2010 G20 Toronto summit protests
Public protesting and demonstrations began one week ahead of the 2010 G20 Toronto summit, which took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on 26−27 June. The protests were for various causes, including poverty and anti-capitalism.
|2010 G20 Toronto summit protests|
|Part of the anti-globalization movement|
|Date||June 18–28, 2010|
|Methods||rally, demonstration, rioting, vandalism|
|Injuries||39 reported injuries during arrests. A total of 97 police officers received injuries during the G20. An unknown number of protesters who were not arrested sustained injuries.|
Protests mainly consisted of peaceful demonstrations and rallies but also took the form of a riot as a group of protesters using black bloc tactics caused vandalism to several businesses in Downtown Toronto. More than 20,000 police, military, and security personnel were involved in policing the protests, which at its largest numbered 10,000 protesters. While there were no deaths, 97 officers and 39 arrestees were injured, and at least 40 shops were vandalised, constituting at least C$750,000 worth of damage.
Over 1000 arrests were made, making it the largest mass arrest in Canadian history. In the aftermath of the protests, the Toronto Police Service and the Integrated Security Unit (ISU) of the G20 Toronto summit were heavily criticized for brutality during the arrests and eventually went under public scrutiny by media and human rights activists. There has been legal action in the form of a class action lawsuit towards the Toronto police on behalf of all of those who were arrested despite the Toronto Police's several attempts to stop court proceedings by appealing the case. As of November 10, 2016 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that it will not hear the Toronto Police Services Board's appeal. As a result, a class action lawsuit was able to proceed on November 25, 2016 towards trial. On August 17, 2020, The Canadian Press announced that the lawsuit had resulted in a $16.5 million settlement. Those arrested were each awarded dollar amounts ranging from $5,000 to $24,700.
Early surveillance and Police/Protestor ContactEdit
RCMP officers, members of the JIG 'Joint Intelligence Group', began approaching activists in February 2010. There were visits to organization offices, meetings, and activists' houses. It was later revealed via Freedom of Information requests that "at least 12 undercover officers infiltrated groups" spanning Vancouver, southern Ontario, Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa, in one of the largest-ever such operations internal to Canada.
A Royal Bank of Canada branch in Ottawa was firebombed just before dawn on May 18, 2010. The attackers posted video on YouTube showing a large fireball igniting inside the bank. The video then listed the manifesto of a previously unknown group calling itself the FFFC. The message stated that the attack against the bank was because of the growing suffering of Vancouver's poor in the shadow of RBC's major sponsorship of the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia and claimed these events were held "on stolen indigenous land."
In addition to social issues and aboriginal land claims, the video claimed the actions were sparked by environmental and deforestation related concerns surrounding the Alberta tar sands projects in "Canada's" prairies, in which the video claims RBC is substantially involved and which G8/G20 decisions furthered. The attackers also stated their intention to be present during the G8 and the G20 Toronto summits the following month.
The projected recurrence of such acts of violence and the escalating rhetoric of anti-summit protest plans caused the G8/G20 Integrated Security Unit (ISU) to increase its security measures. The attacks were quickly and widely criticized by the media, politicians, and other protest groups
Three suspects were arrested on June 19, 2010; with one, Roger Clement, being convicted in December 2010 while charges against the other two were stayed for lack of evidence although only one of those two faced charges for the arson, while the other's charges were for a separate vandalism of a different RBC ATM. Clement, a 58-year-old retired federal government employee, formerly working for the Canadian International Development Agency, eventually received a 3½ year prison sentence, that included 6 months for vandalism of another RBC branch in February 2010. An undercover police agent who had infiltrated the local activist community was revealed during the fire-bombing trial.
Initial estimates of the damage, immediately following the attack, set the price-tag at around $300,000 and projected that the bank would be closed for several weeks. At the time of Clement's trial, reports stated that the branch was closed for months with total costs of $1,600,000.
An individual was arrested for vandalism on May 28, after being caught spray-painting anti–G20 slogans on windows and automated teller machines in Downtown Toronto. Two individuals were arrested in London, Ontario after attaching posters to public property encouraging disruption of the G20 summit and canvassing protests.
Key groups which organized early in opposition to the summit included Canadian Labour Congress, Council of Canadians, Greenpeace, Ontario Coalition Against Poverty, Ontario Federation of Labour, Oxfam and the Toronto Community Mobilization Network.
