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Protests erupted in Ethiopia on 5 August 2016[1] following calls by opposition groups.[3] Protesters demanded social and political reforms including an end to human rights abuses (including government killings of civilians, mass arrests, government land seizures, and political marginalization of opposition groups). The government responded by restricting access to the Internet[10][11] and attacking as well as arresting protesters.[11][12]

2016 Ethiopian protests
Date 5 August 2016[1] – present (1 year, 1 month, 2 weeks and 4 days)
Location Amhara Region, Gondar, Addis Ababa,[1] Bahir Dar,[1] Oromia Region,[1] north-western and southern regions [2] Ambo, Dembi Dolo, and Nekemt[3]
Caused by
  • Most extreme drought in 50 years followed by extreme flooding, both displacing parts of the population[4]
  • While economic growth and industrialization takes place, the government disregards the rights and needs of the rural population, these are left behind[5]
  • Human rights abuses[1] (detention of opposition demonstrators)[1] Oromia Region[3]
  • Previous annexation of Wolqayt Tsegede in to the Tigray region.[3]
  • Unfair distribution of wealth[6]
  • Political marginalization[1]
  • Land seizures by the Ethiopian government
Goals
Methods
Status
  • Hundreds of killings and thousands of arrests in recent months by police[1]
  • At least 90 shot and killed by police (as of 8 August)[7]– 500 (claimed by Human Rights Watch)[8]
  • Thousands of protesters attacked and/or arrested by police
  • Suspected jailbreak attempt at Kaliti Prison resulting in at least 23 deaths
  • Human stampede resulting from police confrontation results in the deaths of 52-300 people
  • Six-month state of emergency declared on 9 October[8]
Parties to the civil conflict
Ethiopia General public protesters
Lead figures
Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn
Casualties
Death(s) 500+ (as of October 2016)
Detained 1,645[9]

In the three days leading up to 8 August, Reuters reported that at least 90 protesters[7] had been shot and killed by Ethiopian security forces, marking the most violent crackdown against protesters in sub-Saharan Africa since at least 75 people were killed during protests in Ethiopia's Oromia Region in November and December 2015.[13][14]

According to Human Rights Watch, at least 500 people are estimated to have been killed as of October 2016.[15][16]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Ethiopia has been governed by the EPRDF led by the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front since they captured the capital and ended the Ethiopian Civil War in 1991. Members of the Tigrayan ethnic group constitute a minority of Ethiopia's population. Members of this ethnic group traditionally dominate the senior positions in the country's military and political system while the majority of Amhara and Oromo people were marginalized over decades.[11][17] However, following the death of Meles Zenawi in 2012, who was the Tigrayan power horse of Ethiopia, the situation became somewhat less obvious. Both main positions at the head of state and of the government, that of the President of Ethiopia (Mulatu Teshome, an Oromo) and that of the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Desalegn, are not occupied by Tigrayans anymore.

The country has been experiencing rapid economic growth since the 2000s and is one of the world's fastest-growing economies and is Africa’s second most populous country.[18] But while economic development and growth and industrialization are supported a lot by the authoritarian government, often the needs of the rural population remain unconsidered, the freedom and civil rights of farmers and pastoralists in particular are often neglected. They are left behind.[5]

In 2014, both rainy seasons in Ethiopia saw irregular rainfall. In 2015, due to an extremely strong El Niño event, both rainy seasons in Ethiopia almost did not happen at all. That resulted in an acute drought in particular in the Highlands of Ethiopia, crops and pastures dried up and herds were dying. It was considered to be the worst drought in 50 years.[19] The drought did hit particularly hard in Amhara Region and Oromia Region.[20] After 18 months of severe drought with almost nothing left over to eat for drought-affected people, very strong torrential rains that started in April 2016 did worsen the situation until October 2016. The flooding displaced people for months in exactly the same regions, that were most affected by the long drought.[21]

Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state. As UNICEF experience in Ethiopia is telling from the past, such droughts and floodings often result in humanitarian shocks and tensions between ethnic groups.[4]

Wolqayt RegionEdit

There has been civil unrest in this region since the 1941 Woyane rebellion, which was an uprising of Tigrayans against an Ethiopian government, that was dominated by Amhara people at that time. With the failure of the rebellion, Wolqayt as an area populated by both Amhara and Tigray people went to the (now historic) province of Begemder, which was dominated by Amhara people. The capital of Begemder was Gondar. That move gave rise to tensions between Amhara people and Tigrayans over decades.

