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2014 JO25 is a near-Earth asteroid. It was discovered in May 2014 by astronomers at the Catalina Sky Survey near Tucson, Arizona - a project of NASA's NEO (Near Earth Object) Observations Program in collaboration with the University of Arizona.

2014 JO25
PIA21597 - New Radar Images of Asteroid 2014 JO25 (cropped).gif
Radar image of 2014 JO25 taken at Goldstone on 19 Apr 2017
Discovery [1]
Discovered byMount Lemmon Srvy.
Discovery siteMount Lemmon Obs.
(first observation only)
Discovery date5 May 2014
Designations
MPC designation2014 JO25
NEO · Apollo · PHA[1][2]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc6.02 yr (2,200 days)
Aphelion3.8996 AU
Perihelion0.2364 AU
2.0680 AU
Eccentricity0.8857
2.97 yr (1,086 days)
125.06°
0° 19m 53.04s / day
Inclination25.261°
30.637°
49.571°
Earth MOID0.0110 AU (4.3 LD)
Mercury MOID0.0210 AU[2]
Venus MOID0.0412 AU[2]
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
0.72 km (est. at 0.20)[3]
0.818 km (calculated)[4]
4.531 h[4]
0.20 (assumed)[4]
S (assumed)[4]
17.8[4] · 18.1[1]

Contents

Orbit and classificationEdit

2014 JO25 belongs to the Apollo asteroids, which cross the orbit of Earth. Apollos are the largest group of near-Earth objects with nearly 10 thousand known members. It is also a potentially hazardous asteroid due to its sufficiently large size (an absolute magnitude brighter than 22), and its Earth-MOID (see below) of less than 0.05 AU.

It orbits the Sun at a distance of 0.25–3.90 AU once every 3 years (1,086 days; semi-major axis of 2.07 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.89 and an inclination of 25° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] This makes it also a Venus- and Mercury-crossing asteroid.

The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken by Pan-STARRS in May 2011, or 3 years prior to its official first observation at Mount Lemmon.[2]

Close approachesEdit

This asteroid has a minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) with Earth of 1,650,000 km; 1,020,000 mi (0.0110 AU), which translates into 4.3 lunar distances.[1]

2017 Earth flybyEdit

2014 JO25 made a close flyby of Earth on 19 April 2017, and at its closest approach on that date came within 1.8 million kilometers (1.1 million miles) of the planet. It reached an apparent magnitude of 10.76.

The 2017-flyby within a distance of 1.8 million kilometers was the closest approach to Earth by 2014 JO25 for at least the next 400 years.[5]

History of close approaches of large near-Earth objects since 1908 (A)
PHA Date Approach distance (lunar dist.) Abs.
mag