Week prior to summitEdit
A small rally was conducted on June 17 in the Financial District by Oxfam Canada, urging Canada to end fossil fuel subsidization and take action on world poverty. The rally also spoofed the summit's high security cost.
An anti-poverty protest occurred on June 21, causing traffic congestion. About 100 protesters marched from Allan Gardens on Sherbourne Street and continued on Yonge Street, Dundas Street, and Isabella Street. Police officers on bicycles and military helicopters patrolled the protest; one arrest was made. A few protesters also attempted to occupy an Esso gas station, claiming corporations like Esso "have caused irreparable damage all over the world." Other protester concerns were the Arab–Israeli conflict, capitalism, and the G8 and G20 summits. The protest was led by a Guelph-based group called Sense of Security, an anti-poverty group that was also supported by the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty.
The following day, about 200 people from Toronto's gay community marched through downtown attempting to raise awareness on homosexual rights. Protesters chanted, "We're queer, we're fabulous, we're against the G20." The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) labelled the protests as "peaceful" overall.
The first sizable G20 protest, of about 1000 people, took place on June 24 with First Nations groups and supporters from across Canada demanding respect for treaty rights from the government. Demonstrations moved from Queen's Park to the Toronto Eaton Centre along University Avenue and Queen Street West. Concerns of protesters were Canada's failure to sign the United Nations' Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the fact that no aboriginal chiefs were invited to the summits.
Also on June 24, activist Jaggi Singh, spokesperson for the group No One Is Illegal, suggested in a news conference that some protesters intended to attempt to breach the security fence in the coming days.
A larger protest was scheduled for June 25 in Toronto, the day the 36th G8 summit began in Huntsville, Ontario. Protesters attempted to enter the security zone, but were later forced to return by police officers. By evening, protesters set up a tent city at Allan Gardens and stayed overnight to resume protests the following day, the opening of the G20 summit.
During the summitEdit
June 26: Riots and vandalismEdit
As the G20 leaders arrived in Toronto after the G8 summit in Huntsville, Ontario wrapped up, a large group comprising as many as 10,000 people protested downtown during the afternoon of June 26. At the protest, Jeff Atkinson, spokesperson for the Canadian Labour Congress, said, "We don't want G20 countries to cut stimulus spending until jobs recover." Greenpeace International director Kumi Naidoo reasoned that "if G20 governments could spend billions of dollars to rescue banks in trouble, why not find money to help unemployed workers for the environment and for social causes." Sid Ryan of the Ontario Federation of Labour said in a speech, "It wasn't the workers of the world that caused the financial crisis. We don't want to see a transfer of wealth from the public sector to the private sector."
According to eyewitness accounts, about 200 marchers broke away from the protest route on Queen Street and headed south on Bay Street towards the convention centre, through Financial District. The media would describe the break-off as led by the black bloc, with demonstrators covering their bodies and faces in black clothes. Individuals using the same black bloc tactics have been suspected of being responsible for confrontations in other international summit protests. Protesters dispersed to damage buildings and vehicles. The intent as interpreted by some media was to distract police forces from the security zone so that other protesters could break in, but police maintained their blockades, protecting the fence. Vandals smashed the windows of various office buildings and stores along Yonge Street, Queen Street West and College Street using hammers, flag poles, umbrellas, chunks of pavement and mailboxes. Conflicts also erupted between purported anarchists and journalists who were recording property destruction. After a few hours, many black bloc demonstrators changed into civilian clothes and dissolved into the larger crowd as security forces began to increase in presence. Police later maintained that some protest organizers were complicit in providing cover for the vandals.
Several properties sustained damage to its exteriors. Toronto Police Headquarters was damaged and four Toronto Police Service cruisers were set ablaze in different locations. Media vehicles of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and CTV Television Network were also damaged. American corporations, such as Starbucks, appeared to be the targets of vandalism. Other retail and corporate establishments targeted were Nike, Foot Locker, Sears, McDonald's, Tim Hortons, Urban Outfitters, Pizza Pizza, Subway, Swiss Chalet, Scotiabank, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), and TD Bank. Mannequins from an American Apparel store were stolen and used to damage other stores. Several shopping centres hospitals and hotels, including the Toronto Eaton Centre, Sheraton Centre, Chelsea Hotel, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Hospital, and The Hospital for Sick Children were kept under lockdown. The escalating violence caused Dutch violinist André Rieu to cancel his concert at the Air Canada Centre at the last minute.
