19th New Zealand Parliament
The 19th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It opened on 24 June 1915, following the 1914 election. It was dissolved on 27 November 1919 in preparation for 1919 election.
|19th Parliament of New Zealand|
|Term||24 June 1915 – 5 November 1919|
|Election||1914 New Zealand general election|
|House of Representatives|
|Speaker of the House||Frederic Lang|
|Prime Minister||William Massey|
|Leader of the Opposition||Joseph Ward|
|Members||37 (at start)|
39 (at end)
|Speaker of the Council||Sir Walter Carncross from 1 November 1918|
––Charles Johnson from 7 July until 13 June 1918†
––Charles Bowen until 4 July 1915
|Leader of the Council||Sir Francis Bell|
|Monarch||HM George V|
as Governor until 28 June 1917
|HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Liverpool|
|first||24 June 1915||12 October 1891||15 October 1891|
|second||9 May 1916||8 August 1916||9 August 1916|
|third||28 June 1917||1 November 1917||2 November 1917|
|fourth||9 April 1918||15 April 1918||17 April 1918|
|fifth||24 October 1918||9 December 1918||12 December 1918|
|sixth||28 August 1919||5 November 1919||7 November 1919|
The 19th Parliament was the second term of the Reform Party government, which had been elected in the 1911 election. William Massey, the leader of the Reform Party, remained Prime Minister. The Liberal Party, led by former Prime Minister Joseph Ward, was technically the main opposition party, although for the majority of the term, the Liberals were part of a war-time coalition with Reform. Two small left-wing parties, the Social Democratic Party and the loosely grouped remnants of the United Labour Party, also held seats, and there was one left-wing independent (John Payne). During the 19th Parliament, the Social Democrats and most of the United Labour Party merged to form the modern Labour Party.
There were 616,043 electors on the European roll, with 521,525 (84.66%) voting, including 5,618 informal votes. Turnout including Maori voters was 540,075. The following table shows votes at and party strengths immediately after the 1914 election:
|Party||Leader(s)||Seats at start|
|Reform Party||William Massey||40|
|Liberal Party||Joseph Ward||34|
|United Labour Party||Alfred Hindmarsh||3|
|Social Democrat Party||James McCombs||2|
|Party||Leader(s)||Seats at end|
|Reform Party||William Massey||39|
|Liberal Party||Joseph Ward||34|
|Labour Party||Alfred Hindmarsh, then Harry Holland||5|
76 general and 4 Māori electorates existed for the 19th Parliament. The following are the results of the 1914 general election:
By-elections during the 19th ParliamentEdit
There were a number of changes during the term of the 19th Parliament.
|Electorate and by-election||Date||Incumbent||Cause||Winner|
|Dunedin Central||1915||3 February||Charles Statham||Resignation||Charles Statham|
|Bay of Islands||1915||8 June||Vernon Reed||Election declared void||William Stewart|
|Taumarunui||1915||15 June||William Jennings||Election declared void||William Jennings|
|Pahiatua||1916||17 August||James Escott||Death||Harold Smith|
|Hawke's Bay||1917||8 March||Robert McNab||Death||John Findlay|
|Bay of Islands||1917||17 March||William Stewart||Resignation||Vernon Reed|
|Grey||1917||24 November||Paddy Webb||Resignation||Paddy Webb|
|Wellington North||1918||12 February||Alexander Herdman||Resignation||John Luke|
|Southern Maori||1918||21 February||Taare Parata||Death||Hopere Uru|
|Grey||1918||29 May||Paddy Webb||Imprisonment||Harry Holland|
|Wellington Central||1918||3 October||Robert Fletcher||Death||Peter Fraser|
|Taranaki||1918||10 October||Henry Okey||Death||Sydney Smith|
|Palmerston||1918||19 December||David Buick||Death||Jimmy Nash|
|Wellington South||1918||19 December||Alfred Hindmarsh||Death||Bob Semple|
Summary of changesEdit
- Thomas Rhodes, the Liberal Party MP for Thames, changed affiliation to the Reform Party in 1915.
- The Social Democratic Party and the loose United Labour Party grouping merged to form the modern Labour Party on 7 July 1916. One ULP member, Bill Veitch, rejected the merger, and carried on as an independent.
- James Escott (Reform, Pahiatua) died on 28 July 1916.
- Robert McNab (Liberal, Hawkes Bay) died on 3 February 1917.
- Taare Parata (Liberal, Southern Maori) died on 8 January 1918.
- Robert Fletcher (Liberal, Wellington Central) died on 4 September 1918.
- Henry Okey (Reform, Taranaki) died on 13 September 1918
- Alfred Hindmarsh (Labour, Wellington South) died on 13 November 1918.
- David Buick (Reform, Palmerston) died on 18 November 1918.
- James Colvin (Liberal, Buller) died on 29 October 1919.
- Seat remained vacant, as it was only two months until the general election.
- William Stewart (Reform, Bay of Islands) resigned in March 1917. Stewart won the seat in a by-election when the victory of another Reform candidate, Vernon Reed, had been overturned, and Stewart's resignation opened the way for Reed to return via another by-election.
- Paddy Webb (Labour, Grey) resigned in November 1917. He then challenged the government to fight the resulting by-election on the issue of conscription, which Webb opposed. The government declined the challenge, and did not contest the by-election.
- Alexander Herdman (Reform, Wellington North) resigned in February 1918. Herdman, as Attorney-General, had just appointed himself to a judicial position, and was resigning in order to take up this role.
- William Thomas Jennings (Liberal Party, Taumarunui) lost his seat in May 1915 when his election the previous year was declared void.
- Vernon Reed (Reform, Bay of Islands) lost his seat in May 1915 when his election the previous year was declared void. (His successor later resigned, allowing Reed to reclaim the seat).
- Paddy Webb (Labour, Grey) lost his seat in April 1918, having been jailed for refusing military service. (He had previously fought and won a by-election on the issue).
- Wilson 1985, pp. 138, 141.
- Wilson 1985, p. 58.
- Wilson 1985, p. 286.
- Hislop, J. (1915). The General Election, 1914. National Library. pp. 1–33. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "General Election". The Press. L (15116). 4 November 1914. p. 7. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Mr. H.C. Tewsley". Observer. XXXV (14). 12 December 1914. p. 15. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Labour's Candidates". Maoriland Worker. 12 (299). 22 November 1922. p. 12. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Election void, Vernon Reed disqualified for a year". Colonist. LVII (13773). 10 May 1915. p. 4. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Mr Jennings Unseated for Taumarunui". Ashburton Guardian. XXXV (9140). 14 May 1915. p. 4. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Gustafson, Barry (1980). Labour's path to political independence: The Origins and Establishment of the New Zealand Labour Party, 1900–19. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press. ISBN 0-19-647986-X.
- McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.