Open main menu

Wikipedia β

2000 Summer Olympics torch relay

The 2000 Summer Olympics torch relay was the transferral of the Olympic Flame to Sydney, Australia that built up to the 2000 Summer Olympics. The torch travelled to various island nations as part of a tour of Oceania before beginning an extensive journey around Australia. For the first time the Flame was taken underwater, with a special flare-like torch taken on a dive down to the Great Barrier Reef. At the opening ceremony the cauldron was lit by Aboriginal athlete Cathy Freeman.

Games of the XXVII Olympiad
Host city
Countries visited Greece, Guam, Palau, Micronesia, Nauru, the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Tonga, New Zealand, Australia
Distance 27,000 km in Australia
36,000 km total
Torch bearers 800 in Greece
1,500 in Oceania
11,000 in Australia
Start date 10 May 2000
End date 15 September 2000
Torch designer Robert Jurgens at Blue Sky
No. of torches 14,000

Contents

Relay elementsEdit

A History of the Olympic Torch Relay has been written by Janet Cahill covering all relays to Sydney 2000. She is also author of the Olympic Torch Relay section of the "Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad, Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Volume Two - Celebrating The Games".

TorchEdit

The design of the torch reflected three famed areas of Australian culture: the boomerang, the Sydney Opera House, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean. The concept also reflected the elements of earth, fire, and water.[1][2] This was achieved across three layers of the torch. The first, inner layer contains the fuel system and combustor, the second contains the fuel canister, and the outer layer is a specially textured aluminium shell. A combination of copper, brass, aluminium, and stainless steel was used in its construction, and the fuel comprised 65 percent butane and 35 percent propane. In total 14,000 torches were produced.[2]

TorchbearersEdit

 
Fred Atkins taking the Torch through Taree, New South Wales

A total of 13,400 torch-bearers were involved in the relay. The Greek leg of the route saw 800 people carry the torch, while 1,500 people were involved across Oceania. As part of the vast traversal of Australia, 11,000 people carried the torch within the country.[3]

The first Australian torch-bearer was Sophie Gosper, the daughter of International Olympic Committee (IOC) Vice-President Kevan Gosper. Her selection caused considerable controversy with accusations of corruption directed at the Hellenic Olympic Committee (HOC). Greek-Australian Yianna Souleles was originally due to receive the torch in Olympia but was replaced at late notice by Gosper. Kevan Gosper accepted the invitation for his daughter to carry the torch while claiming to be unaware that this would make her the first Australian to have the honour.[4]

The HOC's invitation was seen as an attempt to curry favour with the IOC after being warned that its delays put the planned 2004 Olympics (scheduled to be held in Greece) in jeopardy.[5] Gosper's acceptance of the invitation was portrayed by the media as being nepotistic and inappropriate, with Australian politicians, Olympic athletes, and officials from various Olympic Committees condemning the move. Gosper initially defended his actions but would go on to make a public apology, claiming that fatherly pride had clouded his judgement. He gave up his role in the relay at the Melbourne Cricket Ground despite having previously described it as "the most important moment of my life since I won a silver medal [there]".[4]

RouteEdit

The Flame was lit during a ceremony in Olympia, as has been tradition at all the Summer Games since those in 1936. The Flame is initiated by using a parabolic mirror that concentrates the sun's rays. However, due to some cloud cover on the day of the ceremony, there was insufficient sunlight to create the required level of heat. A backup, lit on the previous day during rehearsals, was used instead. The remainder of the ceremony could then take place.[1]

The relay always begins in Greece and travels from Olympia to Athens and the Panathenaic Stadium. The Hellenic Olympic Committee arranged for the torch to be taken to several Greek islands, a first in the history of Olympic relays. The torch arrived in Athens on 20 May, after which it began a tour of Oceania. The Flame was flown firstly to Guam, before moving to Palau, Micronesia, Nauru, the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Samoa, American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Tonga, and New Zealand. The relay had been scheduled to visit Fiji but the country was omitted due to ongoing government instability at that time.[1]

