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2013 Japanese House of Councillors election

The 23rd Elections to the House of Councillors (第23回参議院議員通常選挙, Dainijūsankai Sangiingiin Tsūjōsenkyo, "23rd regular/ordinary election of members of the House of Councillors") for the upper house of the National Diet, the legislature of Japan, was held on July 21, 2013. In the last election in 2010, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) remained the largest party, but the DPJ-led ruling coalition lost its majority. The House of Councillors is elected by halves to six year terms. In 2013, the class of Councillors elected in 2007 was up.

2013 Japanese House of Councillors election

← 2010 July 21, 2013 2016 →

121 (of the 242) seats in the House of Councillors
122 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Shinzo Abe cropped.JPG Banri Kaieda 201106.jpg Natsuo Yamaguchi-1.jpg
Leader Shinzō Abe Banri Kaieda Natsuo Yamaguchi
Party Liberal Democratic Democratic Komeito
Leader since 26 September 2012 25 December 2012 8 September 2009
Last election 84 seats, 24.07% 106 seats, 31.56% 19 seats, 13.07%
Seats after 115 59 20
Seat change Increase31 Decrease27 Increase1
Popular vote 18,460,404 7,134,215 7,568,082
Percentage 34.68% 13.40% 14.22%
Swing Increase10.61% Decrease18.16% Increase1.15%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Yoshimi Watanabe cropped.jpg Kazuo Shii cropped.jpg Ishihara Shintaro 1-1.jpg
Leader Yoshimi Watanabe Kazuo Shii Shintaro Ishihara
Party Your Communist Restoration
Leader since 8 August 2009 24 November 2000 17 November 2012
Last election 11 seats, 13.59% 6 seats, 6.10% New party
Seats after 18 11 9
Seat change Increase5 Increase5 Increase7
Popular vote 4,755,160 3,563,556 6,355,299
Percentage 8.93% 9.68% 11.94%
Swing Decrease4.66% Increase3.58% N/A

  Seventh party Eighth party
  Mizuho Fukushima cropped.jpg Ichiro Ozawa cropped 3 Yoshitaka Kimoto and Ichiro Ozawa 20010718.jpg
Leader Mizuho Fukushima Ichirō Ozawa
Party Social Democratic People's Life
Leader since 15 November 2003 25 January 2013
Last election 5 seats, 3.84% New party
Seats after 3 2
Seat change Decrease1 Decrease6
Popular vote 1,255,235 943,836
Percentage 2.36% 1.77%
Swing Decrease1.48% N/A

JapanCE2013.svg
Seats won by parties

President of the House of Councillors before election

Kenji Hirata
Democratic

Elected President of the House of Councillors

Masaaki Yamazaki
Liberal Democratic

BackgroundEdit

Japan had been in a "twisted parliament" situation since 2007, in which neither major party controlled both houses of the Diet of Japan, leading to political paralysis on a number of issues. Shinzo Abe led the Liberal Democratic Party to victory in the December 2012 general election after several years in the opposition. In campaigning to win control of the House of Councillors, Abe sought to resolve the "twisted parliament" problem for the next three years.[1]

Just prior to the election, the U.S. dollar fell against the yen on expectations of more momentum for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's aggressive monetary easing to fight deflation and boost growth for the export-dominant economy of Japan.[2] Abe's LDP and its coalition partner, the New Komeito party, were tipped to win a majority and end years of parliamentary stalemate so as to enable economic reforms. However, his critics suggested that a strong mandate could even make Abe complacent.[3]

Opinion pollingEdit

In the run-up to the election, various organizations conducted opinion polls to gauge voting intentions for the 48 proportional seats. Polls are listed in chronological order, showing the oldest first.

