Open main menu

Wikipedia β

2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire

  (Redirected from 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire)

On May 1, 2016, a wildfire began southwest of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. On May 3, it swept through the community, forcing the largest wildfire evacuation in Alberta's history, with upwards of 88,000 people forced from their homes.[12] Personnel from the Canadian Forces, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as firefighting forces from Alberta, other Canadian provincial agencies, and South Africa responded to the wildfire. Aid for evacuees was provided by various governments and via donations through the Canadian Red Cross and other local and national charitable organizations.

2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire
Horse River Fire[1][2]
Landscape view of wildfire near Highway 63 in south Fort McMurray (cropped).jpg
Fort McMurray residents evacuating along Highway 63 as the fire encroaches on the area
Location Wood Buffalo, Alberta
Northern Saskatchewan
Coordinates 56°42′N 111°23′W / 56.700°N 111.383°W / 56.700; -111.383Coordinates: 56°42′N 111°23′W / 56.700°N 111.383°W / 56.700; -111.383
Cost $9.9 billion (direct and indirect costs)[3][4][5]

Wildfire: May 1, 2016 – August 2, 2017[6]

Evacuation: May 3 – June 1, 2016
Provincial state of emergency: May 4 – July 1, 2016[7][8]
Burned area 589,552 hectares (1,456,810 acres)[9]
Land use Boreal forest, Residential, Oil Sands
665 work camp units[11]
Fatalities 0 (direct)[12]
2 (indirect)[13]
Non-fatal injuries 0[12]
2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire is located in Alberta
2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire
Location in Alberta
The wildfire burning near Fort McMurray on May 1, 2016

Sweeping through Fort McMurray, the wildfire destroyed approximately 2,400 homes and buildings. Another 2,000 residents in three communities were displaced after their homes were declared unsafe for reoccupation due to contamination. It continued to spread across northern Alberta and into Saskatchewan,[14] consuming forested areas and impacting Athabasca oil sands operations. With an estimated damage cost of C$9.9 billion, it is the costliest disaster in Canadian history.

The fire spread across approximately 590,000 hectares (1,500,000 acres) before it was declared to be under control on July 5, 2016. It continued to smoulder, and was fully extinguished on August 2, 2017. It is suspected to be caused by humans in a remote area 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Fort McMurray, but no official cause has been determined to date.


Fire progressionEdit

A local state of emergency was initially declared on May 1 at 9:57 p.m. MDT (03:57 UTC May 2) with the Centennial Trailer Park and the neighbourhoods of Prairie Creek and Gregoire under a mandatory evacuation.[15][16] The evacuation orders for the two neighbourhoods were reduced to a voluntary stay-in-place order by the night of May 2 as the fire moved southwest and away from the area.[17][18] The mandatory evacuation order was reinstated and expanded to 12 neighbourhoods on May 3 at 5:00 p.m. (23:00 UTC),[19] and to the entirety of Fort McMurray by 6:49 p.m. (00:49 UTC May 4).[20] A further order covering the nearby communities of Anzac, Gregoire Lake Estates, and Fort McMurray First Nation was issued at 9:50 p.m. on May 4 (03:50 UTC May 5).[21] It has been reported that 88,000 people were successfully evacuated, with no reported fatalities or injuries,[12] but two people were killed in a vehicular collision during the evacuation, one of whom was the daughter of a firefighter.[22][23] Despite the mandatory evacuation order, staff at the water treatment plant remained in Fort McMurray to provide firefighters with water.[24]

