Open main menu

2-Naphthol, or β-naphthol, is a fluorescent colorless (or occasionally yellow) crystalline solid with the formula C10H7OH. It is an isomer of 1-naphthol, differing by the location of the hydroxyl group on the naphthalene ring. The naphthols are naphthalene homologues of phenol, but more reactive. Both isomers are soluble in simple alcohols, ethers, and chloroform. 2-Naphthol is a widely used intermediate for the production of dyes and other compounds.

IUPAC name
Other names
2-Hydroxynaphthalene; 2-Naphthalenol; beta-Naphthol; Naphth-2-ol
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.004.712
Molar mass 144.173 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless crystalline solid
Density 1.280 g/cm3
Melting point 121 to 123 °C (250 to 253 °F; 394 to 396 K)
Boiling point 285 °C (545 °F; 558 K)
0.74 g/L
Acidity (pKa) 9.51
-98.25·10−6 cm3/mol
Main hazards Harmful when inhaled or swallowed; dangerous to environment, esp. aquatic organisms.[1]
R-phrases (outdated) R20 R22 R50
S-phrases (outdated) S24 S25 S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 161 °C (322 °F)[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑Y verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references


Traditionally, 2-naphthol is produced by a two-step process that begins with the sulfonation of naphthalene in sulfuric acid:[2]

C10H8 + H2SO4 → C10H7SO3H + H2O

The sulfonic acid group is then cleaved in molten sodium hydroxide:

C10H7(SO3H) + 3 NaOH → C10H7ONa + Na2SO3 + 2 H2O

Neutralization of the product with acid gives 2-naphthol.

2-Naphthol can also be produced by a method analogous to the cumene process.[2]

2-Naphthol-derived dyesEdit

The Sudan dyes are popular dyes noted for being soluble in organic solvents. Several of the Sudan dyes are derived from 2-naphthol by coupling with diazonium salts.[3] Sudan dyes I -IV and Sudan Red G consist of arylazo-substituted naphthols.


2-Naphthol reacts to form BINOL, a C2-symmetric ligand popularized for use in asymmetric catalysis.


2-Naphthol converts to 2-naphthalenethiol via reaction with dimethylthiocarbamoyl chloride via the Newman-Kwart rearrangement.[4]


Naphthols (both 1 and 2 isomers) are used as biomarkers for livestock and humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[5]


  1. ^ a b Safety data for 2-naphthol
  2. ^ a b Gerald Booth (2005). "Naphthalene Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_009..
  3. ^ Booth, Gerald (2000). "Dyes, General Survey". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a09_073. ISBN 978-3527306732.
  4. ^ Melvin S. Newman, Frederick W. Hetzel (1971). "Thiophenols from Phenols: 2-Naphthalenethiol". Org. Synth. 51: 139. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.051.0139.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Sreekanth, R.; Prasanthkumar, Kavanal P.; Sunil Paul, M. M.; Aravind, Usha K.; Aravindakumar, C. T. (7 November 2013). "Oxidation Reactions of 1- and 2-Naphthols: An Experimental and Theoretical Study". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 117 (44): 11261–11270. doi:10.1021/jp4081355. PMID 24093754.

External linksEdit