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2014 RC is a sub-kilometer asteroid and fastest known rotator, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo group. On September 7, 2014, it passed within 0.000267 AU (39,900 km; 24,800 mi) (0.1 LD) of the Earth. The asteroid is approximately the diameter of the Chelyabinsk meteor,[4] and passed almost as close to Earth as 367943 Duende (2012 DA14) did in 2013.

2014 RC
Discovery[1][2]
Discovered byCatalina Sky Survey (703)
Pan-STARRS (F51)
Discovery date1–2 September 2014
Designations
Apollo, NEO
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 13 January 2016 (JD 2457400.5)
Uncertainty parameter 2
Observation arc18 days w/Radar
Aphelion1.803891 AU (269.8583 Gm)
Perihelion0.8206096 AU (122.76145 Gm)
1.312251 AU (196.3100 Gm)
Eccentricity0.3746548
1.50 yr (549.06 d)[3]
287.9332°
0° 39m 20.377s / day
Inclination4.573941°
345.005065°
71.17158°
Earth MOID0.000643292 AU (96,235.1 km)
Jupiter MOID3.5698 AU (534.03 Gm)
Physical characteristics
Dimensions22 m (72 ft) (largest axis)[4]
12–25 m (39–82 ft)[5]
Mean density
>2.5 (assumed based on rotation/spectra)
15.8 seconds,[4] 0.004389 h (15.80 s)[3]
Sq-class[4]
11-41
28 (Nov/Dec 2014)
26.8[3]

With an absolute magnitude of 26.8,[3] the asteroid is about 11–25 meters (36–82 ft) in diameter depending on the albedo.[5] Observations by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility conclude the asteroid is a fairly bright Sq-class asteroid which have an average albedo of around 0.24, and would give the asteroid a spherical equivalent diameter of 12 meters (39 ft).[4] Measurements by multiple telescopes indicate that the asteroid rotates in 15.8 seconds making it the fastest rotating asteroid so far discovered.[4] Using the 15.8 second rotation period, more accurate radar observations by Goldstone shows the asteroid has a largest axis of at least 22 meters (72 ft).[4] Due to the asteroid's fast rotation, it is a monolith and not a rubble pile.

On 8 September 2115 the asteroid will pass about 0.0053 AU (790,000 km; 490,000 mi) from the moon.[3] On 5 September 1973, the asteroid passed between 0.01052 AU (1,574,000 km; 978,000 mi) and 0.01207 AU (1,806,000 km; 1,122,000 mi) from Earth.[3] 2014 RC was removed from the JPL Sentry Risk Table on 5 September 2014 and there are no known possible impact dates in the next 100 years.[6]

Contents

2014 approachEdit

It made a close approach to Earth of 0.000267 AU (39,900 km; 24,800 mi) (0.1 lunar distances) around 18:02 UTC on 7 September 2014.[3][7][8] The asteroid briefly brightened to about apparent magnitude 11.5,[9] but it was still not visible to the naked eye or common binoculars. At the peak brightness the asteroid had a declination of –47,[9] and was most easily visible over New Zealand. During 2014, asteroids 2014 AA and 2014 LY21 have come closer to Earth.

Asteroid 2014 RC[8]
Path around the Sun - 3 September 2014.
Path near the Earth - 7 September 2014.

The Managua explosion on 6 September 2014 may or may not have been created by a bolide that was missed by millions of people, but either way it was not caused by the close approach of 2014 RC.[4]

Orbital shiftEdit

During the 2014 Earth close approach the orbital period of 2014 RC was reduced from 600 days to 549 days.[10] The orbital eccentricity decreased while the orbital inclination increased.

