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Local elections was held in Manila on May 13, 2013 within the Philippine general election. The voters elected for the elective local posts in the city: the mayor, vice mayor, the six congressmen, and the councilors, six in each of the city's six legislative districts.

2013 Manila mayoral election
Ph seal ncr manila.png
← 2010 May 13, 2013 (2013-05-13) 2016 →
  JosephEstradajf1486.JPG Alfredo Lim at Mendiola.jpg
Nominee Joseph Estrada Alfredo Lim
Party UNA Liberal
Running mate Isko Moreno Lou Veloso
Popular vote 343,993 308,544
Percentage 52.72 47.28

Mayor before election

Alfredo Lim

Elected Mayor

Joseph Estrada

Mayor Alfredo Lim is running for the mayorship for the third consecutive time; if he wins, he will be prohibited to run in 2016 due to term limits. Lim's opponent is former senator, vice president, deposed president then convicted plunderer and defeated 2010 presidential candidate, Joseph Estrada, who was a longtime San Juan mayor; in order to run for the mayorship, Estrada had to transfer his residence from San Juan to Manila. The two formerly contested the presidency in 1998, with Estrada emerging victorious.

Estrada's running mate is Vice Mayor Isko Moreno, who has served since 2007; if he wins, he will also be term limited in 2016. Actor and Councilor Lou Veloso is Lim's running mate; Veloso was the councilor elected with the highest percentage of votes in 2010.


Mayoral and vice mayoral electionEdit

On May 4, 2012, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno joined the Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino party, fueling speculations that he would be former President Joseph Estrada's running mate.[1] Estrada would confirm this on May 9, 2012 but, for one term only.[2] On May 7, 2012, Incumbent Mayor Alfredo Lim announced he will run for re-election and said that Moreno was his original running mate.[3]

A year prior to the election, Estrada transferred his residence from San Juan to Santa Mesa, Manila; this was made official by the Manila City Hall. Estrada's Manila home was formerly the headquarters of President Ramon Magsaysay during the 1953 presidential election.[4]

On September 18, 2012, Lim announced that he has picked 6th District Councilor Lou Veloso to be his running mate. Lim noted that Veloso is the councilor that emerged with the most votes in the last local elections.[5]

On October 1, 2012, during the first day of filing of certificate of candidacies,[6] Lim and Veloso, along with their ticket's 36 city council bets, filed their certificate of candidacies at the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) field office in Arroceros, Manila. Lim is supported by all but one of the incumbent congressmen of Manila - Benjamin Asilo of the 1st District, Carlo Lopez of the 2nd District, Zenaida Angping of the 3rd District, Trisha Bonoan-David of the 4th District, and Sandy Ocampo of the 6th District.[7] 5th District Representative Amado Bagatsing originally supported him but endorsed Estrada instead.[8] Lim also said that his 2013 campaign will be his last as he intends to retire from politics in 2016. He had previously served as mayor from 1992 to 1998, Secretary of Interior and Local Government under Estrada from 2000 to 2001, lost the mayorship to Estrada ally Lito Atienza in 2001, elected Senator in 2004 under the Estrada-backed Koalisyon ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino, and retook the mayorship from Atienza's son Ali in 2007, then successfully defending it against Atienza himself in 2010.[9]

A day later, Estrada and Moreno filed their certificate of candidacies. Estrada left his home at Santa Mesa with Moreno aboard his jeepney he made famous during the 1998 presidential election. Estrada drove the jeepney to the COMELEC office at Arroceros; the United Nationalist Alliance-backed Estrada ticket includes 29 of the incumbent 36 councilors.[10] The contest between Lim and Estrada has been billed by many as "Dirty Harry vs. Asiong Salonga", with Lim being previously referred to as "Dirty Harry", and Estrada having played Asiong Salonga in a movie.[4][11]

Aside from Lim and Estrada, other candidates include Marino Magallanes, a fortune teller from Quiapo, mechanical engineer and perennial candidate Onofre Abad, lawyer Felix Cantal, Samuel Gabot, Rodolfo Lim and driver Fidel Cruz.

