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The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup.[1]

1991 FIFA Women's World Cup
1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&Ms Cup
1991
1991 FIFA Women's World Cup.jpg
Official logo
Tournament details
Host countryChina
Dates16–30 November
Teams12 (from 6 confederations)
Venue(s)6 (in 4 host cities)
Final positions
Champions United States (1st title)
Runners-up Norway
Third place Sweden
Fourth place Germany
Tournament statistics
Matches played26
Goals scored99 (3.81 per match)
Attendance510,000 (19,615 per match)
Top scorer(s)United States Michelle Akers
(10 goals)
Best player(s)United States Carin Jennings
Fair play award Germany
1995

It was won by the United States,[2] whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament while Akers-Stahl's ten goals won the Golden Shoe.[3] The United States defeated Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000 people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium.[4] Total attendance for the tournament was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway was defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian, also of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.

The 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four (A to C). The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams.

Contents

VenuesEdit

Yuexiu, Guangzhou Tianhe, Guangzhou Panyu, Guangzhou
Guangdong Provincial Stadium Tianhe Stadium Ying Tung Stadium
Capacity: 25,000 Capacity: 60,000 Capacity: 15,000
   
 Guangdong,China
Foshan Jiangmen Zhongshan
New Plaza Stadium Jiangmen Stadium Zhongshan Stadium
Capacity: 14,000 Capacity: 13,000 Capacity: 12,000
 

TeamsEdit

Twelve teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup final tournament. Each of the six FIFA confederations had at least one representative.

SquadsEdit

For a list of the squads that contended for the final tournament, see 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads.

Match officialsEdit

For the first time in FIFA competition, six female officials were included. All functioned as assistant referees, except for Cláudia Vasconcelos who took charge of the third place play–off; becoming the first woman to referee a match sanctioned by FIFA.[5][6]

Tournament reviewEdit

FIFA's technical report demonstrates that, after the tournament, players and officials were undecided whether to persist with 80 minute matches, or to change to 90 minutes in line with men's football. Opinion was also divided about the suitability of using a size five football. Some teams reported difficulty in sourcing good quality equipment in the correct size.[7]

The tournament was considered a major success in the quality of play and attendances at the games. FIFA president João Havelange wrote that:[8]

The perceived success of the tournament was a significant factor in the subsequent inclusion of women's football in the 1996 Summer Olympics.[9] Sue Lopez reported that although attendances were very high, many tickets were complimentary. The "novelty factor" of women from foreign lands playing football also encouraged local people to attend.[10]

Group stageEdit

 
Countries and result

Group AEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1   China PR (H) 3 2 1 0 10 3 7 5
2   Norway 3 2 0 1 6 5 1 4
3   Denmark 3 1 1 1 6 4 2 3
4   New Zealand 3 0 0 3 1 11 −10 0

(H): Host.

China PR  4–0  Norway
Ma   22'
Liu   45'50'
Sun Q.   75'
(Report)
Attendance: 65,000
Referee: Salvador Marcone (Chile)
Denmark  3–0  New Zealand
Jensen   15'40'
MacKensie   42'
(Report)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Omer Yengo (Congo)
Norway  4–0  New Zealand
Campbell   30' (o.g.)
Medalen   32'38'
Riise   49'
(Report)
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Salvador Marcone (Chile)
China PR  2–2  Denmark
Sun W.   37'
Wei   76'
(Report) Kolding   24'
Nissen   55'
Attendance: 27,000
Referee: Vassilios Nikkakis (Greece)
China PR  4–1  New Zealand
Zhou   20'
Liu   22'60'
Wu   24'
(Report) Nye   65'
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Gyanu Raja Shresta (Nepal)
Norway  2–1  Denmark
Svensson   14' (pen.)
Medalen   56'
(Report) Thychosen   54' (pen.)
Attendance: 15,500

Group BEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1   United States 3 3 0 0 11 2 9 6
2   Sweden 3 2 0 1 12 3 9 4
3   Brazil 3 1 0 2 1 7 −6 2
4   Japan 3 0 0 3 0 12 −12 0
Japan  0–1  Brazil
(Report) Elane   4'
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Lu Jun (China)
Sweden  2–3  United States
Videkull   65'
I. Johansson   71'
(Report) Jennings   40'49'
Hamm   62'
Attendance: 14,000
Japan  0–8  Sweden
(Report) Videkull   1'11'
Andelen   15'60'
Lundgren   25'
Nilsson   27'
Sundhage   35'
Yamaguchi   70' (o.g.)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Gyanu Raja Shresta (Nepal)
Brazil  0–5  United States
(Report) Heinrichs   23'35'
Jennings   38'
Akers-Stahl   39'
Hamm   63'
Attendance: 15,500
Japan  0–3  United States
(Report) Akers-Stahl   20'37'
Gebauer   39'
Attendance: 14,000
Brazil  0–2  Sweden
(Report) Sundhage   42' (pen.)
Hedberg   56'
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Lu Jun (China)

