 7.0 Mw[2]
Depth 10 km[3]
Epicenter 32°46′55.2″N 130°43′33.6″E / 32.782000°N 130.726000°E / 32.782000; 130.726000[2]
Areas affected Kumamoto Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan[4]
Foreshocks 6.2Mw, April 14, 2016 (2016-04-14)
12:26:36 (UTC), 21:26:36 (JST)[4][5][6]
Casualties

Foreshock: 9 dead, 1,108 injured
Mainshock: 41 dead, 2,021 injured[7]

Total:50 dead, 3,129 injured[8][9][10]

The two earthquakes killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Ōita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster.

Contents

April 14 foreshockEdit

 
Magnitude of earthquakes

Although the focus of the foreshock earthquake was 12.0 kilometres (7.5 mi) beneath Mount Kinpu to the north-northwest of Kumamoto's city center, the worst-hit area was in the eastern Kumamoto suburb of Mashiki, where the foreshock earthquake's victims perished.[12] The earthquake was strongly felt as far north as Shimonoseki on southwestern Honshu, and as far south as the city of Kirishima in Kagoshima Prefecture.[13] In the following hours, there were at least 11 aftershocks of at least 4.5 magnitude, one of which was a magnitude 6;[14] more than 140 aftershocks were registered within two days.[15] It was the first earthquake to occur on the island of Kyushu to register as a 7 on the Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) seismic intensity scale.[16][17] On April 15, the JMA officially labelled it Heisei 28-nen Kumamoto jishin (平成28年熊本地震, "Heisei 28 Kumamoto Earthquake")–Heisei 28 being the year 2016 on the Japanese calendar.[18]

At least 9 people lost their lives and approximately 1,000 more were injured.[15] By April 16, more than 44,000 people were evacuated from the hardest-hit areas.[19] Prime Minister Shinzō Abe mobilized 3,000 personnel of the Japan Self-Defense Forces to assist local authorities with search and rescue and recovery efforts.[19]

April 16 main shockEdit

At 01:25 JST on April 16 (16:25 UTC, April 15), a 7.0 magnitude earthquake, under Higashi Ward of Kumamoto City in the Kyushu Region in southwest Japan, occurred as the result of strike-slip faulting at shallow depth.[2] Significant additional damage occurred in those areas of Kumamoto Prefecture recovering from the April 14 earthquake, with strong tremors and damage also recorded as far east as the city of Beppu in Ōita Prefecture.[20] It was also felt as far away as Busan, South Korea, with an intensity of MMI III.[2][21] A tsunami advisory was issued at 01:27 JST for areas along the Ariake Sea and Yatsushiro Sea, with the wave height forecast at 0.2 to 1 m (0.7 to 3.3 ft),[19] but was lifted less than an hour later at 02:14 JST.[22]

At least 35 people were killed and more than 2,000 others were injured.[23] Kumamoto Prefectural Police got more than 300 calls and also Ōita Prefectural Police took 100 calls, some reporting people trapped or buried under debris.[24] More than 91,700 people have been evacuated. An additional 15,000 soldiers from the Japan Self-Defense Forces joined relief efforts following the earthquake.[25] By April 18, the number of people seeking shelter had risen to 180,000, while at least 8 people remained missing in a landslide caused by the earthquake.

DamageEdit

As a result of the tremors, the entire city of Kumamoto city was left without water.[26] All residents of Nishihara Village in Kumamoto Prefecture were evacuated over fears that a nearby dam could collapse.[26] Kumamoto Airport was also closed to all but emergency flights, and service on the Kyushu Shinkansen was suspended after a train derailed due to the earthquake.[27] Numerous structures collapsed or caught fire as a result of the earthquake. Government officials estimated more than 1,000 buildings had been seriously damaged, with 90 destroyed.[28] A 500-bed hospital in Kumamoto City was knocked off its foundations, forcing the evacuation of all patients,[15] and a natural gas leak prompted Saibu Gas (ja) to turn off supplies to multiple homes in the city.[17]

