1994 Hong Kong local elections

The 1994 Hong Kong District Board elections were held on 18 September 1994 for all 18 districts of Hong Kong and 346 members from directly elected constituencies. It was the last district-level elections in the colonial period before the handover of Hong Kong in 1997. It was the first elections to be held after the abolition of the appointed seats as proposed by the new electoral arrangements, as the last step of the democratisation by the then Governor Chris Patten before the handover.

1994 Hong Kong local elections
Flag of Hong Kong (1959–1997).svg
← 1991 18 September 1994 1999 →

All Elected Constituencies
346 (of the 373) seats in all 18 Districts Boards
Registered2,450,372 Increase33.14%
Turnout693,215 (33.11%) Increase0.64pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Martin Lee 2014 cut.jpg Tsang Yok-sing.jpg Frederick Fung at Alliance for True Democracy.jpg
Leader Martin Lee Tsang Yok-sing Frederick Fung
Party UDHK/MP DAB ADPL
Last election New party New party 15 seats, 5.26%
Seats won 75 37 29
Seat change Increase26 Increase12 Increase12
Popular vote 157,929 81,126 47,740
Percentage 23.01% 11.82% 6.95%
Swing N/A N/A Increase2.20pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Allen Lee at 71demo 2008.jpg Lau Kong-wah 2014.jpg
Leader Allen Lee Hu Fa-kuang Lau Kong-wah
Party Liberal LDF Civil Force
Last election New party 24 seats, 8.96% New party
Seats won 18 11 10
Seat change Increase6 Decrease5 Increase7
Popular vote 50,755 25,499 12,141
Percentage 7.39% 3.72% 1.77%
Swing N/A Decrease5.24pp N/A

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
 
Leader Yum Sin-ling Patrick Shiu Ambrose Lau
Party 123DA DF Progressive Alliance
Last election New party 3 seats, 1.63% New party
Seats won 6 3 1
Seat change Steady Steady Steady
Popular vote 15,527 4,048 3,288
Percentage 2.26% 0.59% 0.48%
Swing N/A Decrease1.04pp N/A

Despite set against the British-Chinese dispute over Hong Kong's political reform, the election was influenced by local issues such as bus fares and garbage collection. The turnout of 33.1 per cent, slightly higher than the 32.5 per cent turnout for the 1991 District Board elections. Almost 700,000 votes cast were 60 per cent more than in the previous election and reflect the broader franchise stemming from Patten's reform package.[1]

Under the Patten reform package, the voting age was lowered to 18 from 21, appointed members were abolished, and District Board members were given responsibility of filling ten of the 60 Legislative Council seats through Election Committee constituency in the 1995 Legislative Council election.[1] The multiple-member single-constituency electoral method was also changed to single-member constituency method.

The pro-democracy alliance, the United DemocratsMeeting Point, which was undergoing the merger plan of creating the Democratic Party, captured the lead with 75 seats (77 seats in some other materials) and teamed up with smaller pro-democracy parties to gain control of five of the 18 District Boards, Central and Western District, Sham Shui Po District and Kwun Tong District in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and Tuen Mun District and Kwai Tsing District in the New Territories.[1] The biggest pro-Beijing party, the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB) won 37 seats, doing better than expected, while conservative, pro-business candidates of the Liberal Party, the Liberal Democratic Federation of Hong Kong (LDF) and the Hong Kong Progressive Alliance came in below expectations with 30 seats.[1]

After the elections, Beijing appointed 200 District Affairs Advisers as the part of establishing a political structure parallel to that of the British one, as it claimed that Patten's reform violated the constitution and Sino-British agreements.[1] After the handover, the 1994 elected District Boards transformed into 18 Provisional District Boards with the reintroduction of the appointed seats by Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa. The Provisional District Boards were replaced by the District Councils elected in 1999.

