1 Corinthians 11 is the eleventh chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It was authored by Paul the Apostle and Sosthenes in Ephesus. In this chapter, Paul writes on the conduct of Christians while worshiping together and enjoins the ordinances of headcovering and the Eucharist.[1]

1 Corinthians 11
1 Corinthians 7:33–8:4 in Papyrus 15, written in the 3rd century.
BookFirst Epistle to the Corinthians
CategoryPauline epistles
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part7

Text edit

The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 34 verses.

Textual witnesses edit

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:

Imitator of Christ (11:1) edit

Imitate me, just as I also imitate Christ.

— 1 Corinthians 11:1, New King James Version[2]

Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ.

— 1 Corinthians 11:1, King James Version[3]

Theologian John Gill suggests that these words "more properly close the preceding chapter, than begin a new one", and many commentators agree.[4] Paul concludes his argument in 1 Corinthians 4 in a similar way: "Therefore I urge you, imitate me."[5] The Pulpit Commentary restricts Paul's call to imitation: "I only ask you to imitate me in points in which I imitate Christ".[6]

According to Gill, these words refer to the rules which Paul would have the Corinthians follow him in, as he did Christ: to do all things to the glory of God, and not for his own gain, just as Christ, who does not seek his own glory, but the glory of God who sent him, so all what they did would be in the name of Christ, and to the glory of God.[7][unreliable source?]

Woman's headcovering (11:2–16) edit

Early Christian fresco showing a Christian woman wearing a headcovering and praying in the gesture of orans

2I commend you because you remember me in everything and maintain the traditions even as I have delivered them to you. 3But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a woman is her husband, and the head of Christ is God. 4Any man who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonors his head, 5but any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled dishonors her head—it is the same as if her head were shaven. 6For if a woman will not veil herself, then she should cut off her hair; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her wear a veil. 7For a man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. 8(For man was not made from woman, but woman from man. 9Neither was man created for woman, but woman for man.) 10That is why a woman ought to have a veil on her head, because of the angels. 11(Nevertheless, in the Lord woman is not independent of man nor man of woman; 12for as woman was made from man, so man is now born of woman. And all things are from God.) 13Judge for yourselves; is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14Does not nature itself teach you that for a man to wear long hair is degrading to him, 15but if a woman has long hair, it is her pride? For her hair is given to her for a covering. 16If any one is disposed to be contentious, we recognize no other practice, nor do the churches of God.

— 1 Corinthians 11:2–16, Revised Standard Version[8]

In 1 Corinthians 11, Paul enjoins the observance of certain ordinances, including the headcovering and the Eucharist.[1] The passage delivers the teaching that men are to "pray or prophesy" without a cap on the head, while women are to are wear a veil; the practice of headcovering by Christian women was countercultural as the surrounding pagan Greek women prayed unveiled and Jewish men prayed with their heads covered.[9][10] Ezra Palmer Gould, a professor at the Episcopal Divinity School, noted Paul's use of rhetoric to highlight the importance of the subject: "The long hair and the veil were both intended as a covering of the head, and as a sign of true womanliness, and of the right relation of woman to man; and hence the absence of one had the same significance as that of the other."[11][12] This is reflected in the patristic homilies of the Early Church Father John Chrysostom, who explained the two coverings—the veil and the natural hair—discussed by Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:[13]

For he said not merely covered, but covered over, meaning that she be with all care sheltered from view on every side. And by reducing it to an absurdity, he appeals to their shame, saying by way of severe reprimand, but if she be not covered, let her also be shorn. As if he had said, "If thou cast away the covering appointed by the law of God, cast away likewise that appointed by nature."[13]

Michael Marlowe, a scholar of biblical languages, explicates this reductio ad absurdum that Paul the Apostle used in verse 14 and verse 15, in which he relates the propriety of a woman's natural hair to the necessity of a cloth headcovering:[14]

In the appeal to "nature" (φύσις) here Paul makes contact with another philosophy of ancient times, known as Stoicism. The Stoics believed that intelligent men could discern what is best in life by examining the laws of nature, without relying on the changeable customs and divers laws made by human rulers. If we consult Nature, we find that it constantly puts visible differences between the male and the female of every species, and it also gives us certain natural inclinations when judging what is proper to each sex. So Paul uses an analogy, comparing the woman's headcovering to her long hair, which is thought to be more natural for a woman. Though long hair on men is possible, and in some cultures it has been customary for men to have long hair, it is justly regarded as effeminate. It requires much grooming, it interferes with vigorous physical work, and a man with long hair is likely to be seized by it in a fight. It is therefore unmanly by nature. But a woman's long hair is her glory. Here again is the word δόξα, used opposite ἀτιμία "disgrace," in the sense of "something bringing honor." Long and well-kept hair brings praise to a woman because it contributes to her feminine beauty. The headcovering, which covers the head like a woman's hair, may be seen in the same way. Our natural sense of propriety regarding the hair may therefore be carried over to the headcovering.[14]