After the island tour the Flame arrived in Australia on 8 June. The relay was an extensive journey around the country, involving 11,000 torch-bearers and a variety of modes of transport. On 27 June the Flame was taken underwater, a first in the history of torch relays. Marine biologist Wendy Craig Duncan carried a special version of the torch for a three-minute trip around Agincourt Reef, a section of the Great Barrier Reef popular with divers. The torch was modified to carry a specially-designed flare that would burn at 2,000 degrees Celsius underwater while remaining as aesthetically similar to the normal flame as possible.[6]

Route in GreeceEdit

May 10 (day 1)

May 20 (day 2)

May 20 (day 3)

Route in OceaniaEdit

Date Map

May 22 (day 1): Hagåtña, Guam
May 23 (day 2): Koror, Palau
May 24 (day 3): Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia
May 25 (day 4): Yaren, Nauru
May 26 (day 5): Honiara, Solomon Islands
May 27 (day 6): Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
May 28 (day 7): Port Vila, Vanuatu
May 29 (day 8): Apia, Samoa
May 30 (day 9): Pago Pago, American Samoa
May 31 (day 10): Avarua, Cook Islands
June 2 (day 11): Nukuʻalofa, Tonga

June 5 (day 12): Queenstown, New Zealand
June 5 (day 12): Christchurch
June 6 (day 13): Wellington
June 7 (day 14): Rotorua
June 7 (day 14): Auckland

Route in AustraliaEdit

Date Map

June 8 (day 1): Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park
June 8 (day 1): Yulara
June 8 (day 1): Alice Springs

June 9 (day 2): Mount Isa
June 10 (day 3): Longreach
June 10 (day 3): Toowoomba
June 11 (day 4): Warwick
June 11 (day 4): Coolangatta
June 12 (day 5): Southport
June 12 (day 5): Woodridge
June 13 (day 6): Nathan
June 13 (day 6): Ipswich
June 14 (day 7): Mount Coot-tha
June 14 (day 7)): Brisbane
June 15 (day 8): Redcliffe
June 15 (day 8): Bokarina
June 16 (day 9): Nambour
June 16 (day 9): Tewantin
June 17 (day 10): Cherbourg
June 17 (day 10): Kingaroy
June 18 (day 11): Maryborough
June 18 (day 11): Hervey Bay
June 19 (day 12): Bundaberg
June 20 (day 13): Gladstone
June 20 (day 13): Rockhampton
June 21 (day 14): Blackwater
June 21 (day 14): Emerald
June 22 (day 15): Moranbah
June 22 (day 15): Mackay
June 23 (day 16): Proserpine
June 23 (day 16): Airlie Beach
June 24 (day 17): Ayr
June 24 (day 17): Townsville
June 25 (day 18): Tully
June 25 (day 18): Innisfail
June 26 (day 19): Atherton
June 26 (day 19): Cairns
June 27 (day 20): Port Douglas
June 28 (day 21): Thursday Island

June 28 (day 21): Katherine
June 29 (day 22): Kakadu National Park
June 29 (day 22): Nguiu
June 29 (day 22): Darwin

June 30 (day 23): Kununurra Airport
June 30 (day 23): Broome
July 1 (day 24): Port Hedland Airport
July 1 (day 24): Karratha Airport
July 1 (day 24): Carnarvon
July 2 (day 25): Geraldton
July 2 (day 25): Albany
July 3 (day 26): Walpole-Nornalup National Park
July 3 (day 26): Manjimup
July 4 (day 27): Busselton
July 4 (day 27): Bunbury
July 5 (day 28): Pinjarra
July 5 (day 28): Mandurah
July 6 (day 29): Rockingham
July 6 (day 29): Fremantle
July 7 (day 30): Joondalup
July 8 (day 31): Nedlands
July 8 (day 31): Victoria Park
July 9 (day 32): York
July 9 (day 32): Northam
July 10 (day 33): Merredin
July 10 (day 33): Kalgoorlie