Tear gas was used for the first time in the history of Toronto, being deployed in a few locations by muzzle blasts. Rubber bullets and pepper spray were also used against many protesters. At the end of the day, Toronto Police Service chief Bill Blair announced that 130 people had been arrested. Several media personnel, including a Canadian reporter for The Guardian, a CTV producer, and two photographers for the National Post, were also arrested.
Condemnations of the violence were made by Ontario premier Dalton McGuinty and Toronto Mayor David Miller. In a press conference, Miller said, "All Torontonians should be outraged. They're criminals who came to Toronto deliberately to break the law. They are not welcome in this city." Referring to damage caused by black bloc protesters downtown, he claimed that calling the attackers protesters was "not fair to the people who came to [legally] protest," and that they were in fact "criminals." In a statement, Dimitri Soudas, spokesperson for Prime Minister Stephen Harper, proclaimed, "Free speech is a principle of our democracy, but the thugs that prompted violence earlier today represent in no way, shape or form the Canadian way of life."
June 27: Police brutality protestsEdit
Approximately 480 arrestees were taken to the Eastern Avenue temporary holding centre during the previous day's protests; police initially gave numbers ranging from 32 to 130. While those with minor charges or dropped charges were released, those with serious charges were set to appear in a courthouse located on Finch Avenue and Weston Road in North York.
After closed services throughout the night, the following morning saw the resumption of regular TTC and GO Transit services, while G20 leaders began formal discussions at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. Lockdowns at University Avenue hospitals and the Toronto Eaton Centre were also lifted. Additional officers from the Ontario Provincial Police were deployed, doubling the total number of officers to 20,000.
About 100 additional arrests were made during a morning raid by Toronto Police Service at the University of Toronto. Those arrested were said to be in possession of black clothing and "weapons of opportunity" such as bricks and sharpened stakes.
During the mid-morning, protesters marched from Jimmie Simpson Park on Queen Street East to the front of the Eastern Avenue temporary detention centre, where a "jail solidarity" bike rally and sit-in consisting of about 150 people occurred during the afternoon, with demonstrators urging the release of those arrested the previous day. Following several arrests during the rally, protesters began a sit-in interrupted by small muzzles of pepper spray and rubber bullets fired by police. At least 224 arrests occurred by evening.
Another large group assembled at the intersection of Queen Street West and Spadina Avenue, presumably to conduct a protest, but were immediately surrounded by riot police. Numerous bystanders and media personnel were also in the crowd. Several arrests were made, including several members of the media and another CTV cameraman who was briefly held and then released; police later claimed that they had found weapons at the scene, and that they suspected the presence of more black bloc protesters within the crowd. The blockade caused traffic diversions and the stoppage of streetcar service along Spadina Avenue. After several hours of detainment in record-breaking heavy rain, police released the remainder of the crowd during the night.
A total of 1118 people were arrested in relation to the G20 summit protests, the largest mass arrests in Canadian history, while nearly 800 of them were released without charge. The remaining 231 people remained with charges before the court while 58 of them have had their charges withdrawn or stayed. Smaller-scale, non-violent protests took place the following day, June 28, during the afternoon and evening. Nearly 1000 protesters marched to Toronto City Hall and Queen's Park to protest the treatment of arrested individuals at the Eastern Avenue holding centre and demanded the release of individuals still being detained, although police had earlier released several arrested on minor charges. Large numbers of Toronto Police Service officers continued to patrol the demonstrations. On June 29, a group of gay activists gathered outside a community centre where Toronto Police Service chief Bill Blair was scheduled to speak to demand his resignation for the treatment of women and homophobia within the detention centre.
Criticism of policingEdit
On December 7, 2010, Andre Marin, Ontario Ombudsman, issued a report called Caught in the Act, an investigation into the legality of the Ontario Public Works Protection Act, and, more specifically Regulation 233/10, in Marin's words, "...known as the secret security regulation, a little known and widely misunderstood legal measure that was supposed to help the police keep the peace, but in my view wound up contributing to massive violations of civil rights."