A opaque hanging veil worn by a Conservative Anabaptist woman belonging to the Charity Christian Fellowship

This ordinance continued to be handed down after the apostolic era to the next generations of Christians; writing 150 years after Paul, the early Christian apologist Tertullian stated that the women of the church in Corinth—both virgins and married—practiced veiling, given that Paul the Apostle delivered the teaching to them: "the Corinthians themselves understood him in this manner. In fact, at this very day, the Corinthians do veil their virgins. What the apostles taught, their disciples approve."[15] From the period of the early Church to the late modern period, 1 Corinthians 11 was universally understood to enjoin the wearing of the headcovering throughout the day—a practice that has since waned in Western Europe but has continued in certain parts of the world, such as in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Northern Africa and the Indian subcontinent,[16][17][18][19][20][21] as well as everywhere by Conservative Anabaptists (such as the Conservative Mennonite Churches and the Dunkard Brethren Church), who count veiling as being one of the ordinances of the Church.[22][23] The early Church Father John Chrysostom explicates that 1 Corinthians 11 enjoins the continual wearing the headcovering by referencing Paul the Apostle's view that being shaven is always dishonourable and his pointing to the angels:[24]

Well then: the man he compelleth not to be always uncovered, but only when he prays. "For every man," saith he, "praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head." But the woman he commands to be at all times covered. Wherefore also having said, "Every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head unveiled, dishonoureth her head," he stayed not at this point only, but also proceeded to say, "for it is one and the same thing as if she were shaven." But if to be shaven is always dishonourable, it is plain too that being uncovered is always a reproach. And not even with this only was he content, but he added again, saying, "The woman ought to have a sign of authority on her head, because of the angels." He signifies that not at the time of prayer only but also continually, she ought to be covered. But with regard to the man, it is no longer about covering but about wearing long hair, that he so forms his discourse. To be covered he then only forbids, when a man is praying; but the wearing of long hair he discourages at all times.[24]

Verse 10, in many early biblical manuscripts (such as certain vg, copbo, and arm), is rendered with the word "veil" (κάλυμμα, kalumma) rather than the word "authority" (ἐξουσία, exousia); the Revised Standard Version reflects this, displaying 1 Corinthians 11:10[25] as follows: "That is why a woman ought to have a veil on her head, because of the angels."[26] Similarly, a scholarly footnote in the New American Bible notes that presence of the word "authority (exousia) may possibly be due to mistranslation of an Aramaic word for veil".[27] This mistranslation may be due to "the fact that in Aramaic the roots of the word power and veil are spelled the same."[28] The last-known living connection to the apostles, Irenaeus, penned verse 10 using the word "veil" (κάλυμμα, kalumma) instead of "authority" (ἐξουσία, exousia) in Against Heresies, as did other Church Fathers in their writings, including Hippolytus, Origen, Chrysostom, Jerome, Epiphanius, Augustine, and Bede.[26][29]

After the 1960s, the practice of headcovering started to wane in the Western World, giving rise to an interpretation of 1 Corinthians 11 by Abel Isaakson that a woman's natural long hair is the sole covering being discussed in the passage.[30][31][32] Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) John W. Keddie contended that verse 6, if a covering was simply any sort of hair, would then read "For if the women have no hair on her head, let her also be shorn", rendering the passage to be nonsensical.[11][33] Michael Marlowe, a scholar of the Greek language, states that the novel view of labelling the hair as the sole covering in 1 Corinthians 11 is "indefensible" and suggests that it is an attempt "harmonize this passage with modern habits of dress".[34] Additionally, verses five through seven, as well as verse thirteen, of 1 Corinthians 11 use a form of the Greek word for "veiled"/"covered", κατακαλύπτω, katakalupto; this is contrasted with the Greek word περιβόλαιον, peribolaion, which is mentioned in verse 15 of the same chapter, in reference to "something cast around"/"a covering".[35][36][11][31][37] Verse four of 1 Corinthians 11 uses the Greek words kata kephalēs (κατάIn κεφαλῆς) for "head covered", the same Greek words used in Esther 6:12 in the Septuagint[38] where "because he [Haman] had been humiliated, he headed home, draping an external covering over his head" (additionally certain manuscripts of the Septuagint in Esther 6:12 use the Greek words κατακεκαλυμμένος κεφαλήν, which is the "perfect passive participle of the key verb used in 1 Corinthians 11:6 and 7 for both a man's and a woman's covering his or her head [κατακαλύπτω]")—facts that New Testament scholar Rajesh Gandhi uses to conclude that the passage enjoins the wearing of a cloth veil by Christian women.[39] Biblical scholar Christopher R. Hutson contextualizes the verse citing Greek texts of the same era, such as Moralia:[40]