On January 7, 2013, the Sandiganbayan ruled to dismiss via technicality a petition disqualifying Estrada from running due to a condition from his pardon granted by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo that said he would not seek elective office.[12] However, he faced other disqualification cases from the same issue at the Commission on Elections and at the Regional Trial Court.[13]

On January 16, the commission disqualified all of the mayoral candidates, save for Estrada and Lim, and declared them as "nuisance candidates."[14]

The two camps signed a covenant for peaceful elections at the Manila Police District headquarters on February 15, 2013. Commission on Elections chairman Sixto Brillantes and Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting chairman Henrietta de Villa witnessed the signing, which were also attended by the rest of the slates, including their running mates.[15] A day later, the police arrested Moreno and five other UNA candidates for the city council for alleged illegal gambling. Estrada later said he may file charges against the police who arrested his running mate.[16] The police arrested the group after they proceeded to hold a bingo game, which the police had said to be illegal, after promising they would hold a raffle instead. Moreno and the other candidates were freed after the Manila Prosecutor's Office ruled that there was not enough evidence to prolong their detention. Moreno maintained that the bingo game is not illegal after President Ferdinand Marcos classified it as a parlor game.[17] Brillantes later said that Moreno's group did not violate any election law when they held a bingo game as the campaign period for local elections has not yet started.[18]

The Manila Regional Trial Court dismissed another disqualification case against Estrada on March 4. Judge Marivic Umali heeded Estrada's lawyer Frank Chavez that the Commission on Elections and not the court had jurisdiction on the case. On April 1, the commission dismissed Estrada's last disqualification case.[19]

Opinion pollingEdit

Mayoral electionEdit

Three-candidate raceEdit

Pollster Date(s) administered Sample size Margin of error Lito Atienza Joseph Estrada Alfredo Lim
SWS[20] May 5–8, 2012 1,200 ±3% 11% 46% 42%

Two-candidate raceEdit

Pollster Date(s) administered Sample size Margin of error Joseph Estrada Alfredo Lim
SWS[20] May 5–8, 2012 1,200 ±3% 53% 45%


Position Liberal Party-Kapayapaan, Kaunlaran at Katarungan (KKK) Coalition United Nationalist Alliance Other parties Independents
Mayor Liberal Alfredo Lim UNA Joseph Estrada
Vice Mayor Liberal Lou Veloso UNA Isko Moreno
Member of the House of Representatives 1st Liberal Benjamin Asilo UNA Ernesto Dionisio Ricardo Bacolod
Fernando Diaz
2nd Liberal Carlo Lopez UNA Edward Tan
3rd NPC Zenaida Angping KKK Ramon Morales Alex Garcia
4th NUP Trisha Bonoan-David
5th NPC Faith Maganto KABAKA Amado Bagatsing KBL Alex Cayabyab
6th Liberal Rosenda Ocampo UNA Benny Abante Richard Bautista
Francisco Candaza
Member of the Manila City Council 1st Liberal
  • Roberto Asilo
  • Niño Dela Cruz
  • Silvestre Dumagat, Jr.
  • Moises Lim
  • Rolando Sy
  • Joey Venancio
  • Dennis Alcoreza
  • Irma Alfonso
  • Ernesto Dionisio, Jr.
  • Jesus Fajardo
  • Arlene Koa
  • Erick Ian Nieva
  • Roberto Garrate
  • Rejercito Aranas
  • Crispin Balbeja
  • Eduardo Lanuza
  • Joey Longanilla
  • Alden Obejas
  • Cristy Lim
  • Ferdinand Sandoval
2nd Liberal
  • Ruben "RP" Bunag
  • Rodolfo Lacsamana
  • Fernando Lopez
  • Ma. Corazon Panlilio
  • Renato Torno, Jr.
  • Ivy Varona
  • Filomena Aligayo
  • Ruben "Dr. J" Buenaventura
  • Marlon Lacson
  • Numero "Uno" Lim
  • Ramon Robles
  • Rolan Valeriano
  • Renato del Rosario
  • Pedro Buluran, Jr.
  • Ariel Fernandez
3rd Liberal
  • Jesus Abejar
  • Ma. Victoria Barbers
  • Jackson Dechaves
  • Thelma Lim
  • William Lising
  • Severino Reyes
  • Rosalinda Sia
  • Alberto Chico
  • Anthony de Guzman
  • Martin Domingo
4th Liberal
  • Krystle Bacani
  • Anton Capistrano
  • Guia Gomez Castro
  • Gerardo Gamez
  • Eldorado Lim
  • Eduardo Quintos XVI
  • Don Juan "DJ" Bagatsing
  • Arlene Chua
  • Edward Maceda
  • Arnold Pangan
  • Jocelyn Quintos
  • Joel "JTV" Villanueva
  • Rosauro David
  • Antonio Abana
  • Frederick Constantino
  • Alexander Lim
  • Science Reyes
  • Vicente Salgado
  • Amalia Tolentino
5th Liberal
  • Jaime Co, Jr.
  • Geoffrey dela Torre
  • Saminodin Manshawie
  • Fernando Perito
  • Josefina Siscar
  • Francis Villegas
  • Rafael Borromeo
  • Richard Ibay
  • Cristina Isip
  • Roberto Ortega, Jr.
  • Roderick Valbuena
  • Raymundo Yupangco
  • Jose Antonio Dimaano
  • Jaime Adriano
  • Darwin Borca
  • Eva Cantilang
  • Reginaldo Capili
  • Felix Tobillo, Jr.
  • Wilfredo Vida
  • Marlon Villarojas
  • Joey Hizon III
6th Liberal
  • Romualdo Billanes
  • Dionisio Cuevas II
  • Richard Lontoc
  • Pablo Dario Ocampo
  • Jimmy Tiu
  • Christian Paul Uy
  • Jocelyn Dawis-Asuncion
  • Leilani Marie Lacuna
  • Elizabeth Rivera
  • Casimiro Sison
  • Jason Roland Valdez
Asenso Manileño
  • George Planas
  • Priscilla Marie Abante
  • Carlos Castañeda
  • Segundina Jamias
  • Julio Logarta, Jr.
  • Joel Par (UNA guest)
  • Edward Quintos
  • Valeriano Reloj
  • Ma. Lourdes "Bonjay" Isip-Garcia
  • Regina Aspiras


