2013 Czech legislative election
All 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
101 seats needed for a majority
Winning party by district (Red: Communist, Orange: ČSSD, Blue: ANO 2011, Purple: TOP 09)
The government elected in May 2010 led by Prime Minister Petr Nečas was forced to resign on 17 June 2013, after a corruption and bribery scandal. A caretaker government led by Prime Minister Jiří Rusnok was then appointed by the President, but narrowly lost a vote of confidence on 7 August, leading to its resignation six days later. The Chamber of Deputies then passed a motion of dissolution on 20 August, requiring new elections to be called within 60 days of presidential assent. The President gave his assent on 28 August, scheduling the elections for 25 and 26 October 2013.
The two parties gaining the most seats were the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) (50 seats) and the new party ANO 2011 (47 seats). The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia came third, with an increase in vote share of 3.6%. The two parties from the previous coalition government who were contesting the election, TOP 09 and the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), lost substantial numbers of seats, to finish fourth and fifth, respectively. Two other parties (re)entered the parliament, the new party Dawn of Direct Democracy, and the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party.
The previous election in May 2010 resulted in the formation of a three-party centre-right coalition government consisting of the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), TOP 09 and Public Affairs (VV), with 118 seats, led by Prime Minister Petr Nečas.
On 22 April 2012, after a split in VV related to corruption accusations against the party leadership (especially Vít Bárta), ODS and TOP 09 dissolved their coalition with VV, raising the possibility that early elections would be held in June 2012. However, shortly afterwards a breakaway faction of VV, led by Karolína Peake, formed a new party, LIDEM, who replaced VV in the coalition with ODS and TOP 09. The revised coalition controlled 100 seats (ODS=51, TOP09=41, LIDEM=8), and won a subsequent vote of confidence on 27 April 2012 by 105 to 93 votes, with additional support from some independent MPs.
On 17 June 2013, Prime Minister Petr Nečas resigned after a spying and corruption scandal. The Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), the largest opposition party, called for the dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies and a snap election, while the ODS‑TOP09‑LIDEM coalition argued they could still command a majority under Miroslava Němcová (ODS) as the new prime minister, as they proposed to the Czech President. From 25 June 2013, the previous government coalition only held 98 seats (ODS=50, TOP09=42, LIDEM=6), and was therefore dependent upon support from independent MPs. To demonstrate its majority, the ODS-led coalition submitted 101 MP signatures of support to the president, including two extra independents as part of the LIDEM parliamentary group and the independent Michal Doktor, a former ODS member. In an unprecedented move, President Miloš Zeman decided not to accept the coalition's requests, but instead appointed a caretaker government with Jiří Rusnok as new prime minister. Zeman described the new government as a "government of experts", while his critics described it as a "government of Zeman's friends". Former Prime Minister Jan Fischer was named as finance minister. Zeman stated that if the caretaker government could not win majority support in the vote of confidence required by the constitution to take place after 30 days in office, then he would give the ODS-led coalition a second attempt to form a government, provided it could still submit at least 101 signatures of support from MPs.
On 7 August 2013, Jiří Rusnok's caretaker government lost the confidence vote in parliament by 93 to 100 votes, with 7 abstentions. A simple majority was required to unseat the government, which was supported by all MPs from ODS, TOP09 and LIDEM (except two ODS MPs and Karolína Peake of LIDEM, who broke the party line by abstaining). The two dissenting ODS MPs, who were both expelled from the party a few hours after the vote, explained their decision by stating that ODS needed a period of self-reflection in opposition in order to win the municipal elections in 2014.
Karolína Peake resigned as leader of LIDEM after the vote, and TOP 09 stated that due to a lack of support for a reformed ODS‑TOP09‑LIDEM government, as indicated by the results of the confidence vote, they would withdraw their support for this coalition, in favour of early elections. ČSSD and the Communist Party (KSČM) also supported early elections.
Though the constitution of the Czech Republic allows the president two attempts to appoint someone to form a new government, there is no time limit. As such, in theory the caretaker government could be allowed by the president to continue in its interim capacity until new elections took place, despite having lost the confidence vote. The end of the legislative term was scheduled to be May 2014, unless the parliament was dissolved before that date. Nevertheless, the caretaker government decided voluntarily to resign on 13 August 2013, with immediate effect, and the parliament convened on 20 August to decide whether to dissolve the parliament and call for new elections within 60 days, or to request that the president again appoint someone to form a new government.