Numerous landslides took place across the mountains of Kyushu, rendering roads impassable,[19][29] The Great Aso Bridge (ja) of the Japan National Route 325 in Minamiaso collapsed into the Kurokawa river.[30] A particularly large rockslide was photographed blocking the entirety of a four-lane express-way close to the fallen Great Aso Bridge, leaving a large scar that ran almost completely up the hill that suffered the rockslide.[citation needed]

The Aso Shrine was also heavily damaged in the earthquake. The shrine's rōmon (tower gate), officially classified as an Important Cultural Property by the Japanese government, and the haiden (worshiping hall) both completely collapsed.[31] Kumamoto Castle, another Important Cultural Property sustained damage to its roof and exterior buildings and walls because of the earthquakes and associated aftershocks.[32] Several of the castle's shachihoko ornaments were destroyed,[33] and a large number of kawara tiles also fell from the roof.[citation needed] Other historical buildings such as Janes' Residence, the first western-style house built in Kumamoto (dating from 1871)[34] were also totally destroyed[35] The former registered Cultural Asset was initially located in the grounds of Kumamoto Castle, but was later relocated near Suizen-ji Jōju-en.

Early estimates of the economic costs of the damage range from $5.5 billion to $7.5 billion, with insured property losses estimated to be between $800 million to $1.2 billion, according to Risk Management Solutions or between $1.7 billion to $2.9 billion, according to Guy Carpenter.[36] Through the first half of 2016, about $3.2 billion of claims for damage to residential dwellings were paid out by insurance companies, according to data from the General Insurance Association of Japan.[37]

GeologyEdit

Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone.[39][40] A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters.[40] The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu–Shimabara graben,[41] with epicentres moving from west to east over time.[42]