Mayoral electionEdit

Alfredo Lim is the incumbent.

2013 Manila mayoral election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
UNA Joseph Estrada 343,993 52.72 +21.51
Liberal Alfredo Lim 308,544 47.28 −20.94
Margin of victory 35,449 5.43 −42.45
UNA gain from Liberal Swing +21.23


  • Estrada's change is compared from Lito Atienza's votes, who appeared independent on the ballot but was belatedly nominated by Estrada's Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (PMP). The PMP would later merge with PDP-Laban to form UNA.
  • Lim also ran as part of the united ticket of his local party KKK and of the Liberal Party in 2010.

Vice mayoral electionEdit

Isko Moreno (appearing as "Francisco Domagoso", his birth name, on the ballot) is the incumbent.

2013 Manila vice mayoral election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
UNA Isko Moreno 395,156 62.78 −17.08
Liberal Lou Veloso 234,256 37.22 +37.22
Margin of victory 160,900 25.56 −54.29
UNA hold Swing +27.15


  • Moreno was Lim's running mate in 2010 but ran under the Nacionalista Party instead of under Lim's KKK/Liberal ticket. The change is compared from Moreno's votes in 2010.
  • The Liberal Party did not name a nominee in the 2010 vice mayoral election, hence there's nothing to compare it with.

House of Representatives electionsEdit

1st DistrictEdit

Benjamin Asilo is the incumbent.

2013 Philippine House of Representatives election at Manila's 1st district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Benjamin Asilo 82,579
UNA Ernesto Dionisio, Sr. 44,420
Independent Fernando Diaz 2,243
Independent Ricardo Bacolod 573
Margin of victory
Rejected ballots

2nd DistrictEdit

Carlo Lopez is the incumbent.

2013 Philippine House of Representatives election at Manila's 2nd district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Carlo Lopez 55,468 68.82 +13.32
UNA Edward Tan 25,128 31.18 +31.18
Margin of victory 30,340 37.64 +25.35
Liberal hold Swing +22.25

3rd DistrictEdit

Zenaida Angping is the incumbent. She is a common candidate of the LP-KKK and UNA tickets.

