1999 Namibian general election

General elections were held in Namibia on 30 November and 1 December 1999 to elect a president and the National Assembly.[1] Voting took place over two days, after the Commission was persuaded by protests from political parties that a single polling day would be insufficient to accommodate travel to polling stations by voters in remote areas.[2]

1999 Namibian general election

← 1994 30 November–1 December 1999 2004 →
  Sam Nujoma.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Sam Nujoma Ben Ulenga
Party SWAPO COD
Popular vote 414,096 56,541
Percentage 76.82% 10.49%

President before election

Sam Nujoma
SWAPO

Elected President

Sam Nujoma
SWAPO

Incumbent President Sam Nujoma of SWAPO was re-elected with over 76% of the vote, whilst SWAPO won 55 of the 72 elected seats in the National Assembly.

Electoral systemEdit

The President was elected using a modified two-round system, with a candidate required to receive at least 50% of the vote in the first round to be elected; if no candidate had crossed the 50% threshold, subsequent rounds would be held until a candidate achieved a majority.[3] The Namibian constitution was amended to allow the first president to hold office for three terms, as Nujoma had started his first term after being nominated by members of the Constituent Assembly rather than being directly elected.[4]

The National Assembly consisted of 72 members elected by proportional representation and six members appointed by the President.[3]

ConductEdit

Following supplementary voter registration between August and September 1999,  the electorate rose from 738,000 to 878,000 due to names being entered improperly, incorrect addresses, names entered multiple times, and officials registering people beyond the 8 October deadline.[2] The former Director of Elections maintained that the actual number of legitimate voters was approximately 790,000. To combat voter fraud, voters would sign or mark their cards to prevent them from voting twice, they would also have thumb marking with indelible ink. [2]

The Congress of Democrats (COD) felt that distribution of public funds to political parties were unfair as, the money was only available for political parties represented in parliament. Based on representation SWAPO received N$5.8 million, the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) N$1.8 million, the United Democratic Front N$225,000, the Monitor Action Group N$75,316 and the Democratic Coalition of Namibia N$69,355.

ViolenceEdit

Despite all parties signing and agreeing to an electoral code of conduct at the beginning of the campaign, there was violence between SWAPO and COD supporters. It began when a SWAPO supporter assaulted a young woman who was working in a pub in Ondangwa. Another COD supporter was beaten up after a classroom debate. The DTA claimed that police were harassing their followers with detention orders and house searches. The Home Affairs minister said DTA politicians should be "locked up" if they tried to obtain police assistance in organising their meetings.[2] On 4 November a COD regional manager was travelling and was surrounded by schoolchildren and SWAPO co-ordinator Mandate Pohamba. The children were chanting "down with the mercenaries and spies", and attempted to remove party logo from the vehicle.[2] This activity escalated to a COD organiser being assaulted with a brick by schoolchildren and later receiving death threats.

Ignatius Shixwameni, then a SWAPO politician, claimed he heard SWAPO supporters in the Kavango Region signing songs about how he and Ben Ulenga (the COD presidential candidate) would be arrested and have their heads chopped off. He also said he had been told by trainee teachers in the area that they were told not to join the COD if they wanted jobs. Schoolchildren had been threatened they would lose scholarships if they or their parents joined the COD.[2] Many more incidents similar to those mentioned were reported. The National Society for Human Rights released a report detailing the events. The Electoral Commission conducted a Liaison Committee on 9 November, in which it was agreed upon by the parties that whenever possible they would hold their rallies at the same times and at least 500 meters apart.[2]

ResultsEdit

PresidentEdit

Candidate Party Votes %
Sam Nujoma SWAPO 414,096 76.82
Ben Ulenga Congress of Democrats 56,541 10.49
Katuutire Kaura Democratic Turnhalle Alliance 51,939 9.64
Justus ǁGaroëb United Democratic Front 16,272 3.02
Invalid/blank votes 6,617
Total 545,465 100
Registered voters/turnout 878,869 62.06
Source: Government of Namibia

National AssemblyEdit

Party Votes % Seats +/–
SWAPO 408,174 76.15 55 +2
Congress of Democrats 53,289 9.94 7 New
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance 50,824 9.48 7 –8
United Democratic Front 15,685 2.93 2 0
Monitor Action Group 3,618 0.67 1 0
SWANU-WRP 1,885 0.35 0 0
Democratic Coalition of Namibia 1,797 0.34 0 –1
Federal Convention of Namibia 764 0.14 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 5,078
Appointed members 6 0
Total 536,036 100 78 0
Registered voters/turnout 861,848 62.20
Source: African Elections Database

By regionEdit

Region COD DCN DTA FCN MAG SWANU-WRP SWAPO UDF
Caprivi 6,368 71 943 18 17 28 9,754 174
Erongo 5,590 130 3,372 27 465 101 24,065 4,097
Hardap 4,854 111 3,943 78 453 72 6,318 353
ǁKaras 4,866 94 2,939 106 405 29 13,124 299
Kavango 4,838 135 7,179 100 83 221 33,970 679
Khomas 14,530 339 5,657 162 846 302 44,925 2,288
Kunene 1,528 113 6,911 38 192 44 4,368 3,435
Ohangwena 308 27 152 9 18 181 68,593 243
Omaheke 1,967 197 7,619 81 399 254 6,402 300
Omusati 374 42 611 25 35 210 80,601 277
Oshana 1,313 20 727 16 17 128 52,246 234
Oshikoto 2,161 47 921 18 79 154 47,584 698
Otjozondjupa 4,455 467 9,843 86 606 159 15,988 2,605
Source: The Namibian[5]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Namibia: Presidential and National Assembly Elections 1999 EISA
  2. ^ a b c d e f g T. Lodge (2001) "The Namibian Elections of 1999", Democratization, 8:2, 191-230, DOI: 10.1080/714000205
  3. ^ a b Kemi Ogunsanya (2003) Namibia Elections and Conflict Management Accord
  4. ^ Elections held in 1999 IPU
  5. ^ "Your Guide to the Results. Facts and Figures". Election supplement to The Namibian, 25 November 2014, p2