1990 Commonwealth Games
The 1990 Commonwealth Games were held in Auckland, New Zealand from 24 January – 3 February 1990. It was the 14th Commonwealth Games, and part of New Zealand's 1990 sesquicentennial celebrations. Participants competed in ten sports: athletics, aquatics, badminton, boxing, cycling, gymnastics, judo, lawn bowls, shooting and weightlifting. The Triathlon was a demonstration event.
|Host city||Auckland, New Zealand|
|Motto||This is the Moment|
|Events||213 events in 10 sports|
|Opening ceremony||24 January|
|Closing ceremony||3 February|
|Officially opened by||Prince Edward|
|Officially closed by||Elizabeth II|
|Queen's Baton Final Runner||Mark Todd and Peter Snell|
|Main venue||Mount Smart Stadium|
The main venue was the Mount Smart Stadium.
The Games were awarded to Auckland on 27 July 1984 at the Los Angeles Summer Olympics. Perth, Australia, had withdrawn from the bid contest leaving New Delhi, India, as the sole opponent to Auckland's bid.
|1990 Commonwealth Games bidding results|
The opening of the games comprised a variety of events, including the arrival of The Queen's representative The Prince Edward (her youngest son), the arrival of the Queen's Baton and many Māori ceremonial stories.
The opening ceremony itself started off with the Auckland Commonwealth Games Choir singing the Song of Welcome. Upon the arrival of The Prince Edward, the Māori in attendance, gave him a Challenge of a welcome. This is conducted by a Māori placing a wooden batton on the ground. To see if the visitor comes in peace or not, the visitor must pick it up.
The New Zealand national anthem "God Defend New Zealand" was sung during a ceremonial fourteen gun salute from nearby One Tree Hill. This was followed by the New Zealand Army Guard Commander allowing The Prince Edward to inspect the guard of honour. After which was the introduction of the participating countries of the Commonwealth. During the introduction of the countries, the choir at attendance would display the flag of the announced country with boards.
When all the athletes finally sat down, the main Māori ceremonies began. First of the Māori ceremonies was all the Māori women performing a "Song of Welcome" for the athletes with the use of Poi. The Māori women then gave some of the athletes a Hongi. Next was the Māori story of how New Zealand was formed, performed by many New Zealanders and organised by Logan Brewer. It involved a narration of how the Polynesians found their way to what was to become New Zealand. In the middle of the performance, a re-enactment was performed of how New Zealand was formed between Rangi and Papa (the sky father and earth mother). The story then moved on to the coming of religion and European migration. This was demonstrated with a formation of the Union Jack, to show the colonisation by the British. Dame Whina Cooper then made a speech about the Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 that brought about peace and stability of modern New Zealand.
Introduction of the European communities was next with music and native dancing from European countries such as Italy, Poland, Greece, Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland, Austria, Wales and England, and music and native dancing also from Asian countries such as China, Sri Lanka and India. From here, many of the neighbouring Pacific Islanders made their entrance with the rhythmic tempo of the Pacific Island drum beat. This was to show the then complete migration of people to New Zealand.
New Zealand performer Howard Morrison then lead New Zealand in singing the folk song Tukua-a-hau. After Howard Morrison, the Queen's Baton arrived at the stadium where The Prince Edward announced the opening of the games which was followed by the Athletes Pledge.
Fireworks followed and was capped off with a night time flyover by nine A-4 Skyhawk jets of the Royal New Zealand Air Forces 75 Squadron. The ceremony was concluded by the singing of the game's motto "This is the moment" as performers and athletes exited the stadium.
A more relaxed affair was held for the 14th Commonwealth Games closing ceremony, reflecting that of Christchurch in 1974. Attended by HM The Queen of New Zealand, formality and respect played their due part in the beginning with formal salute and the acceptance of the Commonwealth Games flag to the next host city, Victoria, Canada. This was followed by a First Nations and modern Canadian dancing display.
Then the fun began with thousands of children entering the stadium with a mass jumprope demonstration, followed by the athletes themselves. The Queen then made the traditional closing speech and called for all the Commonwealth's athletes to assemble in four years time in Victoria. As the evening wore on, opera singer Dame Kiri Te Kanawa sang "Now is the Hour", a favorite New Zealand hymn, as the Royal New Zealand Air Force's A4 Skyhawks made one final swooping flyover of Mount Smart Stadium followed by fireworks. The Queen, Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Edward then exited the stadium standing in open top vehicles.
The mascot of the games was Goldie, representing New Zealand's national symbol the kiwi bird.
55 teams were represented at the 1990 Games.