On May 4, the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo reported the communities of Beacon Hill, Abasand and Waterways had suffered "serious loss".[25] The Government of Alberta declared a provincial state of emergency, and said 1,600 buildings had been destroyed by the fires.[7] It was estimated that 10,000 hectares (25,000 acres) of land had been burned.[26] Evacuees who travelled north of Fort McMurray were advised to stay where they were, and not to come south on Highway 63 as the fire was still burning out of control.[25] A boil-water advisory was issued for the entire area just after 11 a.m. (17:00 UTC).[7] At 4:05 p.m. (22:05 UTC) the fire crossed Highway 63 at Airport Road (formerly Highway 69), south of Fort McMurray, and threatened the international airport, which had suspended commercial operations earlier in the day.[25][27] The fire also forced the re-location of the Regional Emergency Operations Centre, which was originally in the vicinity of the airport.[28] On May 4, the fire was found to be producing lightning and pyrocumulus clouds due to its heat and large size, which added to the risk of more fires.[29] The fires became large enough to create a firestorm, creating its own weather in the form of wind influxes and lightning.[30]

Satellite imagery of the burn scar left by the wildfire on May 4, 2016

The fire continued to spread south on May 5 across 85,000 hectares (210,000 acres) and forcing additional evacuations in the communities of Anzac, Gregoire Lake Estates and the Fort McMurray First Nation. These communities had accepted over 8,000 people during the initial evacuations.[26][28][31] The Government of Alberta announced a plan to airlift approximately 8,000 of 25,000 people who had evacuated to oil sands work camps north of Fort McMurray, with assistance from a Royal Canadian Air Force Hercules aircraft, and other planes owned by energy companies operating in the oil sands. Government officials would also examine the potential for evacuations via Highway 63 during a flyover.[26] 1,100 personnel, 45 helicopters, 138 pieces of heavy equipment and 22 air tankers were being employed to fight the fire.[31]

On May 6, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police began leading convoys to move 1,500 vehicles from oil sand work camps north of Fort McMurray, south along Highway 63 to Edmonton.[32] The fire continued to grow out of control, spreading to 100,000 hectares (250,000 acres) by May 6,[32][33] and 156,000 hectares (390,000 acres) by May 7.[34] As the fire grew to the northeast, the community of Fort McKay, which hosted 5,000 evacuees from Fort McMurray, was itself put under an evacuation notice. The fire was anticipated to double in size, and reach the Saskatchewan border to the east.[35][36]

Super 8 motel destroyed by the fire

The wildfire continued to spread through remote forested areas in the following week, reaching oilsand work camps south of Fort MacKay, forcing the evacuation of 19 oil sites and camps with approximately 8,000 workers. One lodge with 665 units was destroyed.[37][38] The fire continued to grow, from 285,000 hectares (700,000 acres) on May 16 to 504,443 hectares (1,246,510 acres) on May 21 and even spread across 741 hectares (1,830 acres) in Saskatchewan.[39] While the fire moved away from Fort McMurray, two explosions and poor air quality continued to prevent residents and rebuilding crews from returning to the town.[40] By May 18, the fire had grown to 423,000 hectares (1,050,000 acres) and expanded into Saskatchewan.[41][42] By mid-June, rain and cooler temperatures helped firefighters contain the fire, and on July 4, 2016, the fire was declared under control.[9][43] The wildfire was still considered to be active over the following year, having smouldered in deeper layers of moss and dirt throughout the winter.[44][45][46]

On August 2, 2017, with no further outbreaks or detection of hot spots by thermal surveys conducted over the summer, provincial officials declared the wildfire to be extinguished.[6]

Aid responseEdit

BC government reply
Alberta Sheriffs were deployed to assist the response effort

The Government of Alberta declared a provincial state of emergency for Fort McMurray and issued a formal request for assistance from the Canadian Armed Forces.[47][48] The government and the Department of National Defence signed a memorandum of understanding on May 4, detailing required assistance and use of helicopters for rescue operations.[20] Shortly after, a CC-130 Hercules departed CFB Trenton and helicopters were dispatched to the affected area.[49] Alberta also requested assistance from the Government of Ontario, and Ontario committed to sending 100 firefighters and 19 supervisory staff, coordinated through the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre.[20] Other provinces across the country offered support.[49] On May 5, four CL-415 water bombers from Quebec's Service aérien gouvernemental (fr) took off from the province to aid in the firefighting effort.[50] Royal Canadian Mounted Police coordinated and provided the bulk of the security response with assistance from both Alberta Fish and Wildlife and the Alberta Sheriffs Branch.