According to the 1994 Ethiopian census, out of 90,186 residents 87,099 self-identified as Tigrayans (96.6%) and 2,734 self-identified as Amharas (3.0%).[22] According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, out of 356,598 residents of Western Tigray Zone (of which Wolqayt is a woreda), 329,080 self-identified as Tigrayans (92.3%) and 23,093 self-identified as Amharas (6.5%).[23] Even if all Amhara people of Western Tigray would be in Wolqayt woreda, they would constitute less than a third of the population of that woreda. So the vast majority of Wolqayt are Tigrayans – and Wolqayt is a woreda of Tigray. There is no obvious reason to move this region to Amhara. But why is this region then disputed?

Following the take-over of Ethiopia by the EPRDF in 1991, the old Wolqayt was split into two parts and the northern part (the new Wolqayt with a Tigrayan majority) was moved to the newly established ethnic region of Tigray while the southern part (with an Amhara people majority) was renamed and went to the ethnic region of Amhara.

Amhara people protested against the split and against the move ever since despite being a small minority in the new Wolqayt while insisting, that they are the majority of Wolqayt (of the old Wolqayt, of course). This is one of the typical old and longstanding ethnic conflicts in Ethiopia accompanied by lots of historic factoids, accusations and rumours.

ProtestsEdit

Prior episodes of mass killings by the Ethiopian government include the 2005 Ethiopian police massacres when hundreds of protesters were killed by police and the November and December 2015 protests in the Oromia Region that resulted in the killings of over 100 people by government forces. The 2015 protests were later followed by a police crackdown and the arrests of hundreds of opposition members.[24]

Oromia RegionEdit

According to diplomatic, NGO, and opposition sources, hundreds of thousands of people marched in more than 200 towns and cities in the vast Oromia State,[25][26] in protest at "the government's draconian and ever-escalating repression."[27] This resulted in at least 148 people being killed on 5 and 6 August.[28]

On 2 October 2016, more protests occurred where an estimated two million people were attending the annual Irreechaa festival in Bishoftu in the Oromia region.[15] The festival is attended by Oromos from all walks of life to celebrate life and nature. An anti-government protest disrupted the event, with some claiming they involved peacefully chanting slogans against the Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization,[15][29] while others claim stones and bottles were thrown.[29][30] People died in a stampede as a result of police using tear gas, rubber bullets and baton charges,[15][29][30] falling into a deep ditch and being crushed,[30] or drowning in a lake.[16] While the Oromia regional government confirmed the deaths of 52 people, rights groups, the opposition leader, and local reports claim various numbers up to nearly 300 people dead.[15][16][27][29][30][31]

Addis AbabaEdit

On 6 August hundreds of protesters marched on Meskel Square and shouted "we want our freedom" and "free our political prisoners".[28] Dozens of protesters were arrested by Addis Ababa's police.[32]

Amhara RegionEdit

In July 2016 the Anti-terrorism task force detained members of the Wolqayt Amhara Identity Committee (WAIC), a legally registered organisation. Soon after, protests erupted in many areas of the Amhara Region, the historic ethnic center of the Ethiopian state and home to the spectacular monolithic rock-cut churches of Lalibela and medieval castles of Gondar that attract tourists from all over.[33] One of the biggest demonstrations took place was on 1 August 2016 in Gondar city. Hundreds of thousands of people held a peaceful demonstration over the arrest of the WAIC members, government repression and protest Federal government encroachment in regional affairs. Protesters carried placards expressing solidarity with the Oromo people.[34] As they marched, they were heard to be chanting in Amharic “በኦሮምያ የሚፈሰዉ ደም ደማችን ነዉ” [35] which translates to “the pouring of blood in Oromia is our blood” [36][37] and “the killings of our brothers in Oromia needs to stop”. They also drew attention to the dispute over the administration of Wolqayt Tsegede. A region that is currently part of the Tigray state despite its citizens identifying as ethnic Amhara.[38][39][40][41]