The Commission on Elections disqualified James Jaime Marquez Tan from the election for being a "nuisance candidate".[21]

2013 Philippine House of Representatives election at Manila's 3rd district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
NPC Zenaida Angping 50,466 62.18 +1.88
KKK Ramon Morales 29,606 36.48 +36.48
Independent Alex Garcia 1,091 1.34 +1.34
Margin of victory 20,860 25.70 −1.34
Rejected ballots 7,352 8.31 +2.31
Turnout 88,515 {{{change}}}
NPC hold

4th DistrictEdit

Incumbent Trisha Bonoan-David is running unopposed. Like Zenaida Angping, she is also a common candidate of LP-KKK and UNA.

2013 Philippine House of Representatives election at Manila's 4th district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
NUP Trisha Bonoan-David 78,026 100.00 +44.87
Margin of victory 78,026 100.00 +89.74
Rejected ballots
NUP hold Swing +44.87

5th DistrictEdit

Amado Bagatsing is the incumbent.

2013 Philippine House of Representatives election at Manila's 5th district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
KABAKA Amado Bagatsing 94,966 89.05 +30.01
NPC Faith Maganto 10,380 9.73 +9.73
KBL Mario Cayabyab 1,293 1.21 +1.21
Margin of victory 84,586 79.32 +60.19
Rejected ballots 11,157 9.47 +2.39
Turnout 117,796 100 {{{change}}}
Kabalikat ng Bayan sa Kaunlaran hold Swing {{{swing}}}

6th DistrictEdit

Rosenda Ocampo is the incumbent and her main opponent is former Congressman Bienvenido Abante.

2013 Philippine House of Representatives election at Manila's 6th district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Rosenda Ocampo 43,667
UNA Bienvenido Abante 40,571
Independent Richard Bautista 407
Independent Francisco Candaza 225
Margin of victory
Rejected ballots

City Council electionsEdit

Each of Manila's six legislative districts sends six councilors to the City Council. The election is via plurality-at-large voting: A voter can vote up to six candidates; the six candidates with the highest number of votes in a particular district are elected.

In addition, the barangay captains and the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) chairpersons in the city's barangays (communities) elect amongst themselves a president that will seat as an ex officio member of the city council with full voting powers. The presidents of the barangay captains and SK chairpersons that were elected after the 2010 barangay elections will serve until the winners of the 2013 barangay elections are seated in late November.

In case of a tie vote, the vice mayor, as the presiding officer, will vote to break the tie.


Party Mayoral/vice
mayoral candidate
Total votes Total seats
Total % Total %
UNA Joseph Estrada 1,592,479 53.48% 25 65.8%
Liberal Alfredo Lim 866,047 29.09% 6 15.8%
Nacionalista none 94,890 3.19% 1 2.6%
KABAKA Joseph Estrada 70,529 2.37% 1 2.6%
DPP none 10,600 0.36% 0 0.0%
KKK Alfredo Lim 4,860 0.16% 0 0.0%
KBL none 1,563 0.05% 0 0.0%
Asenso Manileño Joseph Estrada 1,467 0.05% 0 0.0%
Independent various 335,011 11.25% 3 7.9%
Total valid votes cast N/A
Total turnout 100.00%
Total partisan seats 36 94.7%
Seat for Association of Barangay Captains President 1 2.6%
Seat for Association of Sangguniang Kabataan chairmen President 1 2.6%
Total non-partisan seats 2 5.3%
Total seats 38 100.0%

1st District[22]Edit

It is composed of Tondo.