Australia, Israel, Mexico, the Palestinian Authority, Russia, Taiwan, and the United States offered international assistance in battling the fire, though the offers were turned down by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Trudeau said that while the offers were appreciated, they were unnecessary as firefighters from other Canadian provinces were gaining control of the situation.[51][52] South Africa sent 301 firefighters at the request of the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre at the end of May.[53] The firefighters were trained during the month of April at a boot camp, in order how to learn to use special hoses instead of the leather padded wooden sticks known as "firebeaters" they typically use in their home country due to a lack of water.[54] Less than a week after being deployed, the South Africans went on strike over a wage dispute and were demobilized. Alberta Premier Rachel Notley vowed to address the issue and ensure that the firefighters were paid a minimum of C$11.20 per hour as required by the province's labour laws, rather than the C$15 per day allowance specified in their contract with their South African employer.[55]

The Alberta government is providing an initial $1,250 per adult and $500 per dependent to cover living expenses for those who have evacuated.[56] On May 4, the provincial government committed to match donations made to the Canadian Red Cross, as well as to donate an additional $2 million as seed money;[57] the federal government pledged to match all donations to the Canadian Red Cross the next day,[26] with a deadline set to May 31. As of May 9, $54 million has been donated to the Red Cross, not including matching government contributions.[58]

On May 4, Public Safety Canada activated the International Charter Space and Major Disasters, thus providing for the charitable and humanitarian re-tasking of the diverse satellite assets of fifteen space agencies.[59] Later, Edmonton's Capital Region Housing Corporation (CRHC), along with the City of Edmonton, the Alberta Residential Landlord Association, and Yardi Canada Ltd., announced a partnership to create a registry of rental properties for Fort McMurray evacuees.[60] The non-profit initiative will offer this service free of charge to landlords for the next six months. Some landlords have offered incentives to wildfire evacuees, including reduced security deposits, reduced rent, or a couple months free rent.[61][62]

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau visited Fort McMurray on May 13 to survey the damage and promised ongoing aid from the federal government in the coming months.[63][64] The Governor General, David Johnston, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, met with first responders and visited the ruins of the Beacon Hill neighbourhood of Fort McMurray on June 24, 2016.[65]

When the province of Alberta declared a state of emergency, many insurance companies invoked their emergency response plans and began mobilizing staff and resources.[citation needed] By May 5, insurers were on the ground at Lac La Biche, Edmonton and Calgary evacuee centres to hand out cheques for additional living expenses (ALE) and answer questions. On May 6, the Insurance Bureau of Canada (IBC) opened its Community Assistance Mobile Pavilion (CAMP) in Lac La Biche and Edmonton Northlands to provide information and answers to insurance questions. Shortly afterward, IBC's CAMP opened in Calgary.[citation needed]


Damage to Fort McMurray Neighbourhoods
and Nearby Communities[25]
Name Description of Damage
Anzac 12 structures lost
Airport Minor damage to outer structures
Abasand 50% loss of homes
Beacon Hill 70% loss of homes
Dickinsfield Two houses lost
Downtown One house lost
Grayling Terrace Four houses lost, six damaged
Gregoire Trailer park, hotel, and two buildings lost
North Parsons Unfinished school lost
Saline Creek Unaffected
Saprae Creek 30% significant damage
Stone Creek -
Timberlea 13 homes lost
Blackburn Drive Three structures burned
Walnut Crescent 15 structures burned
Stone Creek 225 homes lost
Thickwood Three homes lost
Waterways 90% loss of homes
Wood Buffalo 100 homes lost