A vote on dissolution of the parliament was scheduled to take place at 14:00 on 20 August. The four parties who had stated their support for the motion (TOP 09, ČSSD, KSČM and VV) together held more than the 60% majority (120 seats) required to pass the motion of dissolution, according to article 35(2) of the constitution. On 20 August, the parliament approved the motion of dissolution by 140 to 7. The president gave his assent for the dissolution of the parliament on 28 August, and scheduled the elections for 25‑26 October 2013.
The distribution of seats in the Chamber of Deputies on 20 August 2013, immediately before the parliament was dissolved, was as follows:
|Distribution of seats in Chamber of Deputies||On 20 August 2013|
|ČSSD||Czech Social Democratic Party||54|
|ODS||Civic Democratic Party||48|
|LEV 21 – NS||LEV 21 – National Socialists (Jiří Paroubek and Petr Benda)||2|
|Úsvit||Dawn of Direct Democracy (Radim Fiala)||1|
|PSZ||Pro Sport and Health (Josef Dobeš)||1|
|JIH 12||Jihočeši 2012 (South Bohemian Regional Party: Michal Doktor)||1|
Parties contesting the electionEdit
- ČSSD announced Bohuslav Sobotka as their candidate for Prime Minister, and ruled out forming any government coalition with either TOP 09 or ODS. Sobotka said he could imagine the formation of a single-party ČSSD minority government if the party won more than 33% of the vote. The party published a 21-point campaign platform, including: higher taxes on businesses and gambling; an income tax increase to 27–29% for people with monthly earnings above CZK 100,000; creation of new jobs; an increase in the minimum wage from 8.5 to 12 thousand CZK per month; pensions guaranteed to increase with inflation; the removal of VAT for medicine and payment for consultations with doctors; more police to be employed in high crime areas; and implementation of a new Civil Service Act.
- TOP 09 leader Karel Schwarzenberg said the main issue for his party during the campaign would be to campaign against Zeman and what he described as his abuse of presidential power. He added that the party had "wanted to launch a European election campaign, but now the defence of parliamentary democracy is the issue". On 12 September, the party published its campaign platform, including: curbing the powers of the president; setting a time-frame for adoption of the Euro; boosting the role of education and culture in society; and encouraging greater individual responsibility for living a healthy life.
- ODS, now led by Miroslava Němcová, published its election manifesto on 11 September, mainly targeting middle class and young voters, with support for under-30s to buy their first home and measures to make it easier for them to start their own business.
- ODS renegades led by ODS MP Boris Šťastný called for the former Czech President and founder of ODS Václav Klaus to establish a new right-wing party based on original ODS values, in order to offer a right-wing alternative to ODS in the election. Šťastný said that ODS had "betrayed their voters by failing to comply with what they promised before the election, and none of the leadership apologized for it or decided to change." He also accused ODS of denying its members' free speech and freedom to express individual opinions. Several other ODS renegades said that they were ready to support such a party, including ODS MP Pavel Bém. On 28 August, Klaus announced that he would not run in the 2013 election. Nonetheless, a new party was announced two days later under the name Cheer Up (Czech: Hlavu Vzhůru) (HV). Headed by Jana Bobošíková, the new party consisted of Bobošíková's Sovereignty Party (SBB), Heal Our Politics (Czech: Uzdravme Naší Politiku) (UNP), Jihočeši 2012 (JIH12), the ultra-conservative initiative Akce D.O.S.T. (Trust, Objectivity, Freedom, Tradition), former ODS members including Michal Doktor and Boris Šťastny, and conservative independent politicians. The political program duplicated the previous program of SBB, including promises to: disengage the Czech Republic from the obligation to adopt the euro; strengthen support for traditional families; and not implement a budgetary debt brake law.
- LIDEM deputy leader Dagmar Navrátilová stated that the party would probably try to form a partnership with another party for the elections. Former leader Karolína Peake said she would remain a member of the party, but recommended that the party should not participate in the parliamentary elections, but instead focus on the following year's municipal elections and the European Parliament election. Three weeks later, the party announced that it would not participate in the parliamentary elections, but would allow members to run for the center-right Freeholder Party.