2013 Manila City Council election at the 1st district
Party Candidate Votes %
UNA Ernesto Dionisio, Jr. 76,946 12.05
UNA Erick Ian "Banzai" Nieva 70,925 11.10
Liberal Roberto Asilo 60,623 9.49
Liberal Niño Dela Cruz 59,768 9.36
UNA Dennis Alcoreza 59,309 9.29
UNA Irma Alfonso 54,619 8.55
UNA Jesus Fajardo 51,821 8.11
Liberal Moises "Bobby" Lim 46,043 7.21
UNA Arlene Koa 35,874 5.62
Independent Cristina "Cristy Lim" Lim-Raymundo 34,379 5.38
Liberal Rolando Sy 33,908 5.31
Liberal Joey Venancio 24,915 3.90
Liberal Silvestre Dumagat, Jr. 14,534 2.28
Independent Ferdinand Sandoval 5,462 0.86
Independent Rejercito Aranas 3,314 0.52
DPP Roberto Garrate 2,028 0.32
Independent Eduardo Lanuza 1,237 0.19
Independent Crispin Balbeja 1,113 0.17
Independent Joey Longanilla 1,099 0.17
Independent Alden Obejas 814 0.13

Raffy Jimenez Crespo, son of former representative Mark Jimenez, was disqualified from this election.[23]

Cristy Lim is a guest candidate of the LP-KKK coalition.

2nd DistrictEdit

Gagalangin area which is also part of Tondo.

2013 Manila City Council election at the 2nd district
Party Candidate Votes %
UNA Rolando Valeriano 46,600 12.61
UNA Ruben "Dr. J" Buenaventura 44,984 12.17
UNA Marlon Lacson 44,282 11.98
UNA Ramon Robles 41,532 11.24
Liberal Rodolfo "Ninong" Lacsamana 37,365 10.11
UNA Numero "Uno" Lim 35,674 9.65
Liberal Ivy Varona 24,059 6.51
Liberal Ruben "RP" Bunag 20,661 5.59
Liberal Renato "Gulay" Torno, Jr. 19,708 5.33
UNA Filomena "Len Viceo" Aligayo 18,851 5.10
Liberal Fernando Lopez 13,377 3.62
Liberal Ma. Corazon Panlilio 12,060 3.26
Independent Ariel Fernandez 6,773 1.83
Independent Pedro Buluran, Jr. 1,980 0.54
DPP Renato del Rosario 1,755 0.47

3rd DistrictEdit

It composed of Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz

2013 Manila City Council election at the 3rd district
Party Candidate Votes %
UNA John Marvin "Yul Servo" Nieto 61,028
UNA Ma. Asuncion "Re" Fugoso 56,920
UNA Joel Chua 51,603
UNA Bernardito Ang 50,218
UNA Ernesto Isip, Jr. 50,107
UNA Manuel Zarcal 47,448
Liberal Thelma Lim 38,396
Liberal Ma. Victoria Barbers 19,756
Liberal William Lising 14,304
Liberal Severino Reyes 10,666
Liberal Jackson Dechaves 7,371
Liberal Jesus Abejar 7,283
DPP Rosalinda Sia 5,446
Independent Martin Domingo 3,945
Independent Anthony de Guzman 3,504
Independent Alberto Chico 2,777

4th DistrictEdit

It is situated in Sampaloc. No. 6 Arlene Chua's term was cut short because of citizenship issues and was declared ineligible for office by COMELEC. 7th placer Krystle Bacani assumed office on March 17, 2015.

2013 Manila City Council election at the 4th district
Party Candidate Votes %
Independent Science Reyes 47,179
UNA Edward Maceda 43,661
UNA Don Juan "DJ" Bagatsing 41,926
UNA Jocelyn Quintos 40,214
Liberal Anton Capistrano 40,117
UNA Arlene Chua (disqualified) 38,165
Liberal Krystle Bacani 36,799
UNA Arnold "Doc Poks" Pangan 34,160
Liberal Guia Gomez Castro 31,592
Nacionalista Gina Perez 30,177
Liberal Eduardo Quintos XVI 26,111
Liberal Eldorado Lim 22,839
UNA Joel "JTV" Villanueva 19,065
Liberal Gerardo Gamez 18,339
Independent Amalia Tolentino 14,135
Independent Alexander Lim 2,233
Independent Antonio Abana 2,181
Independent Vicente Salgado 1,648
Independent Frederick Constantino 1,437