Date Institute
LDP DPJ JRP NKP YP PLP JCP U/O
9–10 March JNN 37.5% 8.1% 3.6% 2.2% 2.7% - 2.2% 43.7%
23–24 March FNN[4] 41.8% 5.3% 9.6% - 4.7% - - -
April Kyodo News 48.2% 6.7% 10.4% 3.9% 4.5% 0.5% 3.2% 22.6%
18–19 May Kyodo News 44.4% 6.8% 5.7% 4.4% 5.2% 0.3% 3.1% 30.1%
1–2 June Kyodo News 44.6% 7.9% 4.5% 6.4% 4.0% 0.3% 2.6% 29.7%
8–9 June Asahi Shimbun[5] 45% 7% 5% 5% 6% - 4% 28%
8–10 June Yomiuri Shimbun[6] 44% 7% 5% 5% 4% - 3% 32%
29–30 June Mainichi Shimbun[7] 45% 8% 5% 6% 7% - 4% 25%
29–30 June Asahi Shimbun[8] 44% 7% 7% 4% 7% - 5% 26%
2 July Yomiuri Shimbun[6] 42% 9% 5% 6% 5% - 4% 29%
13–14 July Asahi Shimbun[9] 43% 6% 6% 8% 6% - 6% 25%
13–14 July Kyodo News[10] 30.6% 7.4% 4.9% 7.0% 3.3% - 3.8% 43%
13–14 July Mainichi Shimbun[11] 37% 7% 8% 8% 8% - 4% 28%
17 July The Nikkei[12] 39% 10% 8% 8% 7% - 6% 22%

Note: U/O - Undecided or other

Cabinet approval and disapproval ratings
 
Approval (blue) and Disapproval (red) Ratings for Second and Third Abe Cabinet

Pre-election compositionEdit

Note: Composition as of July 13, 2013.[13]

62 44 28 5 10 34 59
Opposition seats not up DPJ seats up O V NK LDP seats up Coalition seats not up

ResultsEdit

 
Japan House of Councillors seat distribution following election of 2013
62 17 28 11 65 59
Opposition seats not up DPJ O NK Seats won by LDP Coalition seats not up


e • d Summary of the 21 July 2013 Japanese House of Councillors election results[14]
Alliances and parties Prefectural constituency vote National PR vote Not up Total seats +/−
Votes[15] % Seats Votes % Seats Total % (pre-
election)
(last
election)
   Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) Jimintō – 自民党 22,681,192 42.7 47 18,460,404 34.7 18 50 115 47.5  31  31
New Komeito Party (NKP) Kōmeitō – 公明党 2,724,447 5.1 4 7,568,080 14.2 7 9 20 8.3  1  1
LDP–NKP Coalition 25,405,639 47.8 51 26,028,484 48.9 25 59 135 55.8  32  32
   Democratic Party (DPJ) Minshutō – 民主党 8,646,371 16.3 10 7,268,653 13.4 7 42 59 24.4  27  47
Restoration Party (JRP) Ishin no Kai – 日本維新の会 3,846,649 7.2 2 6,355,299 11.9 6 1 9 3.7  6 New ( 9)[16]
Communist Party (JCP) Kyōsantō – 共産党 5,645,937 10.6 3 5,154,055 9.7 5 3 11 4.5  5  5
Your Party (YP) Minna no Tō – みんなの党 4,159,961 7.8 4 4,755,160 8.9 4 10 18 7.4  5  7
Social Democratic Party (SDP) Shamintō – 社民党 271,547 0.5 0 1,255,235 2.4 1 2 3 1.2  1  1
Others 5,096,372 9.7 1[17] 2,547,160[18] 4.8 0 3 4[19] 1.6  12[20]  6[21]
Independents 2 1 3 1.2  3  1
Total opposition parties 27,666,837 52.2 22 27,335,562 51.1 23 62 107 44.2  27  32
Totals 53,072,476 100.0 73 52,816,886 100.0 48 121 242 100.0  5*  0
Turnout 52.61% 52.61% *(vacant seats)

The ruling coalition won 76 seats and now holds a total of 135 seats in the House of Councillors ending the divided Diet.

Of the 31 single-member districts the LDP won 29; only in Iwate and Okinawa, opposition incumbents could hold their seats. The ten two-member districts elected ten LDP and ten opposition members; in several prefectures the second seat went to parties other than the DPJ: In Hyōgo to the JRP, in Miyagi to YP and in Kyōto to the JCP. Twelve of the 22 seats in three-, four and five-member districts went to LDP and Kōmeitō candidates. In the nationwide proportional race, the coalition parties won 25 seats, the opposition parties 23.