(H)
Diameter (C)
(m)
Ref (D)
Nomi-
nal(B)
Mini-
mum
Maxi-
mum
(33342) 1998 WT24 1908-12-16 3.542 3.537 3.547 17.9 556–1795 data
(458732) 2011 MD5 1918-09-17 0.911 0.909 0.913 17.9 556–1795 data
(7482) 1994 PC1 1933-01-17 2.927 2.927 2.928 16.8 749–1357 data
69230 Hermes 1937-10-30 1.926 1.926 1.927 17.5 668–2158 data
69230 Hermes 1942-04-26 1.651 1.651 1.651 17.5 668–2158 data
(137108) 1999 AN10 1946-08-07 2.432 2.429 2.435 17.9 556–1795 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 1956-12-16 3.523 3.523 3.523 17.9 556–1795 data
(163243) 2002 FB3 1961-04-12 4.903 4.900 4.906 16.4 1669–1695 data
(192642) 1999 RD32 1969-08-27 3.627 3.625 3.630 16.3 1161–3750 data
(143651) 2003 QO104 1981-05-18 2.761 2.760 2.761 16.0 1333–4306 data
2017 CH1 1992-06-05 4.691 3.391 6.037 17.9 556–1795 data
(170086) 2002 XR14 1995-06-24 4.259 4.259 4.260 18.0 531–1714 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 2001-12-16 4.859 4.859 4.859 17.9 556–1795 data
4179 Toutatis 2004-09-29 4.031 4.031 4.031 15.30 2440–2450 data
2014 JO25 2017-04-19 4.573 4.573 4.573 17.8 582–1879 data
(137108) 1999 AN10 2027-08-07 1.014 1.010 1.019 17.9 556–1795 data
(35396) 1997 XF11 2028-10-26 2.417 2.417 2.418 16.9 881–2845 data
(154276) 2002 SY50 2071-10-30 3.415 3.412 3.418 17.6 714–1406 data
(164121) 2003 YT1 2073-04-29 4.409 4.409 4.409 16.2 1167–2267 data
(385343) 2002 LV 2076-08-04 4.184 4.183 4.185 16.6 1011–3266 data
(52768) 1998 OR2 2079-04-16 4.611 4.611 4.612 15.8 1462–4721 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 2099-12-18 4.919 4.919 4.919 17.9 556–1795 data
(85182) 1991 AQ 2130-01-27 4.140 4.139 4.141 17.1 1100 data
314082 Dryope 2186-07-16 3.709 2.996 4.786 17.5 668–2158 data
(137126) 1999 CF9 2192-08-21 4.970 4.967 4.973 18.0 531–1714 data
(290772) 2005 VC 2198-05-05 1.951 1.791 2.134 17.6 638–2061 data
(A) List includes near-Earth approaches of less than 5 lunar distances (LD) of objects with H brighter than 18.
(B) Nominal geocentric distance from the Earth's center to the object's center (earth radius≈6400 km).
(C) Diameter: estimated, theoretical mean-diameter based on H and albedo range between X and Y.
(D) Reference: data source from the JPL SBDB, with AU converted into LD (1 AU≈390 LD)
(E) Color codes:   unobserved at close approach   observed during close approach   upcoming approaches

Physical characteristicsEdit

2014 JO25 is a peanut-shaped contact binary asteroid. It is an assumed stony S-type asteroid.[4]

Diameter and albedoEdit

Early estimation based on observed absolute magnitude and estimated albedo indicates object 600–1400 meters (m) in diameter. In 2014, further research based on NEOWISE data indicated an object of 650 m in diameter and albedo 0.25.[6]

Based on a generic magnitude-to-mean-diameter conversion, 2014 JO25 measures approximately 720 m in diameter, using an absolute magnitude of 18.1 and assuming an albedo of 0.20, which is typical for stony asteroids.[3] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 818 meters based on an absolute magnitude of 17.8.[4]

Observation of the asteroid with the Goldstone Solar System Radar were performed between April 15 and 21, 2017 by Arecibo Observatory and Goldstone Solar System Radar. Results show that the largest dimension of this contact binary is at least 870 meters.[4][7]

Rotation periodEdit

The 2017 radiometric observations at Arecibo and Goldstone also gave a rotation period of approximately 4.5 hours.[7] Also in April 2017, a rotational lightcurve of this asteroid was obtained from photometric observations by Brian Warner at the Palmer Divide Station (U82) in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a refined period of 4.531 hours with a brightness amplitude between 0.14 and 0.64 magnitude (U=n.a.).[8]

Numbering and namingEdit

As of 2018, this minor planet has not been numbered or named.[2]

GalleryEdit

Radar images of the asteroid were taken on 18 April 2017 by the Goldstone Solar System Radar:

In ContextEdit

2014 JO25 on a graph plotting the closest flyby distance to Earth and size of NEOs in 2017.

 
JO25 is located in the upper right of the chart.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2014 JO25)" (2017-05-24 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e "2014 JO25". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Asteroid Size Estimator". CNEOS NASA/JPL. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for 2014 JO25". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  5. ^ http://earthsky.org/astronomy-essentials/large-asteroid-2014-jo25-close-april-19-2017-how-to-see
  6. ^ https://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2014JO25/2014JO25_planning.html
  7. ^ a b "Planetary Radar Science Group". National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC). Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  8. ^ Warner, Brian D. (October 2017). "Lightcurve Analysis of Two Near-Earth Asteroids: 2010 VB1 and 2014 JO25". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 44 (4): 327–330. Bibcode:2017MPBu...44..327W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 21 February 2018.

External linksEdit