5th DistrictEdit

2013 Manila City Council election at the 5th district
Party Candidate Votes %
KABAKA Arnold "Ali" Atienza 70,529
Nacionalista Joey Hizon III 64,713
Liberal Josefina Siscar 56,574
UNA Raymundo Yupangco 55,418
UNA Cristina Isip 55,015
UNA Roberto Ortega, Jr. 54,709
UNA Richard Ibay 49,077
UNA Rafael Borromeo 42,693
UNA Roderick Valbuena 35,430
Liberal Francis Villegas 15,636
Liberal Jaime Co, Jr. 15,558
Independent Felix Tobillo, Jr. 11,504
Liberal Geoffrey "Jograd" dela Torre 11,365
Liberal Saminodin Manshawie 7,612
Liberal Fernando Perito 4,421
Independent Reginaldo Capili 3,581
Independent Jaime Adriano 3,452
Independent Eva Cantilang 2,733
Independent Darwin Borca 1,580
KBL Marlon Villarojas 1,563
Independent Wilfredo Vida 1,414
DPP Jose Antonio Dimaano 1,371

6th DistrictEdit

2013 Manila City Council election at the 6th district
Party Candidate Votes %
UNA Priscilla Marie Abante 48,372
UNA Casimiro Sison 45,985
UNA Elizabeth Rivera 44,001
UNA Joel Par 42,576
UNA Leilani Marie Lacuna 41,141
Liberal Christian Paul Uy 39,968
UNA Carlos Castañeda 39,334
UNA Jocelyn Dawis-Asuncion 32,711
PDP-Laban Ma. Lourdes "Bonjay" Isip-Garcia 29,278
Liberal Pablo Dario Ocampo IV 26,439
UNA Jason Roland Valdez 20,367
Liberal Richard Lontoc 16,280
Liberal Dionisio Cuevas II 12,219
Liberal Jimmy Tiu 11,902
Independent Julio Logarta, Jr. 8,821
Liberal Romualdo Billanes 7,479
KKK Regina Aspiras 4,860
Independent Valeriano Reloj 3,137
Independent Edward Quintos 2,786
AMM George Planas 1,467
Independent Segundina Jamias 1,233

Joel Par is a guest candidate of UNA.


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  2. ^ GMA News Online (2012-05-09). "Joseph Estrada to run for Manila mayor but for one term only". GMA News Online. Retrieved 2012-09-03.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ Jeff Canoy (2012-05-03). "Alfredo Lim: I'm running for re-election". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2012-05-07.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b Araneta, Sandy (2012-05-11). "Erap now an official resident, voter of Manila". Philippine Star. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
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  6. ^ Gretchen Malalad (2012-09-30). "Filing of COCs to start on Monday". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2012-10-01.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ Emmanuel Louis Bacani (2012-10-01). "Manila mayor Alfredo Lim files COC". Retrieved 2012-10-01.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Jerald Uy (2013-03-15). "Veteran Manila pols endorse Erap-Isko". Retrieved 2013-04-14.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Romero, Purple (2012-10-01). "'Dirty Harry' files COC, says will retire in 2016". Retrieved 2012-10-08.
  10. ^ "Erap files bid for Manila's top post". Philippine Star. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
  11. ^ Sauler, Erika (2012-10-04). "Fortune teller, driver, engineer also vie for Manila mayorship". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
  12. ^ "Sandigan scraps bid to disqualify Erap from Manila mayoralty race". GMA News Online. 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
  13. ^ Sauler, Erika (2013-01-10). "Another disqualification case haunts Joseph Estrada". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
  14. ^ Santos, Reynaldo Jr. (2013-01-16). "Comelec disqualifies 73 local bets". Rappler. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
  15. ^ Cancel, Fatima Cielo B. (2013-02-16). "Lim, Erap sign covenant for peaceful Manila elections". Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  16. ^ "Manila vice mayor, 5 councilors 'arrested' for illegal gambling". GMA News Online. 2013-02-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  17. ^ Sauler, Erika (2013-02-17). "Isko, 4 city councilors freed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  18. ^ Placido, Dharel (2013-02-18). "Comelec: Isko, et al didn't violate poll laws". Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  19. ^ Patria, Kim (2013-04-02). "It's a full go for Erap as Comelec junks last disqualification case". Retrieved 2013-04-14.
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  23. ^ Philippine Daily Inquirer: Comelec disqualifies 63 nuisance candidates