ResultsEdit

General outcomeEdit

e • d Overall Summary of the 18 September 1994 District Boards of Hong Kong election results
Political Affiliation Popular vote % Standing Elected ±
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 81,126 11.82 83 37  12
Liberal Party 50,755 7.39 89 18  6
Liberal Democratic Federation of Hong Kong 25,499 3.72 28 11  5
Civil Force 12,141 1.77 10 10  7
East Kowloon District Residents' Committee 9,197 1.34 11 8  0
Kwun Tong Man Chung Friendship Promotion Association 11,952 1.74 12 7  2
United Front for the Service of the People 9,720 1.42 8 4  
Public Affairs Society 6,982 1.02 15 2  1
Kowloon City District Residence Association 1,486 0.22 2 2 -
Sham Shui Po Residents Association 332 0.05 3 2 -
Mongkok District Residence Association 1,450 0.21 2 1 -
Tai Po District Residence Association 3,325 0.48 4 1 -
Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 3,288 0.48 7 1  0
New Territories West Residents Association 2,187 0.32 5 1  1
Pro-China independents and others 151,436 22.08 162 90
Total for pro-China and conservative parties and allies 371,455 54.12 442 196  23
United DemocratsMeeting Point 157,929 23.01 133 75  26
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 47,740 6.95 40 29  12
123 Democratic Alliance 15,527 2.26 20 6  0
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation 4,048 0.59 5 3  0
Kowloon City Observers 5,164 0.75 6 2  1
Hong Kong Public Doctors' Association 3,273 0.48 3 2 -
Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions 2,850 0.42 2 2 -
Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union 2,127 0.31 1 1 -
Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre 859 0.13 3 1  1
Pioneer 387 0.06 1 0 -
Independent democrats and others 40,803 5.94 35 25
Total for pro-democracy parties and allies 280,707 40.89 249 146  48
Total for others 34,255 4.99 66 4  2
Total (turnout 33.1%) 686,417 100.0 757 346  73

Results by districtEdit

District Board Post-election control Largest party UD/MP DAB ADPL LP LDF CF 123DA Others Pro-dem Pro-Beijing Ex officio Composition Details
Central & Western Pro-democracy UD/MP (majority) 8 2 1 3 9 5 N/A




Details
Wan Chai Pro-Beijing United Democrats 3 3 1 3 3 7 N/A




Details
Eastern Pro-Beijing DAB 4 9 3 18 10 22 N/A




Details
Southern Pro-Beijing UD/MP 4 2 10 4 12 N/A




Details
Yau Tsim Mong Pro-Beijing ADPL 1 1 2 1 1 9 6 8 N/A




Details
Sham Shui Po Pro-democracy ADPL (majority) 3 11 1 5 14 6 N/A




Details
Kowloon City Pro-Beijing LDF 2 2 2 6 1 8 4 16 N/A




Details
Wong Tai Sin Pro-Beijing United Democrats 4 4 3 1 10 8 14 N/A




Details
Kwun Tong Pro-democracy UD/MP 7 4 1 1 2 18 17 16 N/A




Details
Tsuen Wan Pro-Beijing UD/MP 2 1 12 6 9 2




Details
Tuen Mun Pro-democracy UD/MP 9 2 4 1 2 7 15 10 1




Details
Yuen Long Pro-Beijing UD/MP 3 1 15 3 16 6




Details
North Pro-Beijing DAB 2 4 5 3 8 4




Details
Tai Po Pro-Beijing United Democrats 4 2 4 3 4 4 13 2




Details
Sai Kung Pro-Beijing United Democrats 2 2 7 5 6 2




Details
Sha Tin Pro-Beijing Civil Force 8 2 10 11 12 19 1




Details
Kwai Tsing Pro-democracy UD/MP 9 6 11 21 5 1




Details
Islands Pro-Beijing DAB 2 4 0 6 8




Details
TOTAL 75 37 29 18 11 10 6 158 144 198 27



Vote summaryEdit

Popular vote
UDHK/MP
23.16%
DAB
11.82%
Liberal
7.39%
ADPL
6.95%
LDF
4.06%
123DA
2.26%
Civil Force
1.77%
Others
42.59%

Seat summaryEdit

Seats
UDHK/MP
22.25%
DAB
10.69%
ADPL
8.38%
Liberal
5.20%
LDF
3.76%
Civil Force
2.90%
123DA
1.73%
Others
45.09%

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Tefft, Sheila (20 September 1994). "Pro-Democracy Parties Capture Lead in Hong Kong Elections". The Christian Science Monitor.