Around 08:30 local time on 16 April, Mount Aso saw a small-scale eruption with ash billowing 100 m (330 ft) into the air; the eruption was not related to the earthquake.[43][44] Mount Aso had already been active since before the earthquakes,[45] being under a Level 2 warning from the JMA since November 24, 2015.[46][47]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "M7.0 - 1km WSW of Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Shake Map". United States Geological Survey. April 15, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "M7.0 - 1km WSW of Kumamoto-shi, Japan". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  3. ^ "M7.0 - 1km WSW of Kumamoto-shi, Japan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c 平成28年4月14日21時26分頃の熊本県熊本地方の地震について [About the earthquake in the Kumamoto area of Kumamoto Prefecture, around 21:26, April 14, 2016]. Japan Meteorological Agency (in Japanese). 2016-04-14. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  5. ^ =緊急地震速報の内容 [The contents of the Earthquake Early Warning]. Japan Meteorological Agency (in Japanese). 2016-04-14. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  6. ^ "M6.2 - 7km SW of Ueki, Japan". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  7. ^ "US Forces Deliver Aid to Japanese Quake-Hit Areas; 44 Dead". NY Times. New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  8. ^ "Last Kumamoto quake victim ID’d, leaving death toll at 50". The Japan Times. 2016-08-14. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 
  9. ^ "http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/20160422_02/".  External link in |title= (help)[dead link]
  10. ^ "70% of Kumamoto victims died in collapsed homes:The Asahi Shimbun". Asahi.com. 2016-05-01. Retrieved 2016-05-09. 
  11. ^ "M7.0 – 1km WSW of Kumamoto-shi, Japan". USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  12. ^ "At Least 10 Dead, More Than 800 Injured in Japan 6.5-Magnitude Earthquake". ABC News. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  13. ^ 地震情報(各地の震度に関する情報) [Earthquake Information: Information on the Seismic Activity in Affected Areas] (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. 2016-04-14. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  14. ^ "6.2 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Southern Japan, Killing 2; Homes Collapse, 45 Injured". 
  15. ^ a b c Doug Stanglin (April 16, 2016). "Hospital evacuated after major quake rocks Japanese island". USA Today. Retrieved April 16, 2016. 
  16. ^ "More aftershocks feared after strong quake in southwestern Japan". Nikkei Asian Review. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  17. ^ a b Daisuke Kikuchi (April 15, 2016). "Kumamoto residents pick up the pieces following Kyushu’s strongest quake". The Japan Times. Retrieved April 15, 2016. 
  18. ^ The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake -Portal- Earthquake Summary Retrieved 17 April 2016 (archive)
  19. ^ a b c d Don Melvin; Greg Botelho; Ray Sanchez (April 16, 2016). "7.0 quake strikes Japan; rescuers try to free residents". CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2016. 
  20. ^ "M 5.1 - 11km WSW of Beppu, Japan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  21. ^ "Magnitude 3 Tremors Felt in Southern Region". 
  22. ^ "Japan Meteorological Agency | Tsunami Warnings/Advisories, Tsunami Information". www.jma.go.jp. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  23. ^ "Japanese Quake Death Toll Rises, U.S. Helps Deliver Aid". USN. April 18, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  24. ^ "Japan hit by 7.3-magnitude earthquake". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  25. ^ Caroline Mortimer (April 16, 2016). "Japan earthquake: Tsunami alert after 7.3 tremor his south of country – 24 hours after 10 died in separate quake". The Independent. Retrieved April 16, 2016. 
  26. ^ a b "2nd Japanese earthquake leaves at least 3 dead, 400 injured". CBC News. April 16, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2016. 
  27. ^ "Aftershocks rattle southwestern Japan after quake kills nine". Reuters. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  28. ^ "Eleven people remain missing in southern Japan from two powerful earthquakes that killed 41 people". US News. April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 17, 2016. 
  29. ^ "PHOTOS: Second Devastating Earthquake Hits Japan Triggering Landslides". NBC News. 
  30. ^ "Large road bridge collapses as new quake hits Kumamoto". Asahi Shimbun. 2016-04-16. Retrieved 2016-04-16. 
  31. ^ "Designated national cultural asset at Aso Shrine collapses in Kumamoto quake". Mainichi Shimbun. 2016-04-16. Retrieved 2016-04-16. 
  32. ^ "Quake damages roof, walls at Kumamoto Castle". Asahi Shimbun. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  33. ^ 熊本城 地震で「しゃちほこ」なくなる [Kumamoto Castle: The Earthquake Destroys the Castle's 'Sachihako'"] (in Japanese). NHK. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-04-15. 
  34. ^ "The Janes' Residence Kumamoto | JapanVisitor Japan Travel Guide". www.japanvisitor.com. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  35. ^ "http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20160416/k10010482961000.html" (in 明治4年の西洋建築 「ジェーンズ邸」が倒壊). Retrieved 20 April 2016.  External link in |title= (help)
  36. ^ Hoffman, Mark (12 May 2016). "April's Japan earthquake insured damage could top $1 billion". Business Insurance. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  37. ^ "Kumamoto quake residential insurance claims paid hits $3.2bn". Artemis. Steve Evans Ltd. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  38. ^ "Japan earthquakes breach walls of 400-year-old Kumamoto castle". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2016-04-16. Retrieved 2016-04-18. 
  39. ^ "Chain reaction activated separate fault zone in 2nd huge quake ‹ Japan Today: Japan News and Discussion". 
  40. ^ a b asia.nikkei.com/Features/Kyushu-earthquakes/Unusual-quake-cluster-worries-Japan
  41. ^ "Kyushu". Introduction to the Landforms and Geology of Japan. GLGArcs. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  42. ^ "Seismic activity could move east, trigger quakes in active faults". The Asahi Shimbun. The Asahi Shimbun Company. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  43. ^ "Small eruption seen on Mount Aso after latest quakes". The Japan Times. Reuters. April 16, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2016. 
  44. ^ Otake, Tomoko; Aoki, Mizuho; Yoshida, Reiji (18 April 2016). "Questions and answers: The Kumamoto earthquakes". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  45. ^ "Small-scale eruption at Mt. Aso in Kumamoto not related to quakes: volcanologist". The Mainichi Newspapers. Mainichi, Japan. April 16, 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  46. ^ "Volcanic Warnings". Japan Meteorological Agency. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  47. ^ "Aso Volcanic Warning Level Lowered to Level 2, Entry Allowed Up to Mt. Aso Rope Way Asosan-Nishi Station". Kumamoto Prefectural Tourist Board. 熊本県観光課. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 

External linksEdit