Plutarch's phrase, "covering his head" is literally "having down from the head" (kata tes kephales echon). This is the same phrase Paul uses in 1 Corinthians 11:4. It refers to the Roman practice of pulling one's toga up over the head like a hood. […] Romans also wore their togas "down from the head" when they offered sacrifices. This is the practice to which Paul refers.[40]

In the same manner as Paul the Apostle, Philo (30 BC–45 AD) in Special Laws 3:60, uses "head uncovered" (akatakalyptō tē kephalē, ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ) and "it is clear that Philo is speaking of a head covering being removed because the priest had just removed her kerchief"; additionally, akatakalyptos (ἀκατακάλυπτος) likewise "means 'uncovered' in Philo, Allegorical Interpretation II,29, and in Polybius 15,27.2 (second century BC)."[41] In 1 Corinthians 11:16,[42] Paul concludes the teaching about the ordinance of Christian headcovering: "But if anyone wants to argue about this, I simply say that we have no other custom than this, and neither do God's other churches."[14] Michael Marlowe, a scholar of biblical languages, states that Paul's inclusion of this statement was to affirm that the "headcovering practice is a matter of apostolic authority and tradition, and not open to debate", evidenced by repeating a similar sentence with which he starts the passage: "maintain the traditions even as I delivered them to you".[14]

The Lord's Supper (11:17–34) edit

Early Christian painting of the celebration of a lovefeast, found in the Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter

In verses 17 through 33, Paul chastises the Corinthians for their behaviour when they come together "as a church" (literally ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ, en ekklēsia, "in church" or "in the assembly")[43] to share what appears to be an agape feast.[44] Paul describes his understanding of Jesus' actions at the Last Supper as having been "received from the Lord" (1 Corinthians 11:23), not received from the apostles who were present or from the tradition of the church. Teignmouth Shore argues that "the whole structure of the passage seems to imply that what follows had been received by St. Paul directly from Christ"[45] but Heinrich Meyer argues, with reference to Paul's use of the words ἀπὸ τοῦ Κυρίου, apo tou kuriou, 'forth from the Lord' rather than παρά τοῦ Κυρίου, para tou kuriou, 'coming from the Lord', that "we are warranted in assuming that he means a reception, which issued indeed from Christ as originator, but reached him only mediately through another channel".[46] Meyer notes the close similarity between Paul's account of the Last Supper and Luke's in Luke 22:19–20.[47]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b Zerbe, Gordon (10 July 2018). Reclaiming the Old Testament: Essays in Honour of Waldemar Janzen. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-5326-5821-1.
  2. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:1 NKJV
  3. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:1 KJV
  4. ^ Biblehub.com, Commentaries on 1 Corinthians 11:1, accessed 4 April 2017
  5. ^ 1 Corinthians 4:16 NKJV
  6. ^ Pulpit Commentary on 1 Corinthians 11, accessed 4 April 2017
  7. ^ "1 Corinthians 11:1 - Meaning and Commentary on Bible Verse". biblestudytools.com.
  8. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:2–16
  9. ^ Payne, Philip Barton (5 May 2015). Man and Woman, One in Christ: An Exegetical and Theological Study of Paul's Letters. Zondervan Academic. ISBN 978-0-310-52532-5. Furthermore, Greek women, including women in prayer, were usually depicted without a garment covering the head. It does not make sense that Paul would assert something was disgraceful that in their culture was not considered disgraceful. Concerning Greek customs A. Oepke observes: […] It is quite wrong [to assert] that Greek women were under some kind of compulsion to wear a veil. […] Passages to the contrary are so numerous and unequivocally that they cannot be offset. […] Empresses and goddesses, even those who maintain their dignity, like Hera and Demeter, are portrayed without veils.
  10. ^ Shank, Tom (1992). "…Let Her Be Veiled.": An in-depth study of 1 Corinthians 11:1-16. Eureka: Torch Publications. p. 8. The [male] Jews of this era worshipped and prayed with a covering called a tallith on their heads.
  11. ^ a b c Lee, Allan R. (19 March 2018). The Local Church Today and Tomorrow: A Back to the Future Handbook on New Testament Principles. WestBow Press. ISBN 978-1-9736-1615-3. Nature itself is therefore a divine confirmation of the constitutional sense of the impropriety of women appearing in the assembly without a head covering (v. 13). The words "for her long hair is given to her as a covering" (v. 15) "do not mean that the woman's hair is her covering and that she needs no veil, a view vitiating the force of 11:2-14." For example, if hair were the only covering referred to in this passage (11:1-16), then verse 6 would have to be translated "If a woman does not wear her hair, she should have to have her hair cut or shaved off, she should wear her hair," which is quite ludicrous. Two coverings are spoken of in the passage. This is established by the fact that two different Greek words …
  12. ^ Williams, Paul K. (2005). The Head Coverings of I Corinthians 11. pp. 6–10.
  13. ^ a b Pusey, Edward Bouverie (1842). A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, Anterior to the Division of the East and West. J.H. Parker. pp. 349, 357.
  14. ^ a b c d Marlowe, Michael D. "The Woman's Headcovering". Bible Research. Retrieved 27 April 2022. 16But if anyone is inclined to be contentious, we have no such practice, nor do the churches of God. He thus brings the matter to a conclusion. In addition to the theological and moral reasons for the headcovering, there is also the fact that if the Corinthians were to allow their women to remove the headcovering, this new practice or custom (συνήθειαν) would go against the established custom of Paul and his fellow-workers, the custom which was observed in all the other churches, and which he has delivered to them as one of the παραδόσεις "traditional practices" of the faith (verse 2) […] Paul has devoted some time to this subject because it is important to him, not a matter of indifference; and it makes little sense to speak of a custom of being contentious (φιλόνεικος, lit. "loving strife"), because contentiousness is an attitude or temper, not a custom. There is a good parallel to Paul's usage of the word φιλόνεικος in Josephus' work Against Apion. Josephus concludes a series of arguments with the sentence, "I suppose that what I have already said may be sufficient to such as are not very contentious (φιλόνεικος)," (19) and then he continues with even stronger arguments for those who are very contentious. In the same way, Paul reserves the clinching argument for the end. It is an argument from authority. The headcovering practice is a matter of apostolic authority and tradition, and not open to debate. His concluding rebuke of the contentious people in Corinth is meant to cut off debate and settle the issue, not to leave it open. It is quite wrong to say of this last argument of Paul's that "in the end he admits" that he was merely "rationalizing the customs in which he believes," (20) as if Paul himself put little store by custom. Rather, Paul considers this to be his strongest point. At the end he harks back to the words with which he opened the subject ("maintain the traditions even as I delivered them to you" in verse 2), and the whole section is thus framed between explicit invocations of tradition.