A group of lawyers requested court injunctions against the Toronto Police Service from using newly purchased Long Range Acoustic Devices (LRAD), also known as sound cannons, during protests. Sound cannons have been used in previous summit protests and have the ability to produce sound at ear-piercing volumes, potentially causing hearing impairment. The Ontario Superior Court of Justice later ruled that officers can use sound cannons, with a few restrictions.
The Toronto Star reported that the Executive Council of Ontario had implemented a regulation under the provincial Public Works Protection Act on June 2 granting the ISU sweeping powers of arrest within a specific boundary during the summit; the rule was said to designate the security fence as a public works and, as such, allow any police officer or guard to arrest any individual failing or refusing to provide identification within five metres of the security zone. The regulation was requested by Toronto Police Service chief Bill Blair and debate in the legislature was not required. Orders in Council such as this one are announced in the Ontario Gazette, but the next issue of that publication was to be published after the order expired on June 28, a week after the summit ended. The new law came to light after a York University graduate student, who claimed to have been simply "exploring" the security zone but who did not provide identification when confronted by police, was arrested on June 24 under the regulation. He later vowed to file a lawsuit against the law once the summit ended. The Cabinet later confirmed that the new laws were not "special powers" and that those who were believed to have been arrested under the Public Works and Protection Act were in fact arrested under the Criminal Code. The police chief later admitted that, despite media coverage, no such five-metre rule ever existed in the law.
Human rights investigationsEdit
Individuals arrested during the protests who claimed to be bystanders not taking part in protests condemned the treatment they received from police at the Eastern Avenue holding centre. According to testimonials given to the Toronto Star and La Presse by a few arrestees, including university students, journalists, street medics, teachers, tourists, photographers, and a former mayoral candidate, "[individual] rights were violated" and "police brutality [was present]." The detention centre was described as "cold" with "barely any food or water" and "no place in the cages to even sit," and "tantamount to torture." Other allegations included harassment, lack of medical care, verbal abuse, and strip searches of females by male officers. At one point, a plainclothes officer reportedly told a detainee that the federal government had declared martial law. Blair defended the conditions in the temporary detention centre, citing the fact that every room in the centre was under video surveillance, and that to the best of the officers' abilities, occupants were read their rights. However, a Toronto Star commentator editorialized that "some of the elements of classic authoritarian detention were there, albeit in embryonic forms."
Amnesty International called for an official investigation into the police tactics used during the protests. The organization alleged that police violated civil liberties and used police brutality. The Canadian Civil Liberties Association decried the arrests and alleged that they occurred without "reasonable grounds to believe that everyone they detained had committed a crime."
Toronto Police Service held press conferences to speak out against inappropriate actions of protesters, including displaying items alleged to have been seized from protesters. However, when confronted, Chief Blair admitted that some of the items were unrelated to the G20 protests.
Protester Adam Nobody, 27, was arrested in Queen's Park on 26 June. An amateur video uploaded to YouTube showed at least a dozen officers surrounding and beating Nobody, who was not armed and did not appear to resist. He suffered a broken nose and cheekbone, and was charged with assaulting police. These charges were eventually dropped, and a Special Investigations Unit investigation was opened into the incident. This investigation was closed without any charges laid, because the SIU was unable to identify the officers. They had covered their identification badges, police witnesses all claimed to be unable to identify them, and the arresting officer had written an invalid ID number on Nobody's arrest record.
Police chief Bill Blair insisted that a "forensic examination" had proven the video was "tampered with," removing proof that Nobody was an armed, violent criminal, but soon retracted this statement admitting he had no evidence to support it. Blair's claims led to increased attention to the case, new witnesses coming forward, and a second video corroborating the first. On 30 November the SIU re-opened its investigation, obtained the co-operation of a police officer who witnessed the incident, and laid charges against Const. Babak Andalib-Goortani. The SIU has the names of other officers involved but has not yet laid charges against them.
Investigation and charges against policeEdit
In 2013, Andalib-Goortani was convicted of assault with a weapon for his role in Nobody's beating. The trial judge, Ontario Court Justice Louise Botham, commented that "a police officer is not entitled to use unlimited force to affect an arrest." Botham, who was brought in to Toronto from Brampton to hear the case, subsequently sentenced Andalib-Goortani to 45 days in jail. In her ruling, Botham indicated that the sentence was heavy influenced by video of Andalib-Goortani, along with a number of other officers whose disciplinary charges were dismissed, punching, kneeing, kicking, and striking the victim with a baton; stating that the period of incarceration was necessary to uphold the public's faith in the justice system.