Communities and infrastructureEdit

Initial estimates from May 4 indicated that 1,600 structures in Fort McMurray were destroyed. Firefighters worked through May 6 and 7 to hold the line and protect the downtown and remaining homes in Fort McMurray.[66] On May 9, this figure was revised to 2,400 structures, and about 85 to 90 percent of the community was reported undamaged.[67] Overnight on May 16–17, two explosions occurred in the Thickwood and Dickensfield neighbourhoods, damaging ten buildings and destroying three.[11]

The town's power grid sustained damage.[66] Almost the entire Fort McMurray area was placed under a boil-water advisory during the fire, since untreated water was placed into the municipal water system to supply firefighters.[24] The boil water advisory was lifted in all areas of Fort McMurray on August 17, 2016.[68]

Statistics Canada suspended enumeration activities for the 2016 Census in the Fort McMurray area on May 5. Alternative means to collect data from its residents were to be determined at a later date.[69] Shortly after re-entry, residents were encouraged to complete their census form online or over the phone; however door-to-door enumeration continues to be suspended.[70]

The neighbourhoods of Waterways, Abasand, and Beacon Hill after being severely burned were then declared unsafe for reoccupation, due to contamination from arsenic and heavy metals. 2,000 residents in these neighbourhoods were only allowed supervised visits to their homes, and relied on workers from a not-for-profit organization made up of former or current Canadian and U.S. Armed Forces members to sift through leftover items.[71][72] These neighbourhoods also do not have water service due to damages to the water system.[68]

Oil sands operationsEdit

Satellite images of the fire at day (May 3, 2016) overnight (May 5, 2016), and its smoke impacts across North America.

The wildfire also halted oil sands production at facilities north of Fort McMurray. Shell Canada shut down output at its Albian Sands mining operation, located approximately 70 km (43 mi) north of Fort McMurray. The company said its priority was to get employees and their families out of the region, and provide capacity at its work camp for some of the evacuees. Shell also provided its landing strip to fly employees and their families to Calgary or Edmonton and provided two teams to support firefighting efforts in the area.[73]

Suncor Energy and Syncrude Canada also scaled back operations. Suncor's Millennium and North Steepbank mines are two of the largest and oldest oilsands mining operations in the Fort McMurray area, and Syncrude's Mildred Lake oilsands mine is located 35 km (22 mi) north of Fort McMurray. The companies have accommodated another 2,000 evacuees each at their work camps.[73] On May 7, Syncrude shut down all site and processing operations, removing 4,800 employees from the area. A quarter of Canada's oil production, equal to approximately one million barrels of oil a day, was halted as a result of the fire.[74] The lost output is estimated to cost the Albertan economy $70 million per day, and was a contributing factor to rises in global oil prices.[38] The scaled back operations, along with a refinery outage in Edmonton, caused many gas stations to run out of gas throughout Western Canada.[75]

On May 16, all 665 rooms at Blacksands Executive Lodge, a work camp, burned in the wildfire. Earlier that day, about 8,000 people were ordered out of 19 camps; about 6,000 remained. By May 17, the fire appeared to reach the Noralta Lodge, a few kilometres east of Blacksands.[76]


Initial insurance payouts were estimated to total as much as C$9 billion if the entire community has to be rebuilt.[77] By July 7, 2016, the Insurance Bureau of Canada (IBC) and Catastrophe Indices and Quantification Inc. (CatIQ) reported that insured damage was estimated to have reached $3.58 billion,[78] making the wildfire the most expensive disaster in Canadian history, surpassing the 1998 ice storms in Quebec ($1.9 billion) and the 2013 Alberta floods ($1.8 billion).[5][77] The 2011 Slave Lake Wildfire, which destroyed one-third of the town of Slave Lake, cost approximately $750 million and was the most expensive fire-related disaster in Canadian history. The larger damage estimates are a result of Fort McMurray being 10 times the size of Slave Lake.[77] A further estimate based on current damage estimated insurance payouts reaching as high as $4.7 billion.[79]