Results summaryEdit

Parties LDP NK DPJ PNP YP JCP JRP SDP PLP NRP OSMP GW NPD Others Indep. Subtotal Subtotal Vacant Total
Last election (2010) Opposition Government Opposition Split Opposition Government
84 19 106 3 11 6 3SPJ 4 2 1 1HRP 2 131 110 242
After 2012 House of Representatives election
Opening session 182nd Diet
Government Opposition Split Government Opposition
83 19 88 3 11 6 3 4 8 2 1 4 2 0 2 103 133 6 242
Before this election
Closing session 183rd Diet
Government Opposition Government Opposition
84 19 86 13 6 3 4 8 2 1 4 1 6 103 134 5 242
Not Up 50 9 42 10 3 1 2 2 1 1 59 62 121
Up Total 34 10 44 3 3 2 2 6 1 1 4 1 5 44 72 5 121
29 single-member districts 6 10 1 1 1 2 4 6 19 4 29
2 two-member districts
reapportioned to one seat
1 2 1 2 1 4
10 two-member districts 10 8 2 10 10 20
Three- and five-member districts
Two 3-member districts reapportioned to 4 seats
5 3 8 2 1 1 8 12 20
Nationwide proportional 12 7 16 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 19 29 48
Candidates Total 78 21 55 34 63 44 9 11 1 8 11 71 27 99 334 433
31 single-member districts 31 19 5 30 2 1 2 1 2 32 14 31 108 139
10 two-member districts 10 10 8 10 7 1 2 1 12 2 10 53 63
Three-, four- and five-member districts 8 4 6 6 6 5 3 1 3 1 15 11 12 57 69
Nationwide proportional 29 17 20 15 17 30 4 6 3 9 12 46 116 162
Elected Total 65 11 17 8 8 8 1 1 2 76 45 121
31 single-member districts 29 1 1 29 2 31
10 two-member districts 10 7 1 1 1 10 10 20
Three-, four- and five-member districts 8 4 3 3 2 1 1 12 10 22
Nationwide proportional 18 7 7 4 5 6 1 25 23 48
Result 115 20 59 18 11 9 3 2 1 1 3 135 107 242
Opening session 184th Diet
(by parliamentary group)
114
(113)
20
(20)
59
(58)
18
(18)
11
(11)
9
(9)
3
(3)
2
(2)
1
(3)
1
(—)
3
(4)
134
 
107
 
1
 
242
 

Differences between party and parliamentary group membership in the post-election opening session: Two independents caucus with the NRP, President Masaaki Yamazaki (LDP – Fukui), Vice-President Azuma Koshiishi (DPJ – Yamanashi) and Keiko Itokazu (OSMP – Okinawa) are independents in terms of parliamentary group.

Results by electoral districtEdit

Abbreviations and translations used in this table for (nominating – endorsing) parties:

District Magnitude Incumbents Winners & runner-up [+incumbents if lower] with vote share (/votes for PR members) Gains & losses by party
Hokkaidō[22] 2 Katsuya Ogawa (D)
Chūichi Date (L)
Chūichi Date (L – K) 37.7%
Katsuya Ogawa (D) 24.4%
Takahiro Asano (Daichi) 14.7%
Aomori[23] 1 Kōji Hirayama (PLP) Motome Takisawa (L – K) 51.3%
Kōji Hirayama (PLP – SDP, Mikaze) 15.0%
PLP -1
L +1
Iwate[24] 1 Tatsuo Hirano (I) Tatsuo Hirano (I) 39.7%
Shin'ichi Tanaka (L – K) 26.4%
Miyagi[25] 2 Tomiko Okazaki (D)
Jirō Aichi (L)
Jirō Aichi (L - K) 44.7%
Masamune Wada (Minna) 23.3%
Tomiko Okazaki (D) 22.8%
D -1
Minna +1
Akita[26] 1 Daigo Matsuura (D) Matsuji Nakaizumi (L - K) 52.3%
Daigo Matsuura (D) 39.0%
D -1
L +1
Yamagata[27] 1 Yasue Funayama (Mikaze) Mizuho Ōnuma (L - K) 48.2%
Yasue Funayama (Mikaze – S) 44.6%
Mikaze -1
L +1
Fukushima[28] 1 (-1) Emi Kaneko (D)
Masako Mori (L)
Masako Mori (L - K) 56.6%
Emi Kaneko (D) 28.2%
D -1
Ibaraki[29] 2 Yukihisa Fujita (D)
Tamon Hasegawa (L)
Ryōsuke Kōzuki (L - K) 48.4%
Yukihisa Fujita (D) 17.6%
Junko Ishihara (Minna) 13.3%
Tochigi[30] 1 Hiroyuki Tani (D) Katsunori Takahashi (L - K) 48.1%
Tomomi Oki (Minna) 25.8%
Hiroyuki Tani (D) 20.3%
D -1
L +1
Gunma[31] 1 Ichita Yamamoto (L) Ichita Yamamoto (L - K) 71.9%
Fujiko Kagaya (D) 15.3%
Saitama[32] 3 Kuniko Kōda (Minna)
Toshiharu Furukawa (L)
Ryūji Yamane (D)
Toshiharu Furukawa (L) 34.1%
Katsuo Yakura (K – L) 20.4%
Kuniko Kōda (Minna) 16.5%
Ryūji Yamane (D) 13.3%
D -1
K +1
Chiba[33] 3 Hiroyuki Nagahama (D)
Jun'ichi Ishii (L)
Ken Kagaya (D)
Jun'ichi Ishii (L – K) 28.5%
Toshirō Toyoda (L – K) 17.5%
Hiroyuki Nagahama (D) 16.3%
Masahiro Terada (Minna) 11.9%
D -1
L +1
Tokyo[34] 5 Masako Ōkawara (I)
Natsuo Yamaguchi (K)
Kan Suzuki (D)
Ryūhei Kawada (Minna)
Tamayo Marukawa (L)
Tamayo Marukawa (L) 18.9%
Natsuo Yamaguchi (K) 14.2%
Yoshiko Kira (C) 12.5%
Tarō Yamamoto (I) 11.8%
Keizō Takemi (L) 10.9%
Kan Suzuki (D) 9.8%
...
Masako Ōkawara (I) 4.2%
D -1, Minna -1, I (ex-D) -1
L +1, C +1, I (PLP-aligned) +1
Kanagawa[35] 4 (+1) Hiroe Makiyama (D)
Masashi Mito (Ishin)
Akira Matsu (K)
Dai Shimomura (L) 28.8%
Shigefumi Matsuzawa (Minna) 18.8%
Sayaka Sasaki (K) 16.0%
Hiroe Makiyama (D) 11.7%
Kimie Hatano (C) 11.3%
Masashi Mito (Ishin) 6.2%
Ishin -1
L +1, Minna +1
Niigata[36] 2 Ichirō Tsukada (L)
Yūko Mori (PLP)
Ichirō Tsukada (L – K) 43.3%
Naoki Kazama (D) 19.3%
Yūko Mori (PLP) 15.6%
PLP -1
D +1
Toyama[37] 1 Takashi Morita (I) Shigeru Dōkō (L – K) 77.1%
Wataru Takahashi (C) 12.1%
I (ex-PNP) -1
L +1
Ishikawa[38] 1 Yasuo Ichikawa (D) Shūji Yamada (L – K) 64.8%
Yasuo Ichikawa (D) 23.0%
D -1
L +1
Fukui[39] 1 Ryūji Matsumura (L) Hirofumi Takinami (L – K) 70.6%
Toshikazu Fujino (D) 16.8%
Yamanashi[40] 1 Harunobu Yonenaga (Minna) Hiroshi Moriya (L – K) 37.3%
Takahiro Sakaguchi (I – D, S) 19.8%