- The Freeholder Party of the Czech Republic (SSCR), a centre-right party formed in 2008 and led by Rostislav Senjuk, stood lists in all 14 regions, featuring members from other centre-right parties, including LIDEM. The focus of the party's campaign was opposition to progressive taxes, which they said punish diligence for privately employed citizens.
- Public Affairs (VV) decided not to participate in the elections, but some of its MPs, including Vít Bárta, joined the lists of the newly created party Dawn of Direct Democracy. Three VV MPs, including vice president Michal Babák, resigned from their party positions in protest, while announcing that they would continue being members of the party, but focus on running in the following year's municipal and regional elections.
- Dawn of Direct Democracy leader Tomio Okamura announced that his party would be running in all regions, funded by his personal money, and that candidates from VV and other organisations could join the party's lists if they shared the values of the party. Their candidates included former ODS MP Radim Fiala. Its campaign platform included: the introduction of a presidential system of government; the provision of social benefits only for those "who live an upright life"; stricter immigration policies; and a reduction of VAT.
- Pro Sport and Health (PSZ) leader Josef Dobeš entered negotiations for his party to join the election lists of the Party of Civic Rights – Zemanovci (SPOZ), with the main political objective of promoting greater funding for sporting activities. On 3 September, Dobeš announced that he had resigned as chairman of PSZ, and that its committee had approved his proposal for the entire party to join SPOZ for the elections.
- Party of Civic Rights – Zemanovci (SPOZ), led by Zdeněk Štengl, was founded in October 2009 by the former leader of ČSSD Miloš Zeman as a social democratic alternative to ČSSD. When Zeman was elected as president in January 2013, he made a pledge not to interfere in party politics while in office, but SPOZ continued to use his name and political support in their election campaign.
- National Socialists – Left of the 21st century (LEV 21), founded in October 2011 and led by the former leader of ČSSD Jiří Paroubek and former ČSSD MP Petr Benda, published a 20-point political program on 1 September, focused on economic development, anti-corruption measures, welfare and public spending increases, and measures to reduce the cost of living. In protest at an alleged lack of media coverage relative to the party's support in polls, Paroubek withdrew his candidacy on 13 September, stating that LEV 21 would still participate in the elections with his support.
- ANO 2011, a party led by Andrej Babiš and described as centre-right, stood candidates in all regions, with a program focusing on fighting unemployment, improving transport infrastructure, and abolition of immunity and equity returns for politicians and their families. The party ruled out any political collaboration with the Communist Party (KSČM).
- The Czech Pirate Party announced that they would focus on three principles: free access to information, democratic reform of the state, and education.
- The Liberal-Environmental Party (Czech: Liberálně Ekologickou Stranu) (LES), a new party founded on 27 August 2013 and led by Martin Bursík, former president of the Green Party (SZ), was established in protest at SZ's decision to move from a centre to a centre-left position on the political spectrum. The party's steering committee included former environment minister Ladislav Miko, civic activist Matěj Hollan, film director Olga Sommerová and environmentalist Ivan Rynda. The party's supporters included Czech-American economist Jan Švejnar, and businessman Michal Horáček. The party started negotiations to join the KDU–ČSL lists. When these negotiations failed, the party decided not to stand in the elections.
- The Roma Democratic Party (RDS), a left-wing party founded in August 2013 to represent Czech Roma people and led by Miroslav Tancoš, published a political program focusing on promoting the interests of poor Roma people, in particular support for single mothers, pensioners, the ill, and the unemployed, and equal access for Roma children in elementary schools. By 3 September, the party had gathered enough candidates to run in four regions, and through advertisement for additional candidates they still hoped being able to run in all of the 14 Czech regions. Tancoš stated the party was not only working to improve conditions for the Roma minority, but also wanted to help find solutions to the political and economic problems facing the Czech Republic.