Cause and contributing factorsEdit

Aerial view

An official cause of the fire has not been determined to date, but it is suspected to be human caused, starting in a remote area 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Fort McMurray.[26][80]

During the start of the fire, an unusually hot, dry air mass was in place over Northern Alberta, which brought record-setting temperatures to Fort McMurray. On May 3, the temperature climbed to 32.8 °C (91 °F),[81] accompanied by relative humidity as low as 12%.[82] The situation intensified on May 4 when temperatures reached 31.9 °C (89 °F)[81] and winds gusted to 72 km/h (45 mph).[83] This significantly contributed to the fire's rapid growth.[20] The winter preceding the fires was drier than usual, leaving a paltry snowpack, which melted quickly. Combined with the high temperatures, this created a "perfect storm" of conditions for an explosive wildfire.[84][85]

Daniel Thompson, a fire research scientist with Natural Resources Canada in Edmonton, told Bloomberg News that the natural El Niño cycle led to a dry fall and winter season along with a warm spring. The weather condition affects fires in a number of regions including Indonesia and northwest United States and Canada. Similar events occurred in 1997–1998.[86] Fire is a natural and necessary component of boreal forest ecosystems.

Controversy arose over the discussion that climate change was among the factors causing the fire, given the role that Fort McMurray plays in Alberta's oil sands industry. Some called it "insensitive" to discuss global warming during the crisis, while others have argued that the crisis made it "more important" to talk about a correlation between human-influenced climate change and wildfires.[87] Canada's politicians and scientists both cautioned that individual fires cannot specifically be linked to climate change, but agree that it is part of a general trend of more intense wildfires.[88]

Re-entry and recoveryEdit

On May 18, the Alberta government provisionally announced a phased re-entry of residents into Fort McMurray starting on June 1 and ending by June 15, given that a set of key conditions were met. Firstly, the wildfire no longer poses a threat and that hazardous areas can be secured; that local government can be re-established; and that essential services such as emergency services, transportation, utilities and essential businesses can be re-established, as well as the infrastructure that supports these services.[89][90][91] Residents were allowed to re-enter Fort McMurray and surrounding communities according to a schedule broken down into residential zones.[92]

In the wake of the wildfire impact on Fort McMurray, the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo created a Wildfire Recovery Plan. It establishes a clear framework and a governance structure to direct the recovery. Recovery funding was estimated to be above $4.5 billion: $615 million from federal, provincial and municipal governments; $319 million from the Canadian Red Cross; and $3.58 billion from the P&C insurance industry.[93][78]

Local lawmakers had rolled out policies designed to “build back better” such that homes would have more fireproof materials or homes in floodplains moved. However, as insurance companies only provide funds to restore pre-fire conditions, a report released by KPMG stated that "it is unlikely that most structures will be built back better.”[94]