...
Harunobu Yonenaga (Minna) 15.4%
Minna -1
L +1
Nagano[41] 2 Yūichirō Hata (D)
Hiromi Yoshida (L)
Hiromi Yoshida (L – K) 37.2%
Yūichirō Hata (D) 30.0%
Chiaki Karasawa (C) 15.8%
Gifu[42] 1 (-1) vacant
(last held by Takao Fujii, Ishin)
Kenji Hirata (D)
Yasutada Ōno (L – K) 58.8%
Rie Yoshida (D) 25.6%
D -1
L +1
Shizuoka[43] 2 Kazuya Shinba (D)
Takao Makino (L)
Takao Makino (L – K) 41.5%
Kazuya Shinba (D) 30.0%
Yukiko Suzuki (Minna) 12.2%
Aichi[44] 3 Kōhei Ōtsuka (D)
Seiji Suzuki (L)
Kuniko Tanioka (Mikaze)
Yasuyuki Sakai (L – K) 35.4%
Kōhei Ōtsukai (D) 24.9%
Michiyo Yakushiji (Minna) 11.6%
Nobuko Motomura (C) 9.1%
...
Makoto Hirayama[45] (Mikaze – PLP) 2.1%
Mikaze -1
Minna +1
Mie[46] 1 Chiaki Takahshi (D) Yūmi Yoshikawa (L – K) 44.2%
Chiaki Takahshi (D) 37.6%
D -1
L +1
Shiga[47] 1 Hisashi Tokunaga (D) Takeshi Ninoyu (L – K) 53.4%
Hisashi Tokunaga (D) 29.2%
D -1
L +1
Kyoto[48] 2 Kōji Matsui (D)
Shōji Nishida (L)
Shōji Nishida (L – K) 37.0%
Akiko Kurabayashi (C) 20.7%
Keirō Kitagami (D) 19.0%
D -1
C +1
Osaka[49] 4 (+1) Satoshi Umemura (D)
Kazuyoshi Shirahama (K)
Shūzen Tanigawa (L)
Tōru Azuma (Ishin) 28.8%
Takuji Yanagimoto (L) 22.3%
Hisatake Sugi (K) 19.0%
Kōtarō Tatsumi (C) 12.8%
Satoshi Umemura (D) 9.2%
D -1
C +1, Ishin +1
Hyōgo[50] 2 Yasuhiro Tsuji (D)
Yoshitada Kōnoike (L)
Yoshitada Kōnoike (L – K) 37.8%
Takayuki Shimizu (Ishin) 26.1%
Yasuhiro Tsuji (D) 15.0%
D -1
Ishin +1
Nara[51] 1 vacant
(last held by Tetsuji Nakamura, LF/TPJ)
Iwao Horii (L – K) 58.6%
Takanori Ōnishi (D) 23.1%
L +1
Wakayama[52] 1 Hiroshige Sekō (L) Hiroshige Sekō (L – K) 77.3%
Yasuhisa Hara (C) 19.0%
Tottori[53] 1 Yoshihiro Kawakami (D) Shōji Maitachi (L – K) 58.2%
Yoshihiro Kawakami (D) 30.0%
D -1
L +1
Shimane[54] 1 Akiko Kamei (Mikaze) Saburō Shimada (L – K) 57.8%
Akiko Kamei (Mikaze – S) 32.9%
Mikaze -1
L +1
Okayama[55] 1 vacant
(last held by Yumiko Himei, LF/TPJ)
Masahiro Ishii (L – K) 65.5%
Takashi Takai (I – D, S, Mikaze) 24.1%
L +1
Hiroshima[56] 2 Kōji Satō (PLP)
Kensei Mizote (L)
Kensei Mizote (L – K) 46.3%
Shinji Morimoto (D) 17.2%
Kana Haioka (Ishin) 15.4%
Kōji Satō (PLP – Mikaze) 12.2%
PLP -1
D +1
Yamaguchi[57] 1 Yoshimasa Hayashi (L) Yoshimasa Hayashi (L – K) 79.4%
Naoko Fujii (C) 16.6%
Tokushima[58] 1 Tomoji Nakatani (D) Tōru Miki (L – K) 57.5%
Tomoji Nakatani (D) 29.1%
D -1
L +1
Kagawa[59] 1 Emiko Uematsu (I) Shingo Miyake (L – K) 56.0%
Emiko Uematsu (I) 34.2%
I (ex-D) -1
L +1
Ehime[60] 1 vacant
(last held by Toshirō Tomochika, LF/TPJ)
Takumi Ihara (L – K) 66.6%
Kayoko Fujioka (Minna) 18.4%
L +1
Kōchi[61] 1 Norio Takeuchi (D) Kōjirō Takano (L – K) 52.9%
Yuriko Hamakawa (C) 24.1%
Norio Takeuchi (D) 21.6%
D -1
L +1
Fukuoka[62] 2 Tsukasa Iwamoto (D)
Masaji Matsuyama (L)
Masaji Matsuyama (L – K) 49.2%
Kuniyoshi Noda (D – PLP) 17.9%