Further demonstrations soon followed in the Amhara region. Many protests spiraled into violence as security forces fired live bullets on protesters. On 5 August 2016, 50 student protesters were killed while protesting in the populous city of Bahir Dar, the capital of the Amhara Region and a major tourist destination. Evidence collected by Ethiopian Human Rights Project has so far shown that major protests took place in 6 of the 11 zones in the Amhara Region. The zones include North Gondar, South Gondar, Bahr Dar Special Zone, Awi, West Gojam and East Gojam. Anti-government street demonstrations and “stay at home” protests took place in small wereda towns and in some cases in rural kebeles across the six zones. The protests that were ignited in the historic town of Gondar, quickly spread to Debarq, Debtetabor, Metema, Ambagiorgis, Wereta, Simada, Gayint, Bahr Dar, Finote Selam, Burre, Enjibara, Dangila, Chagni, Tilili, Birsheleqo, Quarit, Dembecha, Amanuel, Debre Markos and other towns.

After the growing discontent in Amhara Region and Oromia Region the Israeli Foreign Ministry issued a travel warning on 1 September 2016. The Amhara Region included in the warning includes the city of Gondar, a popular site for many Israeli tourists and an area where many Ethiopian Jews originated. The warning was announced a day after the Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn's announcement on the state owned media ETV (Ethiopia) and gave direct order for the Ethiopia Army forces to use any force necessary to bring order to the region.[42][43] The protesters continued and several flower farms were burned down in Amhara Region and clashes between security forces and local protesters continued.[44][45]

The Ethiopian Government declared a state of emergency on October 8, 2016. On 16 October 2016 the Government announced, restrictions and prohibitions on Internet usage, postings on Facebook, crossing the wrists above the head, diplomatic travel, fire arms and the viewing of media that the government deems to be “terrorist media”.[46] There was also a curfews placed in both regions from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. to prevent further violence.[47][47][48] The government crackdown was tough. Maina Kiai, a U.N. rights rapporteur, said "The scale of this violence and the shocking number of deaths make it clear that this is a calculated campaign to eliminate opposition movements and silence dissenting voices,”.[49] The Human Rights Watch estimated that at least 400 people were killed in protests over the next several months.[50]

Kaliti PrisonEdit

A suspected attempted jailbreak from Kaliti Prison near Addis Ababa resulted in a fire. Two prisoners were claimed to have been killed trying to escape, while 21 other inmates were said to have perished from "stampede and suffocation". At least 23 people were killed in total.[51]

ReactionsEdit

DomesticEdit

The Ethiopian government denied violence being committed by the country's security forces, naming regional rivals Eritrea and Egypt as the origins for the ongoing unrest.[8][52]

InternationalEdit

The United States Embassy in Addis Ababa released a statement of concern.[53]

A legislation was authored by United States House of Representatives Chris Smith (New Jersey politician), to protect civilians in Ethiopia as well as promote democracy and good governance. The legislation further “calls on the Secretary of State to improve the oversight and accountability of U.S. assistance in Ethiopia”. Rep. Smith was joined by U.S. Representative Mike Coffman as well as victims of torture at the hands of the Ethiopian Government Seenaa Jimjimo, Tewondrose Tirfe and Guya Abaguya Deki, during a press conference to announce this legislation.[54]