Less than 10 minutes after Botham announced the sentence in her Brampton courtroom, a Toronto court granted bail to Andalib-Goortani pending appeal. While Andalib-Goortani awaited appeal of that assault conviction, another assault with a weapon charge, for a G20 attack on journalist/blogger Wyndham Bettencourt-McCarthy, was thrown out when the photograph taken a she was about to be hit with the baton, showing a riot-geared officer which another officer was ready to testify was Andalib-Goortani, was ruled inadmissible because the photo had been obtained through an anonymous website posting and the photographer could not be called to testify.
Some 16 months after being sentenced to jail time and released on bail, Toronto Superior Court Justice Brian O'Marra overturned the sentence and, without providing reasons for his decision, instead ordered that Andalib-Goortani do 75 hours of community service with one year's probation. In November 2015, retired Toronto judge Lee Ferrier, presiding over the Toronto Police Service's disciplinary hearing of Andalib-Goortani, docked Andalib-Goortani five days pay for the incident, thus returning the officer to patrol the streets of Toronto.
David 'Mark' FentonEdit
In 2014, Toronto Police Superintendent Mark Fenton, was charged with unlawful arrest and discreditable conduct in relation to the kettling incidents and faced a disciplinary hearing. Fenton was one of two major incident commanders, in charge of the Major Incident Command Centre during the summit, and was the one on duty when he ordered the kettling of protesters both at the Novotel on the Esplanade and at Queen and Spadina.
On August 25, 2015, more than five years after the Toronto G20 incidents leading to the charges, Fenton was found guilty of two counts of unlawful arrest and one count of discreditable conduct, disciplinary charges under the Police Act, in relation to the "kettling" of protesters and passers-by at the intersection of Queen Street and Spadina Avenue and at the Novotel hotel on the Esplanade. In rendering judgment, retired Ontario judge John Hamilton explained that "Legitimate protesters … had the right not to be subject to arrest for making noise, chanting and sitting in the public street.". Hamilton indicated that he believed Fenton was committed to serving the public, but that he did not properly understand the constitutional right of the public to protest. In addition to the unlawful arrest convictions, Hamilton deemed Fenton guilty of discreditable conduct resultant from keeping people corralled in the streets during a severe thunderstorm while his duty was to protect them from such harsh weather; however he found him not guilty of the same charge in relation to the Novotel because those unlawfully arrested did not suffer similar hardships. Fenton was found not guilty on charges of unnecessary exercise of authority relating to the treatment of protesters after they were arrested and taken away because another officer of equal rank was in charge of the Prisoner Processing Centre; that officer was never charged.
Sentencing concluded on 15 June 2016. Regarding count one (the Novotel Misconduct) Fenton was given a formal reprimand. Regarding count two (the Queen and Spadina Misconduct) Fenton was sentenced to the forfeiture of 10 vacation days. Regarding count three (the Queen and Spadina Discreditable Conduct) Fenton was sentenced to the forfeiture of 20 vacation days.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demonstrations and protests against the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit.|
- CTV News. "Police take 'pre-emptive strikes' with sweeping arrests." (27 Jun 2010) https://toronto.ctvnews.ca/police-take-pre-emptive-strikes-with-sweeping-arrests-1.527218
- Office of the Auditor General of Canada. "Chapter 1—Expenditures for the 2010 G8 and G20 Summits." 2011 Spring Report of the Auditor General of Canada. http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_201104_01_e_35220.html
- David Ridder and Susan Delacourt. Rider, David; Delacourt, Susan (June 29, 2010). "Pressure builds on Ottawa for compensation". Toronto Star (Canada). Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Morrow, Adrian (23 June 2011). "Toronto police were overwhelmed at G20, review reveals". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "$16.5M settlement in class-action lawsuit over mass arrests at 2010 G20 summit". Global News. The Canadian Press. August 17, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- Dent, Geordie. "Police Visiting Toronto G20 Activists". Toronto Media Co-op.
- Guttman, Freda. "Two activists speak out about G8/G20 CSIS intimidation: Freda Guttman's story". rabble.ca.