  15. ^ Bercot, David W. (18 April 2021). Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs: A Reference Guide to More Than 700 Topics Discussed by the Early Church Fathers. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 667. ISBN 978-1-61970-168-7.
  16. ^ Hunt, Margaret (11 June 2014). Women in Eighteenth Century Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 9781317883876. Today many people associate rules about veiling and headscarves with the Muslim world, but in the eighteenth century they were common among Christians as well, in line with 1 Corinthians 11:4-13 which appears not only to prescribe headcoverings for any women who prays or goes to church, but explicitly to associate it with female subordination, which Islamic veiling traditions do not typically do. Many Christian women wore a head-covering all the time, and certainly when they went outside; those who did not would have been barred from church and likely harassed on the street. […] Veils were, of course, required for Catholic nuns, and a veil that actually obscured the face was also a mark of elite status throughout most of Europe. Spanish noblewomen wore them well into the eighteenth century, and so did Venetian women, both elites and non-elites. Across Europe almost any woman who could afford them also wore them to travel.
  17. ^ Balzani, Marzia; Besnier, Niko (29 November 2021). Social and Cultural Anthropology for the 21st Century: Connected Worlds. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-57178-0. Head covers are generally associated with Islam, but until recently Christian women in Mediterranean countries also covered their heads in public, and some still do, particularly in religious contexts such as attending mass.
  18. ^ Hammond, Laura C. (6 August 2018). This Place Will Become Home: Refugee Repatriation to Ethiopia. Cornell University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-5017-2725-2. Inside her house a Christian woman usually did not cover hear head and only wore a netsela (ነጠላ, a shawl made from white, usually homespun cotton and often with a colorful banner woven into its edges) when working in the sun or going out of her compound.
  19. ^ Ramdin, Ron (April 2000). Arising from Bondage: A History of the Indo-Caribbean People. New York University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-8147-7548-6. As a mark of respect, Indian women were expected to cover their heads. And over the years, most rural Hindu, Muslim and Christian women have done so with the Orhni, a thin shawl-like head covering.
  20. ^ Mitchell, Laurence (2007). Serbia. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-203-3. Further north, in Vojvodina, some older Slovak women still regularly wear the headscarf, pleated skirt and embroidered apron that is their national dress. All across Serbia, as elsewhere in eastern Europe, many older women wear headscarves
  21. ^ Walsh, Harper (1 November 2019). Saudi Arabia Undercover: Includes Bahrain, Bangkok and Cairo. Monsoon Books. ISBN 978-1-912049-61-5. There are Christian women in the Middle East who cover their hair and heads daily. Some wear burkas too.
  22. ^ Hartzler, Rachel Nafziger (30 April 2013). No Strings Attached: Boundary Lines in Pleasant Places: A History of Warren Street / Pleasant Oaks Mennonite Church. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-62189-635-7.
  23. ^ Kauffman, Daniel (1898). Manual of Bible Doctrines. Elkhart: Mennonite Publishing Co. pp. 160–168.
  24. ^ a b Schaff, Philip (1889). A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church: St. Chrysostom: Homilies on the Epistles of Paul to the Corinthians. The Christian Literature Company. p. 152.
  25. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:10
  26. ^ a b Garland, David E. (1 November 2003). 1 Corinthians (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament). Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1-58558-322-5.
  27. ^ The Catholic Study Bible. Oxford University Press. 15 April 2016. ISBN 978-0-19-026726-1.
  28. ^ Farrell, Heather (2014). Walking with the Women of the New Testament. Cedar Fort Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4621-0872-5. ...that the word translated in verses 5 and 13 as "uncovered" is akatakaluptos and means "unveiled" and the word translated in verse 6 as "covered" is katakalupto which means to "cover wholly, [or] veil." The word power in verse 10 may have also been mistranslated because the fact that in Aramaic the roots of the word power and veil are spelled the same.
  29. ^ Williams, Frank, ed. (2009). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I (Sects 1-46). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 196. ISBN 978-90-04-17017-9.
  30. ^ Bercot, David W. (1992). Common Sense: A New Approach to Understanding Scripture. Scroll Publishing Co. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-924722-06-6. … one of the popular understandings today of 1 Corinthians 11 is that this was simply a first century cultural problem. Paul gave his instruction about the head covering because prostitutes didn't wear headcoverings, and if the Christian women weren't veiled, they would be thought of as prostitutes. […] Yet, it is not based on any historical evidence whatsoever from the writings of the early Church. It is someone's sheer conjecture.