Group CEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1   Germany 3 3 0 0 9 0 9 6
2   Italy 3 2 0 1 6 2 4 4
3   Chinese Taipei 3 1 0 2 2 8 −6 2
4   Nigeria 3 0 0 3 0 7 −7 0
Germany  4–0  Nigeria
Neid   16'
Mohr   32'34'
Gottschlich   57'
(Report)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Rafael Medina (El Salvador)
Chinese Taipei  0–5  Italy
(Report) Ferraguzzi   15'
Marsiletti   29'
Morace   37'52'66'
Attendance: 11,000
Referee: Fethi Boucetta (Tunisia)
Italy  1–0  Nigeria
Morace   68' (Report)
Attendance: 12,000
Chinese Taipei  0–3  Germany
(Report) Wiegmann   10' (pen.)
Mohr   21'50'
Attendance: 10,000
Referee: Fethi Boucetta (Tunisia)
Chinese Taipei  2–0  Nigeria
Lin   38'
Chou   55'
(Report)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Rafael Medina (El Salvador)
Italy  0–2  Germany
(Report) Mohr   67'
Unsleber   79'
Attendance: 12,000

Ranking of third-placed teamsEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1   Denmark 3 1 1 1 6 4 2 3
2   Chinese Taipei 3 1 0 2 2 8 −6 2
3   Brazil 3 1 0 2 1 7 −6 2

Knockout stageEdit

BracketEdit

 
Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
          
 
24 November — Foshan
 
 
  United States 7
 
27 November — Guangzhou
 
  Chinese Taipei 0
 
  United States 5
 
24 November — Zhongshan
 
  Germany 2
 
  Germany 2
 
30 November — Guangzhou
 
  Denmark 1
 
  United States 2
 
24 November — Guangzhou
 
  Norway 1
 
  China PR 0
 
27 November — Panyu
 
  Sweden 1
 
  Sweden 1
 
24 November — Jiangmen
 
  Norway 4 Third place
 
  Norway 3
 
29 November — Guangzhou
 
  Italy 2
 
  Sweden 4
 
 
  Germany 0
 

Quarter-finalsEdit

Germany  2–1
(a.e.t.)
  Denmark
Wiegmann   17' (pen.)
Mohr   98'
(Report) MacKensie   25' (pen.)
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Vassilios Nikkakis (Greece)

China PR  0–1  Sweden
(Report) Sundhage   3'
Attendance: 55,000

Norway  3–2
(a.e.t.)
  Italy
Hegstad   22'
Carlsen   67'
Svensson   96' (pen.)
(Report) Salmaso   31'
Guarino   80'
Attendance: 13,000
Referee: Rafael Medina (El Salvador)

United States  7–0  Chinese Taipei
Akers-Stahl   8'29'33'44' (pen.)48'
Foudy   38'
Biefield   79'
(Report)
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Omer Yengo (Congo)

Semi-finalsEdit

Sweden  1–4  Norway
Videkull   6' (Report) Svensson   39' (pen.)
Medalen   41'77'
Carlsen   67'
Attendance: 16,000

United States  5–2  Germany
Jennings   10'22'33'
Heinrichs   54'75'
(Report) Mohr   34'
Wiegmann   63'
Attendance: 15,000
Referee: Salvador Marcone (Chile)

Third place play-offEdit

Sweden  4–0  Germany
Andelen   7'
Sundhage   11'
Videkull   29'
Nilsson   43'
(Report)
Attendance: 20,000
Referee: Claudia Vasconcelos (Brazil)

FinalEdit

United States  2–1  Norway
Akers-Stahl   20'78' (Report) Medalen   29'
Attendance: 63,000

AwardsEdit

The following awards were given for the tournament:[11]

Golden Ball Silver Ball Bronze Ball
  Carin Jennings   Michelle Akers   Linda Medalen
Golden Shoe Silver Shoe Bronze Shoe
  Michelle Akers   Heidi Mohr   Linda Medalen
  Carin Jennings
10 goals 7 goals 6 goals
FIFA Fair Play Award
  Germany

Goal scorersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mattei, Al. "WUSA opening a feast for the eyes – and ears". TopOfTheCircle.com. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  2. ^ Ciapala, Derek (18 June 2012). "History of the FIFA Women's World Cup, 1991–present – World Soccer – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  3. ^ "CNN/SI – Women's World Cup – Women's World Cup History – Thursday February 11, 1999 06:04 PM". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  4. ^ Basler, Barbara (1 December 1991). "U.S. Women Beat Norway To Capture World Cup". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  5. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 195
  6. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup – China PR 1991". FIFA. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. In keeping with the true spirit of the celebration, six female referees or assistant referees were appointed among match officials for the first time in FIFA history. Claudia de Vasconcelos of Brazil, the referee for the 3rd-place match, became the first woman to officiate at this level for FIFA.
  7. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup China '91 – Technical Report & Statistics" (PDF). FIFA. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  8. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 173
  9. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 175
  10. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 207
  11. ^ Awards 1991

BibliographyEdit

  • Lisi, Clemente Angelo (2010). The U.S. Women's Soccer Team: An American Success Story. Plymouth, England: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810874156.
  • Lopez, Sue (1997). Women on the Ball: A Guide to Women's Football. London, England: Scarlet Press. ISBN 1857270169.

External linksEdit