- "G20 case reveals 'largest ever' police spy operation". CBC.
- "How police infiltrated groups planning G20 protests". Globe and Mail.
- "Police Infiltrate Anarchists and Activists (Guelph, Kitchener, Toronto)". SnitchWire.
- "Infiltrated!". Briarpatch.
- "Julian Ichim hits police with $4M lawsuit for G20-related damages". rabble.ca.
- "CBC News – Ottawa – RBC firebombed as protest, group claims". CBC.ca. 2010-05-18. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- YouTube Video of bank firebombing of Royal Bank Branch, Ottawa, Ontario
- "Terrorism charges possible in bank firebombing: police – CTV News". Ctv.ca. 2010-05-19. Archived from the original on 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- Jackson, Kenneth (2010-05-19). "Anarchy among anarchists after firebomb | Canada | News". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- Swainson, Gail (2010-05-21). "Ottawa firebombing proves security need, Clement says". Toronto: thestar.com. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- "Wanted: 500 extra police for G20 summit | Posted Toronto | National Post". News.nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- QMI Agency. "Brainless thugs all about mayhem | Editorial | Comment". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- "Socialist Project | The Bullet". Socialistproject.ca. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- "Man Who Firebombed Bank Gets Three-Year Sentence". CityTV. 2010-12-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- "Infiltrated!". Briarpatch Magazine.
- "Man who firebombed bank sentenced to 3 years". CTV News. 2010-12-07. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- QMI Agency (2010-05-28). "Anti-G20 slogans spray-painted on T.O. banks | Canada | News". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- "G20 activists jailed for poster – Canada – Canoe.ca". Cnews.canoe.ca. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Sheila Whyte. "The Protesters: Who's who at the summits," CBC News. June 9, 2010.
- "Toronto G20 protest hints at more to come | Top News | Reuters". Ca.reuters.com. 2009-02-09. Archived from the original on 22 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "CTV Toronto – Police ride herd as G20 protesters march the streets – CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
- Poisson, Jayme (2010-06-21). "G20 protesters try to take over downtown property". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
- Yang, Jennifer; Casey, Liam (2010-06-22). "G20 turning downtown Toronto into a ghost town". thestar.com. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Jordan, Pav (2010-06-22). "Gay rights protest hits Toronto ahead of G20". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "CBC News – Toronto – Protests continue in Toronto as G20 nears". Cbc.ca. 2010-06-22. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Edwards, Peter (2010-06-24). "First nations demonstrators take over downtown streets". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Edwards, Peter (2010-06-24). "Canada flunks on indigenous rights, protesters say". Toronto: thestar.com. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "First Nations' G20 protest peaceful". CBC News. June 24, 2010.
- "Canada flunks on indigenous rights, protesters say". thestar.com. 24 June 2010.
- "CBC News – Toronto – G20 protesters set up Toronto camp". Cbc.ca. 2010-06-26. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- "G20 protest turns violent". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 26, 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- France 24, "Massive Rally Calls on G20 to Put People Ahead of Banks," http://www.france24.com/en/20100626-massive-rally-calls-g20-put-people-ahead-banks[permanent dead link]
- The Canadian Press (2010-06-26). "Violent Black Bloc tactics on display at G20 protest". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "CTV Toronto - 'Black Bloc' vandal take over Toronto streets - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- the CNN Wire Staff (2010-06-28). "G-20 protests plagued by violence, vandalism - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- CBC.ca. "G20 protest brings violence, arrests - News - MSN CA". News.ca.msn.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "Police attempt to clear crowds amid G20 unrest - CTV News". Ctv.ca. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "Police Display Weapons Seized During G20, Accuse Activist Network Of Complicity In Summit-Related Violence". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- Canada (2010-06-22). "Police union chief sees 'very long night' ahead". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "CTV Toronto - Police attempt to clear crowds amid G20 unrest - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- http://www.torontosun.com/news/g20/2010/06/18/14441556.html A different kind of G summit
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2010-06-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Usborne, David (2010-06-28). "More than 400 arrests after violent protests - World Politics, World". London: The Independent. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- "Toronto G20 protest turns violent, city venues in lockdown". Digitaljournal.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "Hospitals prepare for G20 casualties," CBC News. June 24, 2010; excerpt, hospitals "...ready to handle any emergencies resulting from downtown protests during the G20 summit;" tents were erected outside the entrances of downtown hospitals; decontamination stations set up to treat people affected by pepper spray, tear gas, etc.