July 11 (day 34): Journey aboard the Indian Pacific

July 12 (day 35): Port Lincoln
July 12 (day 35): Port Pirie
July 13 (day 36): Clare
July 13 (day 36): Tanunda
July 14 (day 37): Gawler
July 14 (day 37): Tea Tree Gully
July 15 (day 38): Glenelg
July 15 (day 38): Adelaide
July 16 (day 39): Hanhndorf
July 16 (day 39): Murray Bridge
July 17 (day 40): Bordertown
July 17 (day 40): Naracoorte
July 18 (day 41): Naracoorte Caves
July 18 (day 41): Penola
July 18 (day 41): Mount Gambier

July 19 (day 42): Hamilton
July 19 (day 42): Portland
July 20 (day 43): Port Fairy
July 20 (day 43): Warrnambool
July 21 (day 44): Port Campbell
July 21 (day 44): Colac
July 22 (day 45): Camperdown
July 22 (day 45): Ararat
July 23 (day 46): Stawell
July 23 (day 46): Horsham
July 24 (day 47): St Arnaud
July 24 (day 47): Swan Hill
July 25 (day 48): Kerang
July 25 (day 48): Echuca
July 26 (day 49): Kyabram
July 26 (day 49): Shepparton
July 27 (day 50): Bendigo
July 27 (day 50): Maryborough
July 28 (day 51): Castlemaine
July 28 (day 51): Ballarat
July 29 (day 52): Geelong
July 29 (day 52): Flemington
July 30 (day 53): Banyule
July 30 (day 53): Monash University
July 31 (day 54): Melbourne

July 31 (day 54): Journey aboard the Spirit of Tasmania

August 1 (day 55): Burnie
August 1 (day 55): Queenstown
August 2 (day 56): Glenorchy
August 3 (day 57): Kingston
August 3 (day 57): Hobart
August 4 (day 58): Campbell Town
August 4 (day 58): Launceston
August 5 (day 59): Deloraine

August 5 (day 59): Journey aboard the Spirit of Tasmania

August 7 (day 61): Berwick
August 7 (day 61): Morwell
August 8 (day 62): Sale
August 8 (day 62): Bairnsdale
August 9 (day 63): Moe
August 9 (day 63): Warragul
August 10 (day 64): Emerald
August 10 (day 64): Healesville
August 11 (day 65): Alexandra
August 11 (day 65): Seymour
August 12 (day 66): Benalla
August 12 (day 66): Wangaratta
August 13 (day 67): Bright
August 13 (day 67): Mount Hotham

August 14 (day 68): Albury
August 15 (day 69): Finley
August 15 (day 69): Griffith
August 16 (day 70): Narrandera
August 16 (day 70): Wagga Wagga
August 17 (day 71): Cootamundra
August 17 (day 71): Cowra
August 18 (day 72): West Wyalong
August 18 (day 72): Parkes
August 19 (day 73): Mildura
August 19 (day 73): Broken Hill
August 20 (day 74): Bourke
August 20 (day 74): Moree
August 21 (day 75): Inverell
August 21 (day 75): Armidale
August 22 (day 76): Glen Innes
August 22 (day 76): Tenterfield
August 23 (day 77): Lismore
August 23 (day 77): Ballina
August 24 (day 78): Grafton
August 24 (day 78): Coffs Harbour
August 25 (day 79): Kempsey
August 25 (day 79): Port Macquarie
August 26 (day 80): Taree
August 26 (day 80): Forster
August 27 (day 81): Raymond Terrace
August 27 (day 81): Newcastle
August 28 (day 82): Speers Point
August 28 (day 82): Gosford
August 29 (day 83): Wyong
August 29 (day 83): Cessnock
August 30 (day 84): Maitland
August 30 (day 84): Muswellbrook
August 31 (day 85): Quirindi
August 31 (day 85): Tamworth
September 1 (day 86): Coonabarabran
September 1 (day 86): Dubbo
September 2 (day 87): Orange
September 2 (day 87): Bathurst
September 3 (day 88): Katoomba
September 3 (day 88): Penrith
September 4 (day 89): Campbelltown
September 4 (day 89): Bowral
September 5 (day 90): Goulburn