- Party of Free Citizens (SSO) announced its manifesto: slim state, dissolution of 26 offices, a referendum on leaving the European Union, citizens' veto and the reduction of bureaucracy. Their election was "Less state, more to citizens!" (Czech: Méně státu, více občanům!).
|TOP 09||55,000,000 Kč|
|29 May 2010||Previous election||22.08||20.22||16.70||11.27||10.88||4.39||4.33||3.67||2.44||1.14||0.80||–||2.85||62.6|
|10 September 2013||TNS Aisa||28.0||9.5||13.0||15.5||5.5||4.5||5.5||<2||5.0||2.0||7.0||4.5|
|11 September 2013||Médea||27.4||9.9||10.2||15.7||9.1||4.7||4.1||1.6||3.2||2.0||13.1||1.0||70.0|
|12 September 2013||Sanep||26.2||9.9||13.9||16.2||3.7||5.2||6.9||3.3||6.1||9.8||56.2|
|16 September 2013||STEM||30.0||11.0||12.0||15.0||2.3||5.5||7.4||1.0||2.7||1.3||7.7||3.3||59.0|
|19 September 2013||ppm factum||26.2||8.0||13.8||16.7||2.5||6.7||5.1||1.7||2.3||10.9||6.1||52.7|
|24 September 2013||CVVM||30.5||7.0||12.5||19.5||2.5||4.5||5.5||2.0||14.0||2.0||62.0|
|26 September 2013||TNS Aisa||29.0||9.0||10.5||14.5||5.0||5.5||4.0||3.0||11.0||8.0|
|27 September 2013||STEM||28.0||12.5||11.0||17.0||2.5||5.5||5.5||1.0||3.3||10.0||4.1||65.0|
|6 October 2013||TNS Aisa||29.0||8.5||9.5||11.0||4.5||6.5||5.0||3.5||13.0||9.5|
|13 October 2013||TNS Aisa||28.5||6.5||11.0||12.5||5.0||6.0||4.5||3.5||2.0||12.5||8.0|
|14 October 2013||ppm factum||22.8||7.2||13.2||17.1||3.7||5.9||4.7||<2||3.7||<2||<2||12.1||9.6||62.6|
|16 October 2013||Médea||22.2||5.5||9.6||11.8||8.2||6.2||3.7||2.9||2.3||3.1||16.9||7.7||71.0|
|18 October 2013||STEM||25.9||8.6||11.5||13.3||5.9||4.5||2.6||1.0||2.6||0.7||3.1||16.1||4.2||67.0|
|19 October 2013||Median||25.5||8.0||13.0||16.0||4.0||6.0||5.0||3.0||2.0||13.0||2.0||60.0|
|20 October 2013||TNS Aisa||23.0||7.0||10.5||14.0||6.0||6.0||4.0||3.0||2.5||16.0||8.0|
|21 October 2013||CVVM||26.0||6.5||9.0||18.0||5.0||5.0||3.5||2.0||2.5||16.5||6.0||63.0|
|21 October 2013||Sanep||23.8||7.5||11.9||16.9||5.3||5.7||5.2||3.5||3.1||11.6||5.5||59.3|
Following a random draw carried out by the State Election Committee, Czechs voting abroad who did not have permanent residency in the country would be included as voters in the Central Bohemian Region.
|Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD)||1,016,829||20.46||−1.62||50||−6|
|ANO 2011 (ANO)||927,240||18.66||New||47||New|
|Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM)||741,044||14.91||+3.64||33||+7|
|Civic Democratic Party (ODS)||384,174||7.73||−12.50||16||−37|
|Dawn of Direct Democracy (ÚSVIT)||342,339||6.89||New||14||New|
|Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party (KDU-ČSL)||336,970||6.78||+2.39||14||+14|
|Green Party (SZ)||159,025||3.20||+0.74||0||0|
|Czech Pirate Party (PIRÁTI)||132,417||2.66||+1.86||0||0|
|Party of Free Citizens (SVOBODNÍ)||122,564||2.47||+1.75||0||0|
|Party of Civic Rights – Zemanovci (SPOZ)||75,113||1.51||−2.82||0||0|
|Workers' Party of Social Justice (DSSS)||42,906||0.86||−0.24||0||0|
|Political Change Movement (Změna)||28,592||0.58||New||0||New|
|Head Up – Electoral Bloc (HV)||21,241||0.43||New||0||New|
|Sovereignty – Party of Common Sense (SSZR)||13,538||0.27||−3.40||0||0|
|Freeholder Party of the Czech Republic (SSCR)||13,041||0.26||New||0||New|
|The Crown of Bohemia (KČ)||8,932||0.18||+0.11||0||0|
|LEV 21 – National Socialists (LEV 21-NS)||3,843||0.08||New||0||New|
|Active independent citizens (ANEO)||1,237||0.02||New||0||New|
|Vote for Right Block www.cibulka.net (PB)||1,225||0.02||New||0||0|
|Roma Democratic Party (RDS)||609||0.01||New||0||New|
|CITIZENS 2011 (OBČANÉ 2011)||455||0.01||New||0||New|
|Club of Committed Non-Party Members (KAN)||293||0.00||+0.00||0||New|
ČSSD internal conflictEdit
Following the election, ČSSD said they were open to talks with all parties about the formation of a government. ANO leader Babis said he could imagine supporting a ČSSD-led government, whether in a coalition or supporting a ČSSD minority government from opposition, but that it was not his preferred option, as he opposed ČSSD proposals for tax increases. He also indicated that he would seek to become Minister of Finance in any coalition cabinet.