- "Andre Rieu concert at ACC postponed". Toronto: thestar.com. 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "CTV Toronto - TTC lines, Eaton Centre locked down as protests heat up - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "G20: Protests shut down TTC, hospitals downtown | Posted Toronto | National Post". News.nationalpost.com. 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Canada (2010-06-26). "TTC, GO Transit offering free shuttles around downtown outskirts". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Kenneth Kidd Feature Writer (2010-06-27). "Tear gas fired in downtown rampage". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "G20 — Toronto 2010". Thestar.blogs.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- the CNN Wire Staff (2010-06-27). "G8 criticizes North Korea, Iran in final statement". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Canada (2010-06-26). "Protests turn violent: storefronts smashed, police cars set ablaze". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Austen, Ian (June 27, 2010). "Hundreds Arrested in Summit Protests in Toronto". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- Goodyear, Sheena (June 27, 2010). "Canadian journalist arrested, reportedly beaten". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- Staff, National Post (June 26, 2010). "Two Post photographers arrested at G20 protest". National Post. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- Canada (2010-06-26). "Toronto mayor amongst many expressing revulsion over protest violence". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Update, Globe and Mail (June 26, 2010). "Protesters turn violent, smash storefront glass and set police cruiser ablaze". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "CTV Toronto - Protesters, police clash at detention centre - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- http://www.winnipegsun.com/news/g20/2010/06/27/14539176.html Arrests a 'catch-and-release program'
- "CTV Toronto - TTC and GO Transit service resume - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-06-12. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "CTV Toronto - Police take 'pre-emptive strikes' with sweeping arrests - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- "Manhole arrests near G20 security zone spotlights infrastructure vulnerability". Winnipeg Free Press. 2010-06-27. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- Popplewell, Brett; Lu, Vanessa (2010-06-27). "Student union faces questions about hosting protesters". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "CTV Toronto - Police make hundreds of arrests, take on protesters in streets - CTV News". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "G20 arrests continue in Toronto - Toronto faces 2nd violent day: police chief". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 27, 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- G20 News, canoe.ca (June 27, 2010). "G20 timeline for Sunday, June 27". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- Morrow, Adrian; Jeff Gray; Anna Mehler Paperny; Sarah Boesveld (June 27, 2010). "Police arrest 562 as Toronto G20 protests continue". The Globe and Mail. CTVglobemedia. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- McLean, Jesse (2010-06-29). "Police defend crowd trap at Queen and Spadina". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- LaFlamme, Lisa (CTV News) (June 27, 2010). "Police arrest quiet protesters, members of media". The Canadian Press, CP24. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Byrne, Ciara (June 27, 2010). "G20 police move aggressively against protests, one day after chaos in Toronto". The Canadian Press, AM 1150. Retrieved 28 June 2010.[dead link]
- Mahoney, Jill; Ann Hui (2010-06-29). "G20-related mass arrests unique in Canadian history". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- Jesse McLean, and Jennifer Yang (August 20, 2010). "Anatomy of the G20: the story from both sides of the fence". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
- Powell, Betsy (August 25, 2010). "G20 charges in 73 cases cleared". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Perkel, Colin (June 28, 2010). "Police trampled civil liberties over G20 summit weekend, groups complain". The Canadian Press, CP24. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Archived 2010-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2010-06-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Toronto G20: Will Police be Held Accountable After Scathing Ombudsman's Report". The Real News. January 22, 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- "CBC News – Toronto – Limited G20 sound cannon use approved". Cbc.ca. 2010-06-25. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- "hub=TorontoNewHome". Toronto.ctv.ca. 2010-06-03. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- Yang, Jennifer (2010-02-24). "G20 law gives police sweeping powers to arrest people". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Poisson, Jayme (2010-06-25). "Man arrested and left in wire cage under new G20 law". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- Javed, Noor; Goddard, John (2010-06-25). "First 'secret law' arrestee plans Charter challenge". Toronto: thestar.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- Talaga, Tanya; Benzie, Robert (June 29, 2010), "No arrests made under G20 rule change, Ontario says", Toronto Star, archived from the original on 2 July 2010, retrieved June 29, 2010