  31. ^ a b Barnes, Allen; Barnes, Patti (1995). Christian Apparel: An Index of the Heart. TEACH Services. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-57258-029-9. The argument is also raised that the hair is sufficient for the covering. Paul says in verse 15 that "her hair is given her for a covering." Let us not suppose, however, that with a single sentence Paul is canceling out everything he has so clearly stated prior to it. The Greek word for covering in verse 15 is peribolaion, not katakalupto as used before for the veiling. In other words the hair is a type of covering, but the veiling used in the previous verses is to wholly cover the head and hair.
  32. ^ Brown, A. Philip (2011). A Survey of the History of the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 11:2-16. Aldersgate Forum. p. 12.
  33. ^ Keddie, John W. (22 January 2019). The Church: Its Nature, Ordinances and Offices. p. 227-229. ISBN 978-1-326-83069-4.
  34. ^ Marlowe, Michael (2011). "The New International Version (NIV) - A History and Evaluation". Bible Research. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
  35. ^ "Strong's Greek: 2619. κατακαλύπτω (katakaluptó) -- to cover up". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  36. ^ "Strong's Greek: 4018. περιβόλαιον (peribolaion) -- that which is thrown around, a covering". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  37. ^ Mounce, William D. (2006). Interlinear for the Rest of Us: The Reverse Interlinear for New Testament Word Studies. Zondervan. p. 875. ISBN 978-0-310-26303-6.
  38. ^ "Εσθήρ (Esther) 6 :: Septuagint (LXX)". Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  39. ^ Gandhi, Rajesh (24 August 2011). "Haman, Head Coverings, and First Corinthians 11:1-16". A People for His Name. Retrieved 7 April 2022. Esther 6 records the dramatic reversal that resulted in Haman's humiliation. Hearing the king speak of one whom he desired to honor, he thought that surely the king intended to honor him (6:6). To his great chagrin, he learned that the king ordained that Haman himself was to honor Mordecai, whom he greatly despised (6:10). After he had fulfilled the king's directives to honor Mordecai publicly (6:11), "Haman hasted to his house mourning, and having his head covered" (6:12). Plainly, this text is not declaring that he went to his home having hair on his head. Nor is it asserting either that he had long hair on his head as he went home or that he somehow miraculously grew his hair long. Rather, this verse records that because he had been humiliated, he headed home, draping an external covering over his head. Furthermore, the LXX rendering of the verse reads as follows: BGT Esther 6:12 ¶ ἐπέστρεψεν δὲ ὁ Μαρδοχαῖος εἰς τὴν αὐλήν Αμαν δὲ ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς τὰ ἴδια λυπούμενος κατὰ κεφαλῆς LXE Esther 6:12 And Mardochaeus returned to the palace: but Aman went home mourning, and having his head covered. … The exact phrase κατὰ κεφαλῆς found here occurs in only one other passage in the Bible in Greek: BGT 1 Corinthians 11:4 πᾶς ἀνὴρ προσευχόμενος ἢ προφητεύων κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. SCR 1 Corinthians 11:4 πᾶς ἀνὴρ προσευχόμενος ἢ προφητεύων, κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. KJV 1 Corinthians 11:4 Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head. … Moreover, Hatch and Redpath (κατακαλύπτειν, 733) report that another hand of the Septuagint for Esther 6:12 reads, κατακεκαλυμμένος κεφαλήν. This variant reading has the perfect passive participle of the key verb used in 1 Corinthians 11:6 and 7 for both a man's and a woman's covering his or her head (κατακαλύπτω): BGT 1 Corinthians 11:6 εἰ γὰρ οὐ κατακαλύπτεται γυνή, καὶ κειράσθω• εἰ δὲ αἰσχρὸν γυναικὶ τὸ κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι, κατακαλυπτέσθω. SCR 1 Corinthians 11:6 εἰ γὰρ οὐ κατακαλύπτεται γυνή, καὶ κειράσθω• εἰ δὲ αἰσχρὸν γυναικὶ τὸ κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι, κατακαλυπτέσθω. KJV 1 Corinthians 11:6 For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered. NAU 1 Corinthians 11:6 For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head. BGT 1 Corinthians 11:7 Ἀνὴρ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ὀφείλει κατακαλύπτεσθαι τὴν κεφαλὴν εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα θεοῦ ὑπάρχων• ἡ γυνὴ δὲ δόξα ἀνδρός ἐστιν. SCR 1 Corinthians 11:7 ἀνὴρ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ὀφείλει κατακαλύπτεσθαι τὴν κεφαλήν, εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα Θεοῦ ὑπάρχων• γυνὴ δὲ δόξα ἀνδρός ἐστιν. KJV 1 Corinthians 11:7 For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man. … This evidence from the LXX therefore supports holding that the covering in view in 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 is an external head covering for both a man and a woman.
  40. ^ a b Hutson, Christopher R. (29 July 2013). 1 Corinthians: A Commuity Not of This Age. ACU Press. ISBN 978-0-89112-984-4.
  41. ^ Schreiner, Thomas R. (1991). Grudem, Wayne; Piper, John (eds.). 1 Corinthians 11:2-16: Head Coverings, Prophecies, and the Trinity. Crossway. pp. 124–139, 485–487.
  42. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:16
  43. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:18 in the Textus Receptus
  44. ^ Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on 1 Corinthians 11, accessed 5 April 2017
  45. ^ T. Teignmouth Shore in Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on 1 Corinthians 11, accessed 6 April 2017
  46. ^ Meyer's NT Commentary on 1 Corinthians 11, accessed 6 April 2017
  47. ^ Luke 22:19–20

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