Toshiyuki Yoshida (Ishin) 11.4%
Saga[63] 1 Minoru Kawasaki (I) Yūhei Yamashita (L – K) 64.6%
Kazunori Aoki (D) 24.1%
I (ex-D) -1
L +1
Nagasaki[64] 1 Yukishige Ōkubo (D) Yūichirō Koga (L – K) 59.2%
Yukishige Ōkubo (D – Mikaze) 30.7%
D -1
L +1
Kumamoto[65] 1 Nobuo Matsuno (D) Seishi Baba (L – K) 60.6%
Nobuo Matsuno (D – Mikaze) 29.8%
D -1
L +1
Ōita[66] 1 Yōsuke Isozaki (L) Yōsuke Isozaki (L – K) 50.0%
Shintarō Gotō (I – S, PLP, Mikaze) 27.3%
Miyazaki[67] 1 vacant
(last held by Itsuki Sotoyama, LF/TPJ)
Makoto Nagamine (L – K) 69.3%
Seiichirō Dōkyū (D) 18.6%
L +1
Kagoshima[68] 1 Hidehisa Otsuji (L) Hidehisa Otsuji (L – K) 59.0%
Inao Minayoshi (D) 17.7%
Okinawa[69] 1 Keiko Itokazu (OS) Keiko Itokazu (OS – C, S, PLP, Mikaze) 51.1%
Masaaki Asato (L – K) 45.4%
National 48 D 16
L 12
K 7
C 3
PLP 3
S 2
Ishin 1
Mikaze 1
Daichi 1
NRP 1
I 1
L 34.7% of proportional votes→18 seats:[70]
Yoshifumi Tsuge 429,002
Toshio Yamada 338,485
Masahisa Satō 326,541
Midori Ishii 294,148
Seiko Hashimoto 279,952
Takashi Hanyūda 249,818
Nobuaki Satō 215,506
Masaaki Akaike 208,319
Akiko Santō 205,779
Seiichi Etō 204,404
Masahiro Ishida 201,109
Haruko Arimura 191,343
Shūji Miyamoto 178,480
Kazuya Maruyama 153,303
Tsuneo Kitamura 142,613
Miki Watanabe 104,176
Yoshio Kimura 98,979
Fusae Ōta 77,173
Masaru Wakasa 76,829
D -9, PLP -3, S -1, Daichi -1, Mikaze -1
NRP -1, I -1
L +6, C +2, Ishin +5, Minna +4
K 14.2% of proportional votes→7 seats:[71]
Kanae Yamamoto 996,959
Daisaku Hiraki 770,682
Yoshihiro Kawano 703,637
Hiroshi Yamamoto 592,814
Kaneshige Wakamatsu 577,951
Yūichirō Uozumi 540,817
Hideki Niizuma 26,044
Nobuo Kawashima 7,737
D 13.4% of proportional votes→7 seats:[72]
Tetsuji Isozaki 271,553
Yoshifumi Hamano 235,917
Kumiko Aihara 235,636
Kusuo Ōshima 191,167
Mieko Kamimoto 176,248
Saori Yoshikawa 167,437
Toshio Ishigami 152,121
Takanori Kawai 138,830
Hajime Ishii 123,355
...
Toshiharu Todoroki 103,996
Marutei Tsurunen 82,858
...
Yoshikazu Tarui 13,178
Ishin 11.9% of proportional votes→6 seats:[73]
Antonio Inoki 356,605
Kyōko Nakayama 306,341
Mitsuo Gima 40,484
Takeshi Fujimaki 33,237
Masashi Nakano 32,926
Kunihiko Muroi 32,107
Hirokazu Tsuchida 28,616
C 9.7% of proportional votes→5 seats:[74]
Akira Koike 134,325
Yoshiki Yamashita 129,149
Tomoko Kami 68,729
Satoshi Inoue 50,874
Kōhei Nihi 39,768
Yūko Yamamoto 36,580
Minna 8.9% of proportional votes→4 seats:[75]
Ryūhei Kawada 117,389
Kazuyuki Yamaguchi 75,000
Michitarō Watanabe 50,253
Yoshiyuki Inoue 47,756
Jun'ichi Kawai 39,425
S 2.4% of proportional votes→1 seat:[76]
Seiji Mataichi 156,1555
Hiroji Yamashiro 112,641
Incumbents on other party lists without seat:
PLP (1.8%): Tadashi Hirono, Yoshinobu Fujiwara[77]
Daichi (1.0%): none[78]
Midori (0.9%): none[79]
Mikaze (0.8%): Kuniko Tanioka[80]
HRP (0.4%): none[81]