- "Chief admits 5-metre G20 security rule didn't exist". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- "'Thorold, Ontario Amputee Has His Artificial Leg Ripped Off By Police And Is Slammed In Makeshift Cell During G20 Summit – At Least One Ontario MPP Calls The Whole Episode "Shocking"'". niagaraatlarge.com. 2010. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- "'I will not forget what they have done to me'". Toronto: thestar.com. 2010-06-28. Archived from the original on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
- "Soixante heures à "Torontonamo"". cyberpresse.ca. 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- "Ma détention à Torontonamo". cyberpresse.ca. 2010-07-03. Archived from the original on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- "Walkom: The G20 summit's grim lessons for civil liberties". Toronto: thestar.com. 2010-07-03. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- ctv.ca[dead link]
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-26. Retrieved 2010-06-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "CBC News - Toronto - Amnesty calls for summit security review". CBCnews.ca. 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Canada (2010-06-28). "G20-related mass arrests unique in Canadian history". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- "Police accused of displaying fake G20 weapons". CBC News. 2010-06-30. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Police beat journalist covering G20: report". CBC News. 2010-06-28. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Poisson, Jayme (2010-11-29). "Blair blasts SIU over findings of 'probable' excessive force". The Star. Toronto. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- Poisson, Jayme (2010-12-03). "Chief Blair apologizes to G20 protester at centre of YouTube video". The Star. Toronto. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- DiManno, Rosie (2010-12-07). "A second look at G20 police assault". The Star. Toronto. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- Morrow, Adrian (2010-11-30). "Ontario police watchdog reopens G20 'Nobody' arrest investigation - The Globe and Mail". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- Poisson, Jayme (2010-12-22). "G20 officer tight-lipped at SIU appearance". The Star. Toronto. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "SIU knows all 3 officers in alleged G20 assault". CBC News. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- Friesen, Joe (2010-11-30). "How a man named Nobody became the battered face of G20 protests". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2010-12-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-23. Retrieved 2010-12-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Hasham, Alyshah (September 12, 2013). "G20 assault trial: Guilty verdict for officer who hit Adam Nobody". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "Toronto police officer Babak Andalib-Goortani found guilty of assault with weapon against G20 protester Adam Nobody". National Post. September 12, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "G20 assault: Babak Andalib-Goortani gets 45-day sentence". CBC News. December 9, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Shawn Jeffords (December 9, 2013). "Toronto cop sentenced to 45 days in jail for Adam Nobody assault". Toronto Sun. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Colin Perkel, The Canadian Press (September 24, 2014). "Babak Andalib-Goortani, G20 Cop, Acquitted On 2nd Assault Charge". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Sarah Sweet (September 24, 2014). "Cop Acquitted on Charge of Assaulting Former Torontoist Contributor at G20 Protests — Photographic evidence ruled inadmissible.". Torontoist. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Babak Andalib-Goortani acquitted in 2nd G20 incident". CBC News. September 24, 2014. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Alyshah Hasham (January 29, 2015). "No jail for Toronto police officer convicted of G20 assault". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Judge lightens sentence of officer convicted of assaulting G20 protester". The Globe and Mail. January 29, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Rosie DiManno (November 11, 2015). "Retired judge all but weeps for guilty G20 cop: DiManno". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Wendy Gillis (December 17, 2014). "'Toronto deteriorated into a sense of lawlessness,' says G20 police commander". Toronto Star.
- Colin Perkel (January 8, 2013). "Misconduct case for Toronto police officer in G20 'kettling' put over". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Wendy Gillis (August 25, 2015). "G20 commander apologizes after being convicted of misconduct". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Cara McKenna, The Canadian Press (August 25, 2015). "More than five years later, senior officer found guilty over mass arrests, 'kettling' at 2010 G20 protests". National Post. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Cara McKenna, The Canadian Press (August 25, 2015). "T.O. cop found guilty on 3 charges stemming from G20 protests". CP24. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Senior police officer found guilty of 3 charges in G20 disciplinary hearing". Red Deer Advocate. August 25, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Michele Mandel, Toronto Sun (August 25, 2015). "Senior G20 cop guilty on three charges". Ottawa Sun. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Hamilton, John (June 15, 2016). "Fenton Penalty Decision" (PDF).