Open main menu

General elections were held in Nicaragua on 25 February 1990.[1] The result was a victory for the National Opposition Union (UNO), whose presidential candidate Violeta Chamorro surprisingly defeated incumbent president Daniel Ortega of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN),[2] despite opinion polls leading up to the elections clearly indicating an FSLN victory.[3]

1990 Nicaraguan presidential election

← 1984 25 February 1990 1996 →
  Violeta Chamorro.jpg Ortega Lula - ABr 28.07.20102225 (cropped).JPG
Candidate Violeta Chamorro Daniel Ortega
Party UNO FSLN
Popular vote 777.552 579.886
Percentage 54.74% 40.82%

President before election

Daniel Ortega
FSLN

President-elect

Violeta Chamorro
UNO

Possible explanations include that the Nicaraguan people were disenchanted with the Ortega government as well as the fact that already in November 1989, the White House had announced that the economic embargo against Nicaragua would continue unless Violeta Chamorro won.[4] Also, there had been reports of intimidation from the side of the contras,[5] with a Canadian observer mission claiming that 42 people were killed by the contras in "election violence" in October 1989.[6] This led many commentators to assume that Nicaraguans voted against the Sandinistas out of fear of a continuation of the contra war and economic deprivation.[3]

ResultsEdit

PresidentEdit

Candidate Party Votes %
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro National Opposition Union 777,552 54.74
Daniel Ortega Sandinista National Liberation Front 579,886 40.82
Erick Ramírez Beneventes Social Christian Party 16,751 1.18
Issa Moisés Hassán Morales Revolutionary Unity Movement 11,136 0.78
Bonifacio Miranda Bengoechea Workers' Revolutionary Party 8,590 0.60
Isidro Téllez Toruño Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement 8,115 0.57
Fernando Bernabé Agüero Rocha Social Conservative Party 5,798 0.41
Blanca Rojas Echaverry Central American Unionist Party 5,065 0.36
Eduardo Molina Palacios Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua 4,500 0.32
Rodolfo Robelo Herrera Independent Liberal Party for National Unity 3,151 0.22
Invalid/blank votes 90,249
Total 1,510,838 100
Registered voters/turnout 1,752,088 86.23
Source: Nohlen

National AssemblyEdit

Parties and alliances Votes % Seats
National Opposition Union 764,748 53.9 51
Sandinista National Liberation Front 579,723 40.8 39
Social Christian Party 22,218 1.6 1
Revolutionary Unity Movement 13,995 1.0 1
Workers' Revolutionary Party 10,586 0.7 0
Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement 7,643 0.5 0
Social Conservative Party 6,308 0.4 0
Central American Unionist Party 5,565 0.4 0
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua 5,083 0.4 0
Independent Liberal Party for National Unity 3,515 0.2 0
Invalid/blank votes 92,723
Total 1,512,107 100 92
Registered voters/turnout 1,752,088 86.3
Source: Nohlen

By regionEdit

Region FSLN UNO Other
Boaco 24.04% 70.70% 5.26%
Carazo 51.62% 44.55% 3.84%
Chinandega 41.71% 54.26% 4.03%
Chontales 25.48% 70.31% 4.22%
Esteli 51.07% 44.45% 4.47%
Granada 37.52% 58.63% 3.85%
Jinotega 37.44% 54.81% 7.74%
Leon 45.67% 50.45% 3.87%
Madriz 40.90% 54.50% 4.59%
Managua 42.48% 53.35% 4.17%
Masaya 41.84% 54.65% 3.50%
Matagalpa 35.50% 59.27% 5.23%
Nueva Segovia 49.51% 46.60% 3.89%
RAAN 39.21% 17.02% 43.77%
RAAS 34.37% 58.70% 6.93%
Rio San Juan 57.72% 39.47% 2.81%
Rivas 45.09% 51.56% 3.34%
Source: Constituency Level Elections Archive[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p489 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
  2. ^ Uhlig, Mark A. (27 February 1990). "Turnover in Nicaragua; NICARAGUAN OPPOSITION ROUTS SANDINISTAS; U.S. PLEDGES AID, TIED TO ORDERLY TURNOVER". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  3. ^ a b "After the Poll Wars-Explaining the Upset". Envio. March 1990.
  4. ^ "Bush Vows to End Embargo if Chamorro Wins", The Washington Post, 9 November 1989
  5. ^ "The policy of keeping the contras alive ... also has placed in jeopardy the holding of elections by encouraging contra attacks on the electoral process. Thus, while the Bush administration proclaims its support for human rights and free and fair elections in Nicaragua, it persists in sabotaging both." As seen at: "Nicaragua" Human Rights Watch, 1990
  6. ^ "U.S. trying to disrupt election in Nicaragua, Canadians report" The Toronto Star, 27 October 1989
  7. ^ "Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA)". www.electiondataarchive.org. Retrieved 2019-03-09.