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Ranasinghe, Dhara (18 July 2013). "What Sunday's Japan election means for Abenomics". CNBC.com. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
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  6. ^ a b "42% favor LDP in upper house vote". Yomiuri Shimbun. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
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  10. ^ "Ruiling bloc likely to achieve majority in upper house election". Kyodo News. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  11. ^ "Proportional representation block support for LDP drops 8 points". Mainichi Shimbun. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  12. ^ "Ruiling Bloc Cruising To Majority". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  13. ^ "Strength of the Political Groups:House of Councillors". www.Sangiin.go.jp. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  14. ^ Final results. NHK. 17 December 2012.
  15. ^ Decimals from fractional votes (ambunhyō) rounded to full numbers
  16. ^  6 compared to precursor Sunrise Party of Japan
  17. ^ Okinawa Socialist Mass Party
  18. ^ People's Life Party 943,836, New Party Daichi 523,146, Green Party 457,862, Green Wind 430,673, Happiness Realization Party 191,643
  19. ^ People's Life Party, 2, New Renaissance Party 1, Okinawa Socialist Mass Party 1
  20. ^ People's Life Party  6, Okinawa Socialist Mass Party  , New Renaissance Party  1, Green Wind  4, New Party Daichi  1, Others  
  21. ^  9 if Sunrise Party of Japan is included
  22. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Hokkaidō
  23. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Aomori
  24. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Iwate
  25. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Miyagi
  26. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Akita
  27. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Yamagata
  28. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Fukushima
  29. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Ibaraki
  30. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Tochigi Archived 2017-06-21 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Gunma Archived 2017-06-24 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Saitama Archived 2017-06-21 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Chiba
  34. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Tōkyō
  35. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Kanagawa
  36. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Niigata
  37. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Toyama
  38. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Ishikawa
  39. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Fukui
  40. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Yamanashi
  41. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Nagano Archived 2017-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Gifu
  43. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Shizuoka
  44. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Aichi
  45. ^ Incumbent from the proportional district
  46. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Mie Archived 2013-07-26 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Shiga Archived 2017-06-23 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Kyōto
  49. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Ōsaka Archived 2017-06-20 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Hyōgo
  51. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Nara Archived 2017-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Wakayama Archived 2017-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Tottori
  54. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Shimane
  55. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Okayama Archived 2014-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Hiroshima Archived 2017-06-24 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Yamaguchi Archived 2013-07-26 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Tokushima Archived 2017-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Kagawa Archived 2017-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Ehime
  61. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Kōchi
  62. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Fukuoka Archived 2014-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Saga
  64. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Nagasaki
  65. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Kumamoto Archived 2017-06-13 at the Wayback Machine
  66. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Ōita Archived 2017-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Miyazaki Archived 2017-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Kagoshima Archived 2017-06-21 at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: Okinawa Archived 2017-06-24 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Jiyūminshutō Archived 2013-09-22 at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Kōmeitō Archived 2017-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Minshutō Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Nippon Ishin no Kai Archived 2013-09-22 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Nihon Kyōsantō Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  75. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Minna no Tō Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Shakaiminshutō Archived 2017-06-13 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Seikatsu no Tō Archived 2017-06-21 at the Wayback Machine
  78. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Shintō Daichi Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  79. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Midori no Tō Greens Japan Archived 2017-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Midori no Kaze Archived 2017-06-22 at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2013 election results: proportional election, Kōfukujitsugentō Archived 2016-08-18 at the Wayback Machine

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