Parameter Epoch Aphelion
(Q)
Perihelion
(q)
Semi-major axis
(a)
Eccentricity
(e)
Period
(p)
Inclination
(i)
Longitude ascending node
(Ω)
Mean anomaly
(M)
Argument of perihelion
(ω)
Units AU (days) (°)
Pre-flyby 2014-Sep-01 1.9488 0.8344 1.3916 0.4004 599.62 1.4395° 345.48° 326.12° 65.879°
flyby 2014-Sep-07 18:02 UTC 2.0284 0.8150 1.4217 0.4267 619.17 1.4217° 345.09° 330.91° 68.602°
Post-flyby 2014-Oct-01 1.8042 0.8207 1.3124 0.3747 549.18 4.5744° 345.01° 340.41° 71.187°

Close-approach tableEdit

Object Date Date error (hours) nominal distance (AU) nominal distance (LD) minimum distance (AU) minimum distance (LD) apparent magnitude (V)
Earth 1945/09/06 05:53 47.16 0.00442 1.72 0.00101 0.39 17.3
Moon 1945/09/06 14:33 52.48 0.00508 1.98 0.00103 0.40 -
Mars 1957/10/09 13:55 5.40 0.06371 24.78 0.05267 20.49 -
Earth 1973/09/05 21:42 0.62 0.01169 4.55 0.01089 4.24 19.3
Earth 1987/01/17 01:02 0.30 0.03724 14.49 0.03686 14.34 22.4
Earth 1991/09/27 05:38 1.03 0.09911 38.55 0.09878 38.43 27.0
Mars 1999/09/22 14:00 <0.01 0.03739 14.54 0.03712 14.44 -
Earth 2009/12/30 13:10 0.28 0.08634 33.59 0.08622 33.54 26.0
Moon 2014/09/07 08:47 <0.01 0.000845 0.329 0.000845 0.329 -
Earth 2014/09/07 18:02 <0.01 0.000267 0.104 0.000267 0.104 15.9
Earth 2017/09/11 13:50 0.15 0.03864 15.03 0.03850 14.98 23.3
Earth 2020/09/22 21:24 0.35 0.09908 38.54 0.09893 38.48 26.1
Earth 2039/01/21 23:38 0.13 0.06224 24.21 0.06215 24.18 24.0
Earth 2042/01/27 18:19 0.10 0.06322 24.59 0.06313 24.56 23.6
Earth 2109/09/01 16:27 0.07 0.09959 38.74 0.09945 38.69 24.7
Earth 2112/09/06 21:13 0.08 0.02253 8.76 0.02241 8.72 21.1
Moon 2115/09/08 19:11 0.15 0.00558 2.17 0.005350 2.08 -
Earth 2115/09/08 22:50 0.17 0.00785 3.05 0.00763 2.97 18.5
Mars 2140/10/13 22:42 2.85 0.07152 27.82 0.05471 21.28 -
Earth 2159/02/02 22:17 16.90 0.08084 31.45 0.05563 21.64 24.2
Earth 2162/01/19 14:04 38.85 0.09376 36.47 0.07273 28.29 25.2
Earth 2170/09/19 02:08 9.12 0.07413 28.84 0.06707 26.09 25.1
Earth 2173/09/04 16:52 1.38 0.06123 23.82 0.05950 23.15 23.5

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "MPEC 2014-R23 : 2014 RC". IAU Minor Planet Center. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014. (K14R00C)
  2. ^ "MPEC 2014-R26 : 2014 RC". IAU Minor Planet Center. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2014 RC)" (last observation: 7 September 2014; arc: 18 days). Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Reports of Meteorite Strike in Nicaragua and Update on Asteroid 2014 RC". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  5. ^ a b "JPL - Absolute Magnitude". NASA. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  6. ^ "Date/Time Removed". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  7. ^ "NASA reports asteroid to pass close, but safely past Earth". clarksvilleonline.com. Clarksville Online. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  8. ^ a b Agle, DC; Brown, Dwayne (3 September 2014). "Small Asteroid to Safely Pass Close to Earth Sunday". NASA. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  9. ^ a b "2014RC Ephemerides for 7 September 2014". NEODyS (Near Earth Objects – Dynamic Site). Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  10. ^ Horizons output. "Horizon Online Ephemeris System". Retrieved 7 September 2014. ("Ephemeris Type: Elements" PR value)

External linksEdit