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ "A Week in Hell – How Fort McMurray Burned". The Globe & Mail. May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  2. ^ "The Beast is alive: How the fire that tried to destroy Fort McMurray is still burning near the Saskatchewan border". National Post. November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  3. ^ Weber, Bob (January 17, 2017). "Costs of Alberta wildfire reach $9.5 billion: Study". BNN Canada. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b Romero, Diego (July 7, 2016). "Fort McMurray wildfires damage cost $3.85 billion". CTV. Edmonton. Retrieved 7 July 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "It's official – Fort McMurray wildfire finally out". Global News. September 1, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Barkto, Karen (May 4, 2016). "Fort McMurray wildfire update: Roughly 1600 buildings destroyed in 'catastrophic' fire". Global News. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Alberta government lifts state of emergency issued over Fort McMurray fire". CTV News. July 1, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Fort McMurray wildfire now considered under control". CBC News. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-05. 
  10. ^ Ramsay, Caley; Shum, David (May 9, 2016). "'Ocean of fire' destroys 2,400 structures but 85% of Fort McMurray still stands". Global News. Retrieved May 10, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Johnston, Scott (May 17, 2016). "UPDATED – Explosions damage and destroy Fort McMurray homes". Corus Entertainment Inc. Retrieved May 19, 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Tweet from Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo". Twitter. Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016. We have successfully evacuated 88,000 people with no reports of injuries or casualties so far #ymmfire 
  13. ^ Lamoureux, Mack (May 6, 2016). "'Tragedy, layered on tragedy': Girl, 15, killed in Fort McMurray evacuation". CBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2016. 
  14. ^ Parsons, Paige (May 19, 2016). "Fort McMurray fire grows to 505,000 hectares as it crosses into Saskatchewan". Edmomton Journal. Retrieved May 19, 2016. 
  15. ^ Snowdon, William (May 2, 2016). "Fort McMurray braces for high winds in battle with wildfire". CBC News Edmonton. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016. 
  16. ^ McDermot, Vincent; French, Janet (May 2, 2016). "Wildfire continues to threaten Fort McMurray neighbourhood". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016. 
  17. ^ McDermot, Vincent; Bird, Cullen (May 2, 2016). "'A great day for us': Wildfire moves away from Fort McMurray as crews fight blaze". Fort McMurray Today. Retrieved May 3, 2016. 
  18. ^ Ivanov, Jennifer; Bartko, Karen; Heidenreich, Phil (May 3, 2016). "'We are in for a rough day': Fort McMurray wildfire expected to flare up Tuesday afternoon". Global News. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  19. ^ "Wildfire destroys Fort McMurray homes, most of city evacuated". CBC News Edmonton. May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016. 
  20. ^ a b c d Parsons, Paige (May 3, 2016). "Thousands flee from Fort McMurray wildfire in the largest fire evacuation in Alberta's history". Edmonton Journal. Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016. 
  21. ^ "Municipality Announces Mandatory Evacuations for Anzac, Gregoire Lake Estates and Fort McMurray First Nation". Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  22. ^ "2 die in fiery crash on Highway 881 south of Fort McMurray". CBC News. May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  23. ^ Thurton, David (January 2, 2017). "Park planned in memory of girl who died during Fort McMurray wildfire evacuation". CBC News. 
  24. ^ a b Stewart, Briar; Reith, Terry (June 6, 2016). "Fort McMurray's water warrior fought to keep the flow to firefighters going". CBC News. Retrieved June 6, 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Fort McMurray Wildfire Updates". Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Edwards, Peter (May 5, 2016). "ire evacuees north of Fort McMurray to be airlifted out as 1,100 firefighters battle inferno". Toronto Star. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  27. ^ McConnell, Rick (May 4, 2016). "'Catastrophic' Fort McMurray wildfire prompts state of emergency". CBC News. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  28. ^ a b "Fort McMurray evacuees flee again as fire spreads: 'It's almost like it's following us'". National Post. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  29. ^ Jones Judson; Miller Branson (May 6, 2016). "How wildfires create towering pyrocumulus clouds". Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. CNN. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  30. ^ Zairah Khurshid. "Canada fire: Fort McMurray resident calls the Alberta firestorm 'Armageddon'". International Business Times UK. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  31. ^ a b "Update 2: Fort McMurray Wildfire (May 5 at 10 am)". Government of Alberta. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  32. ^ a b "'The beast is still up': Wildfire evacuees stuck north of Fort McMurray moving south in massive RCMP convoy". National Post. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  33. ^ "Fort McMurray wildfire continues to grow out of control". News 1130. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  34. ^ McConnell, Rick (May 7, 2016). "Fort McMurray wildfire could reach Suncor oilsands site today". CBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  35. ^ Bird, Cullen (May 7, 2016). "Fort McKay under voluntary evacuation order as wildfire size expected to double". Postmedia Network. Fort McMurray Today. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  36. ^ "Fort McKay First Nation welcomed 5,000 people at wildfire evacuation's peak". Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  37. ^ "Fort McMurray fire sweeps east through northern oilsands sites". CBC News. May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016. 
  38. ^ a b "Canadian wildfire shifts north, prolonging oil sands shutdown". Reuters Canada. May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016. 
  39. ^ "Fort McMurray announces re-entry schedule, evacuation lifted on some oilsands camps". CBC/Radio Canada. CBC News Edmonton. May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2016. 
  40. ^ "Wildfire heads towards oil plants as explosions hit Fort McMurray sites". Toronto Star. May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016. 
  41. ^ "Fort McMurray fire grows to 423,000 hectares, continues to threaten oilsands sites". CBC News. May 18, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016. 
  42. ^ "Canadian Wildland Fire Information System". Natural Resources Canada. May 18, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016. 
  43. ^ Snowdon, Wallis (2016-06-13). "Fort McMurray fire largely contained thanks to rain, firefighters' efforts". CBC News. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  44. ^ "Blaze will take months to extinguish, Alberta fire official says". The Globe and Mail Inc. The Globe and Mail. May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 'It's going to take quite a while for the wildfire fighters to actually get that under control, contain it, put it out,' Scott Long, executive provincial operations director for the Alberta Emergency Management Agency 
  45. ^ McDermott, Vincent (October 27, 2016). "Fort McMurray wildfire under control, but will smoulder underground during the winter". Sun Media Community Newspapers. Fort McMurray Today. Retrieved November 5, 2016. 
  46. ^ Quinlan, Peter (2016-12-20). "'The Beast' is still burning east of Fort McMurray". Global News. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  47. ^ Dehaas, Josh (May 4, 2016). "Fort McMurray fire: State of emergency declared". CTV News. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  48. ^ "Military air assets preparing to head to Fort McMurray: source". iPolitics. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  49. ^ a b Mas, Susana (May 4, 2016). "Trudeau says Canadians are united around Fort McMurray as federal response gets underway". CBC News. Retrieved May 4, 2016. 
  50. ^ "Four water bombers heading to Alberta" (in French). Radio-Canada. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  51. ^ "Russian offer to send water bombers to fight Fort McMurray fire in limbo". CBC. May 8, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  52. ^ "Justin Trudeau turns down Russian, U.S., Mexican offers to help fight Fort Mac wildfire". National Post. May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  53. ^ "South African firefighters prep for Canada in their biggest international deployment yet". Times Live. May 26, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016. 
  54. ^ York, Geoffrey (May 28, 2016). "300 South African firefighters are trained and headed to Fort McMurray". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 2, 2016. 
  55. ^ "Notley says South African firefighters' low wages are 'not acceptable'". The Globe and Mail. 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 
  56. ^ "Here's our list of resources for Fort McMurray wildfire evacuees and how you can help". Edmonton Journal. May 7, 2016. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  57. ^ "Alberta Government matching Red Cross donations for Fort McMurray". Alberta Government. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  58. ^ "Fort McMurray relief donations hit $54M: Red Cross". CTV News. May 9, 2016. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2016. 
  59. ^ "Latest Activation: Fire in Canada". International Charter Space and Major Disasters. May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  60. ^ Neufield, Lydia (May 16, 2016). "New housing registry opens for Fort McMurray evacuees". CBC News. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  61. ^ "The Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (Fort McMurray) Fire Displacement". RENTCafé. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  62. ^ Ramsay, Caley (May 16, 2016). "Edmonton launches online housing registry for Fort McMurray wildfire evacuees". Global News. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  63. ^ "Justin Trudeau taking aerial tour of Fort McMurray". The Toronto Star. May 13, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016. 