Immediately after the elections, two factions emerged in the ČSSD, one supporting chairman Bohuslav Sobotka and the other led by Michal Hašek, ČSSD's leader in Moravia. Hašek, with support from President Miloš Zeman, issued a statement calling for Bohuslav Sobotka to resign as party chairman. ČSSD leaders had already appointed Hašek as the lead negotiator in coalition talks due to take place with other parties. A few days previously, Michal Hašek had declared his loyalty to Sobotka, and endorsed him as leader of ČSSD. ČSSD members organized meetings and rallies against Hašek, and Sobotka compared Hašek to Zdeněk Fierlinger, ČSSD's pro-Communist leader from 1948 who forced the party to merge with the Communist regime. Sobotka was supported by Jiří Dienstbier Jr., the party's most recent presidential candidate, while Hašek was supported by party figures including Jeroným Tejc and Lubomír Zaorálek. According to opinion polls, the situation was perceived by the public as an attempted leadership coup. Subsequently, Hašek and his allies, in the face of popular and party support for Bohuslav Sobotka, resigned their positions within the party and lost influence. A new negotiation team was formed, led by Bohuslav Sobotka, to negotiate with ANO and KDU-ČSL.
On 11 November, ČSSD began coalition talks with ANO and KDU-ČSL. All parties agreed on progressive taxation, abolition of the previous government's social reforms and a law about property origin. However, disagreement remained between ČSSD and KDU-ČSL regarding church restitution.
In late December 2013, leaders of ČSSD, ANO and KDU-ČSL announced that they had reached an agreement on a coalition government. The coalition agreement was signed on 6 January 2014. The parties also agreed on a cabinet, in which ČSSD took eight ministries, ANO seven ministries and KDU-ČSL three ministries. Sobotka became prime minister, with Babiš deputy prime minister and minister of finance, and KDU-ČSL leader Pavel Bělobrádek second deputy Prime Minister. Bohuslav Sobotka's Cabinet was sworn in on 29 January 2014.
- "Czech government resigns". European Voice. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Lawmakers dissolve parliament's lower house, Czech Republic to hold early election". Washington Post. 20 August 2013. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "59th Meeting, 6th voting (20th August 2013, 17:17) on: Draft resolution on the proposal of the President to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies". Poslanecká Snemovna Parlamentu Ceske Republiky. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Zeman confirms dissolution of the lower house". Radio Praha. 28 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Center-right Czech coalition dissolves itself". DW. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "39th Meeting, 3rd voting (27th April 2012, 19:51): Request Czech government a vote of confidence". Poslanecká Snemovna Parlamentu Ceske Republiky. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "105 : 93. Nečasova vláda přežila – a reformy s ní" (in Czech). Týden. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "ČSSD chce předčasné volby, shání poslance pro rozpuštění Sněmovny" (in Czech). České noviny (ČTK). 22 June 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Civic Democrats agree on Němcová as their candidate for prime minister". Prague Daily Monitor. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Analýza: Nerozhodnutí zůstávají čtyři poslanci. Vláda přežije i tak. [Analysis: Four MPs remain undecided. The government will survive.]" (in Czech). Tyden.ch. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "54th meeting, 90th voting (25th June 2013, 14:09)". Poslanecká Snemovna Parlamentu Ceske Republiky. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "The coalition has 101 signatures for the government led by Nemcova" (in Czech). Denik. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Czech PM resigns over his aide's illegal spying scandal – Aktuálně.cz. Aktualne.centrum.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- UPDATE: ODS nominates Nemcova as new prime minister – Aktuálně.cz. Aktualne.centrum.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- Zeman names caretaker PM but coalition wants to go on – Aktuálně.cz. Aktualne.centrum.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- Laca, Peter; Ponikelska, Lenka (8 July 2013). "Ex-Premier Fischer Selected as Czech Finance Minister". Bloomberg.
