1994 Panamanian general election
The Panama held a general election on 8 May 1994, electing both a new President of the Republic and a new Legislative Assembly.
Ernesto Pérez Balladares stood as a candidate for the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), opposing Mireya Moscoso of the Arnulfista Party and the salsa singer Rubén Blades, who was then president of the party Papa Egoro. In the 1989 general election, Pérez Balladares had served as the campaign manager for Carlos Duque, the hand-picked candidate of military ruler Manuel Noriega, and his 1994 opponents sought to emphasize his connection with Noriega, broadcasting pictures of the two together. Pérez Balladares denied the link, describing the current PRD as "diametrically opposed" to Noriega's policies. Instead, he worked to position himself as a successor to Torrijos, who was regarded as a national hero. The incumbent Arnulfista Party, meanwhile, was seen as hobbled by dissatisfaction with the perceived incompetence and corruption of Endara's government. He ultimately won the election with 33% of the vote, with Moscoso receiving 29% and Blades receiving 17%.
The PRD "also achieved an effective majority in the new National Assembly. The big surprise was not the victory of the PRD, but the nearly successful challenge of Mireya Moscoso de Gruber, the candidate of the Arnulfista Party".
|Ernesto Pérez Balladares||United People Alliance (APU)||355,307||33.30|
|Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)||326,095||30.57|
|Labor and Agrarian Party (PALA)||17,046||1.60|
|Republican Liberal Party (PLR)||12,166||1.14|
|Mireya Moscoso||Democratic Alliance (AD)||310,372||29.09|
|Arnulfista Party (PA)||211,780||19.85|
|Liberal Party (PL)||46,775||4.38|
|Authentic Liberal Party (PLA)||43,797||4.11|
|Independent Democrat Union (UDI)||8,020||0.75|
|Rubén Blades||Mother Earth Movement (MPE)||182,405||17.10|
|Rubén Dario Carles||Alliance for Change '94 (C 94)||171,192||16.05|
|National Liberal Republican Movement (MOLIRENA)||115,478||10.82|
|National Renewal Movement (MORENA)||32,122||3.01|
|Civic Renewal Party (PRC)||23,592||2.21|
|Eduardo Vallarino||Christian Democratic Party (PDC)||25,476||2.39|
|Samuel Lewis Galindo||National Concertation (CN)||18,424||1.73|
|Solidarity Party (PS)||9,304||0.87|
|National Unity Mission Party (MUN)||9,120||0.85|
|José Salvador Muñoz||Doctrinaire Panameñista Party (PPD)||3,668||0.34|
|Total valid votes||1,066,844||100|
|Spoilt and invalid votes||37,734||3.42|
|Parties and alliances||Votes/districts||%||Seats|
|United People Alliance (APU)||289,470||28.01%||33|
|Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)||236,319||22.86%||30|
|Labor and Agrarian Party (PALA)||28,172||2.73%||1|
|Republican Liberal Party (PLR)||24,979||2.42%||2|
|Democratic Alliance (AD)||229,884||22.24%||19|
|Arnulfista Party (PA)||150,217||14.53%||14|
|Liberal Party (PL)||35,516||3.44%||2|
|Authentic Liberal Party (PLA)||31,045||3.00%||2|
|Independent Democrat Union (UDI)||13,106||1.27%||1|
|Alliance for Change '94 (C 94)||243,004||23.51%||9|
|National Liberal Republican Movement (MOLIRENA)||116,833||11.30%||5|
|National Renewal Movement (MORENA)||68,581||6.64%||1|
|Civic Renewal Party (PRC)||57,590||5.57%||3|
|Mother Earth Movement (MPE)||99,760||9.65%||6|
|National Concertation (CN)||94,323||9.12%||4|
|Solidarity Party (PS)||67,306||6.51%||4|
|National Unity Mission Party (MUN)||27,017||2.61%||2.61%|
|Christian Democratic Party (PDC)||66,411||6.43%||1|
|Doctrinaire Panameñista Party (PPD)||10,720||1.04%||0|
|Total valid votes||1,033,572||100%||72|
|Spoilt and invalid votes||58,184||5.33%|
- Howard W. French (February 21, 1994). "Panama Journal; Democracy at Work, Under Shadow of Dictators". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Douglas Farah (May 9, 1994). "Panamanians Vote in Peace, Picking Ex-Aide of Noriega; Millionaire Perez Balladares Bests Widow of Four-Time President". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Panama". University of Missouri-Saint Louis. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Falcoff, Mark. The 1994 Panamanian elections: post-election report. Washington: CSIS Americas Program. 1994. Pp. 1.
- Elections in the Americas : a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press, 2005. Pp.534.
- Elections in the Americas : a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press, 2005. Pp.528.