September 5 (day 90): Canberra
September 6 (day 91): Belconnen
September 6 (day 91): Phillip

September 7 (day 92): Cooma
September 7 (day 92): Thredbo
September 8 (day 93): Merimbula
September 8 (day 93): Bega
September 9 (day 94): Narooma
September 9 (day 94): Batemans Bay
September 10 (day 95): Nowra
September 10 (day 95): Kiama
September 11 (day 96): Wollongong

September 11 (day 96): Cronulla
September 12 (day 97): Liverpool
September 12 (day 97): Parramatta
September 13 (day 98): Pennant Hills
September 13 (day 98): Hunters Hill
September 14 (day 99): La Perouse
September 14 (day 99): Sydney
September 15 (day 100): Manly
September 15 (day 100): Sydney Olympic Park
September 15 (day 100): Olympic Stadium

Lighting of the cauldronEdit

 
The Olympic cauldron

The Australian middle distance gold-medallist Herb Elliott carried the torch into Stadium Australia and passed it on to the final runners. The final succession of torch-bearers were selected to celebrate the 100 year anniversary of female participation in the Olympic Games[7] (women were not allowed to compete at the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics but were given the opportunity in 1900).[8] Betty Cuthbert, Raelene Boyle, Dawn Fraser, Shirley Strickland, Shane Gould, and Debbie Flintoff-King, all medallists in previous Games, were given the honour of carrying the Flame before passing it to the final torch-bearer.[7]

The cauldron was lit by Aboriginal athlete Cathy Freeman, a decision that was at the time reported as being a "bold political and social statement".[7] Freeman was the first competing athlete to light the Olympic cauldron.[9][10] Two elements from the torch concept, fire and water, were replicated in the design of the cauldron. Freeman stood atop a pool of water and lit a flame that surrounded her. Though a computer glitch delayed proceedings for a few minutes the Flame then lifted around Freeman.[11][12]

The ten-year anniversary of the Games was celebrated in a special ceremony in 2010. Cathy Freeman and Paralympic champion Louise Sauvage (who was the final torchbearer at the Paralympic Games) lit the cauldron during an event attended by numerous athletes and school students.[13]

ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ a b c "Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad, Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Volume Two - Celebrating The Games" (PDF). Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. pp. 25–49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Sisk, Beth (18 January 2001). "Carrying a Torch for Engineering". National Engineers Week Foundation. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Factsheet: The Olympic Torch Relay" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. October 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "'Shame and Scandal in the Family': Australian Media Narratives of the IOC/SOCOG" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "Olympic torch sparks controversy". BBC News. 10 May 2000. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "Olympic flame goes underwater". BBC News. 27 June 2000. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c "Cathy Freeman Lights Flame At Olympic Games Opening Ceremony". Australian Politics. 15 September 2000. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  8. ^ "7 April 1896: Let the modern Games begin". Guardian News and Media Limited. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Cathy Freeman lights up Australia". ESPN. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "Catherine Freeman". JCCM UK Ltd. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Opening ceremony: Beautiful Sydney". BBC News. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  12. ^ Martella, Paul. "Opening Ceremony blunders". Yahoo!. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  13. ^ "10 years on, Olympic flame burns bright". ABC. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
Bibliography
  • Cahill, J. (1999) Running Towards Sydney 2000; A History of the Olympic Torch Relay, Walla Walla Press, Sydney

External linksEdit