In May 2017, Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, said he would open an investigation into the human rights abuses perpetrated during the protests.[55]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "Internet shutdown ends as protests continue in Ethiopia". BBC Monitoring. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d Maasho, Aaron (8 August 2016). "At least 33 protesters killed in Ethiopia's Oromiya region: opposition". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "ETHIOPIA EL NINO EMERGENCY" (PDF). UNICEF. 1 April 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "El Niño lässt den Fortschritt verdorren" (in German). Die Zeit. 22 February 2016. 
  6. ^ Maasho, Aaron (8 August 2016). "Weekend Protests Across Ethiopia Leave More Than 12 Dead". VOA. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Maasho, Aaron (8 August 2016). "At least 90 protesters killed in Ethiopia – residents, opposition". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Iaccino, Ludovica (10 October 2016). "EU calls for dialogue with Ethiopia as state of emergency declared". International Business Times. 
  9. ^ "Ethiopia 'detains 1,600' under state of emergency". BBC News. 20 October 2016. 
  10. ^ OONI, Ethiopia: Internet Shutdown Amidst Recent Protests?,Moses Karanja (CIPIT), Maria Xynou, Arturo Filastò 2016-08-10 00:00:00 +0000 UTC , https://ooni.torproject.org/post/ethiopia-internet-shutdown-amidst-recent-protests/
  11. ^ a b c Warner, Gregory, "PARALLELS: Ethiopia Grapples With The Aftermath Of A Deadly Weekend," August 10, 2016·National Public Radio (NPR), Washington, D.C., USA, retrieved August 13, 2016
  12. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (August 12, 2016). "‘A Generation Is Protesting’ in Ethiopia, Long a U.S. Ally". NYT. 
  13. ^ CCTV News (19 December 2015). "At least 75 killed in Ethiopia protests" – via YouTube. 
  14. ^ Times of India, Ethiopia Protests | At Least 140 Killed In Over State Land Plan, 8 January 2016, YouTube
  15. ^ a b c d e "Ethiopia: Dozens killed in Oromia festival stampede". Al Jazeera. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  16. ^ a b c Davison, William (20 October 2016). "State of emergency likely to ramp up repression in fractured Ethiopia". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2016. 
  17. ^ Ethiopia: Dozens killed in anti-government protests, Al Jazeera English, 8 Aug. 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ui8fcjltmlI
  18. ^ "Private Sector Boosts Ethiopia's Growth". IFC. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
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  21. ^ "Ethiopia: Floods - Apr 2016". OCHA. 31 October 2016. 
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  30. ^ a b c d Burke, Jason (3 October 2016). "Ethiopia: many dead in anti-government protest at religious festival". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
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  33. ^ http://www.voanews.com/a/ethiopia-travel-warning/3472320.html
  34. ^ http://www.africanews.com/2016/07/31/half-a-million-protesters-call-for-a-regime-change-in-ethiopia/
  35. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kj6Gc0VqQD8
  36. ^ "After the Gondar Breakthrough". www.ethiomedia.com. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  37. ^ "Oromo and Amhara form united front against Tigrayans - ETHIOPIA - The Indian Ocean Newsletter 02/09/2016". www.africaintelligence.com. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  38. ^ +ecadforum (2016-08-05). "Ethiopia: TPLF is Killing Innocent Amharas". ECADF Ethiopian News. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
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  43. ^ +ecadforum (2016-09-01). "Warning Extremely Graphic: Ethiopian Regime Soldiers Shooting Unarmed People". ECADF Ethiopian News. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
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  46. ^ "In Ethiopia’s war against social media, the truth is the main casualty". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  47. ^ a b "Ethiopia blames foreigners for unrest, U.N. experts seek probe". Reuters. 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  48. ^ Cruz, Angela (2016-10-23). "Declared State of Emergency in Ethiopia". The Point News. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  49. ^ "Ethiopia: UN experts call for international commission to help investigate systematic violence against protesters". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  50. ^ "Ethiopian Forces Kill ‘Up to 100’ Protesters". Human Rights Watch. 2016-08-13. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  51. ^ "Ethiopia fire kills 23 at prison 'holding Oromo protesters' - BBC News". 
  52. ^ "Ethiopia blames Egypt and Eritrea over unrest". BBC News. 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  53. ^ "Several dozen shot dead in weekend protests across Ethiopia". The Washington Post. 8 August 2016. 
  54. ^ Chris Smith. 2017. Chris Smith . [ONLINE] Available at: http://chrissmith.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=400152. [Accessed 17 February 2017].
  55. ^ Maasho, Aaron (May 4, 2017). "U.N. human rights chief pushes for inquiry into Ethiopia unrest". Reuters. Retrieved May 5, 2017. 

External linksEdit