(Teams competing for the first time are shown in bold).
|Participating Commonwealth countries and territories|
|Debuting Commonwealth ountries and territories|
Medals by countryEdit
This is the full table of the medal count of the 1990 Commonwealth Games. These rankings sort by the number of gold medals earned by a country. The number of silvers is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze. If, after the above, countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically. This follows the system used by the IOC, IAAF and BBC.
Figures from Commonwealth Games Foundation website.
|Papua New Guinea||1||0||0||1|
Medals by eventEdit
- At these games, the Triathlon was a demonstration event; won by Erin Baker (women) and Rick Wells (men), both from New Zealand.
|Time Trial||Martin Vinnicombe (AUS)||00:01:06||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:01:07||Jon Andrews (NZL)||00:01:07|
|Sprint||Gary Neiwand (AUS)||Curt Harnett (CAN)||Jon Andrews (NZL)|
|Individual Pursuit||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:04:45||Mark Kingsland (AUS)||00:04:53||Darren Winter (AUS)||00:04:52|
|Team Pursuit|| New Zealand
|10 Miles Scratch||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:19:44||Shaun O'Brien (AUS)||00:19:44||Steve McGlede (AUS)||00:19:44|
|Points Race||Robert Burns (AUS)||81||Craig Connell (NZL)||72||Alistair Irvine (NIR)||39|
|Sprint||Louise Jones (WAL)||Julie Speight (AUS)||Sue Golder (NZL)|
|Individual Pursuit||Madonna Harris (NZL)||00:03:55||Kathy Watt (AUS)||00:03:55||Kelly-Ann Way (CAN)||00:04:00|
|Road Race||Graeme Miller (NZL)||04:34:00||Brian Fowler (NZL)||04:34:00||Scott Goguen (CAN)||04:34:05|
|Team Time Trial|| New Zealand
|Road Race||Kathryn Watt (AUS)||01:55:11.60||Lisa Brambani (ENG)||1:55:11.88||Kathleen Shannon (AUS)||1:55:12.06|
|All-Around||Mary Fuzesi (CAN)||37.65||Madonna Gimotea (CAN)||37.25||Angela Walker (NZL)||36.9|
|Ball||Madonna Gimotea (CAN)||9.45||Mary Fuzesi (CAN)||9.4||Angela Walker (NZL)||9.25|
|Hoop||Mary Fuzesi (CAN)||9.4||Madonna Gimotea (CAN)||9.2|| Raewyn Jack (NZL)
Alitia Sands (ENG)
Viva Seifert (ENG)
|Ribbon||Mary Fuzesi (CAN)||9.4||Madonna Gimotea (CAN)||9.3|| Raewyn Jack (NZL)
Viva Seifert (ENG)
Angela Walker (NZL)
|Rope||Angela Walker (NZL)||9.3||Madonna Gimotea (CAN)||9.275||Mary Fuzesi (CAN)||9.25|
|Free Pistol||Phil Adams (AUS)||554||Bengt Sandstrom (AUS)||549||Gilbert U (HKG)||549|
|Free Pistol - Pairs|| Australia
|1106|| New Zealand
|Centre-Fire Pistol||Ashok Pandit (IND)||583||Surinder Marwah (IND)||577||Bruce Quick (AUS)||576|
|Centre-Fire Pistol - Pairs|| Australia
|1155|| New Zealand
|Rapid-Fire Pistol||Adrian Breton (GGY)||583||Pat Murray (AUS)||582||Michael Jay (WAL)||579|
|Rapid-Fire Pistol - Pairs|| Australia
|Air Pistol||Bengt Sandström (AUS)||580||Phil Adams (AUS)||574||David Lowe (ENG)||574|
|Air Pistol - Pairs|| Bangladesh
|1138|| New Zealand
|Trap||John Maxwell (AUS)||184||Kevin Gill (ENG)||183||Ian Peel (ENG)||179|
|Trap - Pairs|| England
|Skeet||Ken Harman (ENG)||187||Georgios Sakellis (CYP)||187||Andy Austin (ENG)||184|
|Skeet - Pairs|| Scotland
|185|| New Zealand
|Flyweight - Snatch||Chandersekaran Raghavan (IND)||105||Velu Govindraj (IND)||95||Greg Hayman (AUS)||90|
|Flyweight - Clean and Jerk||Chandersekaran Raghavan (IND)||127.5||Greg Hayman (AUS)||117.5||Velu Govindraj (IND)||117.5|
|Flyweight - Overall||Chandersekaran Raghavan (IND)||232.5||Velu Govindraj (IND)||212.5||Greg Hayman (AUS)||207.5|