- "Zeman wants ODS and TOP 09 notarized signatures" (in Czech). Aktualne. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- "57th Meeting, 11th voting (7th August 2013, 20:53) on: Request Czech government a vote of confidence". Poslanecká Snemovna Parlamentu Ceske Republiky. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Tomáš Hrdlička broke the 101 Nemcova coalition. ODS sees in opposition, wants elections" (in Czech). Lidovky. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Mám už všeho po krk, říká rezignovaně Peake –. Novinky.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- "Peake: Nechtěla jsem už hrát šarádu, proto jsem odešla [Peake: I did not have to play charades, so I left]" (in Czech). Aktualne. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "We watched minute by minute: Rusnoková government does not trust. The former coalition fell apart!" (in Czech). Tn.cz. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Rusnokova vláda nezískala důvěru –. Novinky.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- Online: 100 proti 93, Rusnok důvěru nezískal – Aktuálně.cz. Aktualne.centrum.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- "Czech government loses vote of confidence". European Voice. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "Česko se blíží k předčasným volbám, poslanci zřejmě schválí rozpuštění sněmovny" (in Czech). Czech Radio. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Constitution of the Czech Republic (16 December 1992)" (in Czech). Poslanecká Sněmovna Parlament České Republiky.
- Czechs Set to Trigger Early Election to End Political Crisis (2). Businessweek. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- "I return into the clean environment of sport, said Šlégr, and passed his political mandate" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "List of political parties and movements (Dawn of direct democracy Tomia Okamura)" (in Czech). Ministerstvo vnitra České Republiky. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "List of political parties and movements (Pro Sport and Health)" (in Czech). Ministerstvo vnitra České Republiky. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Dobeš says his new movement Pro Sport and Health will feature hockey players from the NHL" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Statement of Josef Dobeš to support the government of Prime Minister Rusnok" (in Czech). Hnutí pro sport a zdraví. 6 August 2013. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "List of political parties and movements (Jihočeši 2012)" (in Czech). Ministerstvo vnitra České Republiky. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Regional Councilors" (in Czech). Jihočeši 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Address to the dissolution of the House of Commons" (in Czech). Jihočeši 2012. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Suchá skončila v LIDEM, nezaplatila příspěvky" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Jana Suchá left LIDEM, the party has only five members" (in Czech). Lidovky.cz. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Social Democrats say no to a coalition with TOP 09 or Civic Democrats". Radio Praha. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "CSSD promises zero VAT on medicines. Sobotka endured secret ballot" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- TOP 09 to stress clash with President Zeman in campaign Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Prague Monitor (20 August 2013). Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- "TOP 09 launches election campaign". Radio Praha. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Civic Democrats targeting young voters and middle class with manifesto". Radio Praha. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Boris Šťastný left ODS, wants with other renegades to form new party led by Klaus" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Civic Democrat MP quits party to facilitate Václav Klaus' return to politics". Radio Praha. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Bém comes out in support of Klaus' political come-back". Radio Praha. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Klaus: V těchto volbách kandidovat nebudu" (in Czech). Czech Television. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- "Sovereignty joins other conservatives to run in elections". Radio Praha. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Bobošíková ulovila do voleb známé politické tváře Doktora a Janáčkovou" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Strana LIDEM nechce jít do voleb sama, oslabil ji odchod Peake" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "LIDEM will not be going into elections alone". Radio Praha. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "The Republic Council of LIDEM will deal with the fate of the party" (in Czech). Český rozhlas (Czech Radio). 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "LIDEM meeting dissolved. We have a place in political heaven, says Navratilova" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Resolution of the Council of the Republic [for LIDEM]" (in Czech). LIDEM. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "SSCR statement on the elections in 2013" (in Czech). SSCR. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "LIDEM members want the election to candidate for the Freeholders Party" (in Czech). Denik.cz. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Public Affairs not to field candidates in election". Radio Praha. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Bárta to run under Dawn banner". Radio Praha. 9 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Na protest proti spojenectví s Okamurou rezignovala Bártovi polovina vedení VV" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Volební plány LIDEM, Věcí veřejných a Úsvitu [Election plans for LIDEM, Public Affairs and Dawn]" (in Czech). Halo Noviny. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Tomio Okamura's movement will run in elections". Radio Praha. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Former Minister Dobeš met with the head of SPOZ, plan cooperation in the campaign" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Dobeš quits own party over plans to run with Zemanites". Radio Praha. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Zeman to appear on party's election billboards". Radio Praha. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Party 21 LEV introduced electoral slogan and a brief program" (in Czech). 1 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Former Prime Minister Paroubek elections impossible. I do not pretend game of democracy" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Paroubek: Why does not stand for election to the House of Commons" (in Czech). VaseVec.cz. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Babiš's movement with daily reports of 200 candidates for membership" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Former Green leader to form own party". Radio Praha. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Bursík set to register new party and plans to run". Radio Praha. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Bursík and LES will not run the elections. He does not want to dilute the center-right votes" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Czech Romanies Form Party to Run in Early Elections". The Daily Czech Report. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "As racial tensions simmer, new Romany party to contest elections". Radio Praha. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Volební program Svobodných". Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Kolik stála kampaň hnutí ANO? Sám Babiš je překvapený | EuroZprávy.cz". Eurozpravy.cz. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- televize, Česká. "Parlamentní strany sčítají účty za kampaň, utratily už přes 340 milionů". Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Nejdražší předvolební kampaň: Ano utratilo přes sto milionů". E15. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Předvolební model vypracovaný agenturou TNS Aisa pro Českou televizi" (PDF).
- "Průzkum: Babiš letí vzhůru! Velké strany mají problém".
- "Volební preference (publikováno 12.9.2013)".
- "STEM – PREFERENCE POLITICKÝCH STRAN ZÁŘÍ 2013)".
- "V ČR sílí podpora mimoparlamentních stran a levice)". Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- "Stranické preference a volební model v září 2013 )" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Průzkum pro ČT: ČSSD si drží pozici lídra, skokanem výzkumu je hnutí ANO".
- "Stranické preference září II. 2013)". Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "ANO Jumps Dwindling Communists, Dawn and SPOZ on the precipice".
- "ČSSD out in first, ANO and Communists tied for second".
- "Dosavadní trend pokračuje, podpora nových a neparlamentních stran mírně posiluje)". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "Nový průzkum Médea Research: ČSSD a KSČM nesloží vládu".
- "STEM – VOLEBNÍ MODEL K POLOVINĚ ŘÍJNA 2013". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Tisková zpráva SNĚMOVNÍ VOLEBNÍ MODEL za září-říjen 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "ČSSD losing voters ahead of the elections, ANO continues to grow".
- "Stranické preference a volební model v říjnu 2013 )" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "Volební preference – předčasné volby- říjen (publikováno 21.10.2013) )".
- "Czechs abroad will vote in Central Bohemian elections". Radio Praha. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Přehled zisků mandátů". volby.cz. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Celkové výsledky hlasování". volby.cz. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Czech election: Social Democrats lead but no clear winner". BBC News. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Koalice s ČSSD a lidovci je možná, byl bych ministrem financí, říká Babiš –. Novinky.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- Hašek chce skoncovat se Sobotkou na mimořádném sjezdu ČSSD –. Novinky.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- Je to puč, znělo na Hradě na podporu Sobotky –. Novinky.cz. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
- "Církevní restituce dál rozdělují ČSSD a lidovce –". Novinky.cz. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Lidovci čekají spory u daní a církevních restitucí –". Novinky.cz. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Vláda je hotová, Zeman se dostal do kouta –". Novinky.cz. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Czech parties seal deal on centre-left coalition government Radio Prague, 6 January 2014
- Election to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic held on 25 – 26 October 2013 Czech Statistical Office
- Czech Republic Election Data, European Journal of Political Research-Political Data Yearbook: Interactive