  64. ^ Ellwand, Otiena (May 14, 2016). "Justin Trudeau says Canadians have yet to grasp the 'amazing' work that saved Fort McMurray". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016. 
  65. ^ The Canadian Press (June 23, 2016). "Countess of Wessex, Governor General to visit Fort McMurray". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 24, 2016. 
  66. ^ a b "Growing Fort McMurray wildfire could double in size and reach Saskatchewan border". National Post. May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  67. ^ McConnell, Rick (May 9, 2016). "Fort McMurray is 'still alive,' fire chief says – but safety concerns linger". CBC News. Retrieved May 10, 2016. 
  68. ^ a b "RMWB Wildfire Recovery Information: Boil-Water Advisory Status". Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Retrieved August 12, 2016. 
  69. ^ "Statistics Canada suspends Census collection in Fort McMurray area". Statistics Canada. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  70. ^ "Update on Census collection in the Fort McMurray area". Statistics Canada. June 17, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Hundreds of undamaged Fort McMurray homes declared unsafe due to toxic ash". CBC News. May 30, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2016. 
  72. ^ Mertz, Emily; Kornik, Slav (June 3, 2016). "Visits to 3 restricted Fort McMurray neighbourhoods to begin June 8". Global News Edmonton. Retrieved June 11, 2016. 
  73. ^ a b "Wildfire forces heart of Canada's oilsands to scale back production". Montreal Gazette. May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  74. ^ Jones, Jeffrey (May 7, 2016). "Syncrude Canada oil sands operation shut down, staff removed, due to Fort McMurray fire". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  75. ^ Weld, Carmen (June 7, 2016). "Don't panic, there is gas". Castanet. Retrieved June 20, 2016. 
  76. ^ "Fort McMurray fire sweeps east through northern oilsands sites". CBC/Radio-Canada. CBC News. May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016. 
  77. ^ a b c "Fort McMurray fire could cost insurers $9B, BMO predicts". CBC News. May 5, 2016. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  78. ^ a b "Northern Alberta Wildfire Costliest Insured Natural Disaster in Canadian History - Estimate of insured losses: $3.58 billion". Insurance Bureau of Canada. July 7, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2017. 
  79. ^ "Insurance losses from Fort McMurray fire could top $9 billion, analyst says". Edmonton Journal. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016. 
  80. ^ "Fort McMurray wildfire "most likely" result of human activity: RCMP". CTV. June 15, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  81. ^ a b "Daily Data Report for May 2016". Environment Canada. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  82. ^ "Hourly Data Report for May 03, 2016". Environment Canada. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  83. ^ "Daily Data Report for May 2016". Environment Canada. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016. 
  84. ^ McGrath, Matt (May 5, 2016). "'Perfect storm' of El Niño and warming boosted Alberta fires". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  85. ^ Kahn, Brian (May 4, 2016). "Here's the Climate Context For the Fort McMurray Wildfire". Climate Central. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  86. ^ Sullivan, Brian K. (May 5, 2016). "El Nino Added to Alberta's Fire Woes Before Fort McMurray Burned". Bloomberg News. 
  87. ^ Holthaus, Eric (May 6, 2016). "We Need to Talk About Climate Change". Slate. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  88. ^ Tasker, John (May 4, 2016). "'Of course' Fort McMurray fire linked to climate change, Elizabeth May says". CBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
  89. ^ "Phased re-entry into Fort McMurray expected to start June 1". Government of Alberta. May 18, 2016. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016. 
  90. ^ McConnell, Rick (May 19, 2016). "As smoke drifts away, Fort McMurray hard at work on re-entry plans". CBC News. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016. 
  91. ^ Markusoff, Jason (May 18, 2016). "Re-entry day: What Fort McMurray will look like on June 1". Maclean's. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016. 
  92. ^ "Conditional re-entry timeline". Alberta. Government of Alberta. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016. 
  93. ^ "Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo 2016 Wildfire Recovery Plan" (PDF). Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Retrieved December 20, 2016. 
  94. ^ Tait, Carrie (July 27, 2017). "Fort McMurray rebuild happening too quickly and cheaply, review finds". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 28, 2017. 

External linksEdit