|Bantamweight - Snatch||Rangaswamy Punnuswamy (IND)||110||Alan Ogilvie (SCO)||107.5||Denis Aumais (CAN)||102.5|
|Bantamweight - Clean and Jerk||Rangaswamy Punnuswamy (IND)||137.5||Gopal Maruthachelam (IND)||125||Alan Ogilvie (SCO)||122.5|
|Bantamweight - Overall||Rangaswamy Punnuswamy (IND)||247.5||Alan Ogilvie (SCO)||230||Gopal Maruthachelam (IND)||227.5|
|Featherweight - Snatch||Marcus Stephen (NRU)||112.5||Parvesh Chander Sharma (IND)||112.5||Kumarasan Sudalaimani (IND)||110|
|Featherweight - Clean and Jerk||Parvesh Chander Sharma (IND)||145||Marcus Stephen (NRU)||142.5||Kumarasan Sudalaimani (IND)||142.5|
|Featherweight - Overall||Parvesh Chander Sharma (IND)||257.5||Marcus Stephen (NRU)||255||Kumarasan Sudalaimani (IND)||252.5|
|Lightweight - Snatch||Paramjit Sharma (IND)||130||Lawrence Iquaibom (NGR)||130||Mark Blair (AUS)||127.5|
|Lightweight - Clean and Jerk||Paramjit Sharma (IND)||165||Lawrence Iquaibom (NGR)||160||Mark Roach (WAL)||155|
|Lightweight - Overall||Paramjit Sharma (IND)||295||Lawrence Iquaibom (NGR)||290||Mark Roach (WAL)||280|
|Middleweight - Snatch||Karnadhar Mondal (IND)||135||Karl Jones (WAL)||135||Ron Laycock (AUS)||132.5|
|Middleweight - Clean and Jerk||Ron Laycock (AUS)||177.5||Karnadhar Mondal (IND)||170||Damian Brown (AUS)||167.5|
|Middleweight - Overall||Ron Laycock (AUS)||310||Karnadhar Mondal (IND)||305||Benoît Gagné (CAN)||292.5|
|Light Heavyweight - Snatch||David Morgan (WAL)||155||Muyiwa Odusanya (NGR)||152.5||Sylvain Leblanc (CAN)||145|
|Light Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||David Morgan (WAL)||192.5||Soronomathu Ramaswamy (IND)||182.5||Muyiwa Odusanya (NGR)||180|
|Light Heavyweight - Overall||David Morgan (WAL)||347.5||Muyiwa Odusanya (NGR)||332.5||Andy Callard (ENG)||317.5|
|Middle Heavyweight - Snatch||Duncan Dawkins (ENG)||162.5||Keith Boxell (ENG)||152.5||Harvey Goodman (AUS)||150|
|Middle Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||Duncan Dawkins (ENG)||195||Keith Boxell (ENG)||192.5||Harvey Goodman (AUS)||190|
|Middle Heavyweight - Overall||Duncan Dawkins (ENG)||357.5||Keith Boxell (ENG)||345||Harvey Goodman (AUS)||340|
|Sub Heavyweight - Snatch||Andrew Saxton (ENG)||165||Peter May (ENG)||145||Guy Greavette (CAN)||140|
|Sub Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||Andrew Saxton (ENG)||197.5||Peter May (ENG)||175||Guy Greavette (CAN)||175|
|Sub Heavyweight - Overall||Andrew Saxton (ENG)||362.5||Peter May (ENG)||320||Guy Greavette (CAN)||315|
|Heavyweight - Snatch||Mark Thomas (ENG)||160||Jason Roberts (AUS)||152.5||Steve Wilson (WAL)||152.5|
|Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||Mark Thomas (ENG)||197.5||Jason Roberts (AUS)||192.5||Aled Arnold (WAL)||187.5|
|Heavyweight - Overall||Mark Thomas (ENG)||357.5||Jason Roberts (AUS)||345||Aled Arnold (WAL)||335|
|Super Heavyweight - Snatch||Andrew Davies (WAL)||180||Aduche Ojadi (NGR)||177.5||Steven Kettner (AUS)||172.5|
|Super Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk||Andrew Davies (WAL)||222.5||Aduche Ojadi (NGR)||222.5||Steven Kettner (AUS)||205|
|Super Heavyweight - Overall||Andrew Davies (WAL)||402.5||Aduche Ojadi (NGR)||400||Steven Kettner (AUS)||377.5|
The Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia
- Past Commonwealth Games Commonwealth Games Federation
- No bronze medal awarded as not enough pairs took part - The Complete Book of the Commonwealth Games (Graham Groom -2017)