1986 Commonwealth Games
The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.
|Host city||Edinburgh, Scotland|
|Events||161 events in 10 sports|
|Opening ceremony||24 July|
|Closing ceremony||2 August|
|Officially opened by||Elizabeth II|
|Queen's Baton Final Runner||Allan Wells|
|Main venue||Meadowbank Stadium|
Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.
Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.
Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent Games.
Due to the boycott only 27 teams from across the Commonwealth were represented at the 1986 Games.
|Participating Commonwealth countries and territories|
|Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories|
The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, meaning that the Games appeared largely to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries, largely African, Asian and Caribbean states, stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest turnout since Auckland 1950. Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes had appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.
The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park to Meadowbank Stadium.
Medals by countryEdit
|4||New Zealand (NZL)||8||16||14||38|
|7||Northern Ireland (NIR)||2||4||9||15|
|8||Isle of Man (IOM)||1||0||0||1|
|11||Hong Kong (HKG)||0||0||3||3|
|Totals (15 nations)||163||163||176||502|
Medals by eventEdit
|Time Trial||Martin Vinnicombe (AUS)||00:01:06||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:01:06||Max Rainsford (AUS)||00:01:07|
|Sprint||Gary Neiwand (AUS)||Alex Ongaro (CAN)||Eddie Alexander (SCO)|
|Individual Pursuit||Dean Woods (AUS)||00:04:44||Colin Sturgess (ENG)||00:04:51||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:04:54|
|Team Pursuit|| Australia
|00:04:27|| New Zealand
|10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch||Wayne McCarney (AUS)||00:19:41||Dean Woods (AUS)||00:19:41||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:19:41|
|Road Race||Paul Curran (ENG)||04:08:50||Brian Fowler (NZL)||04:08:50||Jeff Leslie (AUS)||04:08:50|
|Team Time Trial|| England
|02:13:16|| New Zealand
|02:14:50|| Northern Ireland
|Free Pistol||Greg Yelavich (NZL)||551|| Phil Adams (AUS)
Ho Kar Fai (HKG)
|Free Pistol – Pairs|| Canada
|Centre-Fire Pistol||Bob Northover (ENG)||583||Phil Adams (AUS)||582||Rod Hack (AUS)||580|
|Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs|| Australia
|1157|| New Zealand
|Rapid-Fire Pistol||Pat Murray (AUS)||591||Adrian Breton (GGY)||588||Mark Howkins (CAN)||585|
|Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs|| England
|Air Pistol||Greg Yelavich (NZL)||575||Tom Guinn (CAN)||574||Gilbert U (HKG)||574|
|Air Pistol – Pairs|| England
|1143|| New Zealand
|Trap||Ian Peel (ENG)||195||Peter Boden (ENG)||192||Roland Phillips (WAL)||192|
|Trap – Pairs|| England
|185|| Northern Ireland
|Skeet||Nigel Kelly (IOM)||196|| Joe Neville (ENG)
Brian Gabriel (CAN)
|Skeet – Pairs|| England
|193|| New Zealand
|Flyweight – Overall||Greg Hayman (AUS)||212.5||Charlie Revolta (SCO)||185||Alan Ogilvie (SCO)||177.5|
|Bantamweight – Overall||Nick Voukelatos (AUS)||245||Clayton Chelley (NZL)||217.5||Teo Yong Joo (SIN)||215|
|Featherweight – Overall||Ray Williams (WAL)||252.5||David Lowenstein (AUS)||250||Jeffrey Brice (WAL)||235|
|Lightweight – Overall||Dean Willey (ENG)||315||Ron Laycock (AUS)||307.5||Langis Côté (CAN)||290|
|Middleweight – Overall||Bill Stellios (AUS)||302.5||Louis Payer (CAN)||300||Neil Taylor (WAL)||270|
|Light Heavyweight – Overall||Dave Morgan (WAL)||350||Robert Kabbas (AUS)||325||Peter May (ENG)||317.5|
|Middle Heavyweight – Overall||Keith Boxell (ENG)||350||David Mercer (ENG)||342.5||Guy Greavette (CAN)||340|
|Sub Heavyweight – Overall||Denis Garon (CAN)||360||Duncan Dawkins (ENG)||332.5||Andrew Saxton (ENG)||327.5|
|Heavyweight – Overall||Kevin Roy (CAN)||375||Gino Frantangelo (AUS)||372.5||Andrew Davies (WAL)||370|
|Super Heavyweight – Overall||Dean Lukin (AUS)||392.5||David Bolduc (CAN)||347.5||Charles Garzarella (AUS)||342.5|
|Light Flyweight||Ron Moncur (CAN)||Duncan Burns (ENG)||David Connelly (SCO)|
|Flyweight||Chris Woodcroft (CAN)||James McAlary (AUS)||Nigel Donohue (ENG)|
|Bantamweight||Mitch Ostberg (CAN)||Steve Reinsfield (NZL)||Brian Aspen (ENG)|
|Featherweight||Paul Hughes (CAN)||Dan Cumming (AUS)||Stephen Bell (NZL)|
|Lightweight||Dave McKay (CAN)||Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)||Steve Cooper (ENG)|
|Welterweight||Gary Holmes (CAN)||Geoffrey Marsh (AUS)||Fitz Walker (ENG)|
|Middleweight||Chris Rinke (CAN)||Wally Koenig (AUS)||Tony Bull (ENG)|
|Light Heavyweight||Noel Loban (ENG)||Doug Cox (CAN)||Graeme English (SCO)|
|Heavyweight||Clark Davis (CAN)||Robert Algie (NZL)||David Kilpin (ENG)|
|Super Heavyweight||Wayne Brightwell (CAN)||Albert Patrick (SCO)||Keith Peache (ENG)|
- "The forgotten story of … Robert Maxwell's 1986 Commonwealth Games | Sport | theguardian.com". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Glasgow makes final call for 2014 Games - Athletics - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. 9 May 2007. Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Fraser, Graham (25 April 2014). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts Archived 11 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 19 August 2015.
- "Scottish independence referendum will increase interest in Glasgow 2014, it is claimed | Glasgow 2014". insidethegames.biz. 29 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Fraser, Graham (25 April 2014). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts Archived 11 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2 November 2014.
- "8 More Nations Join Boycott of Commonwealth Games; Total Now 23". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Power From Within – Commonwealth Games 1986 Opening Ceremony – YouTube". youtube.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Mike Burrell". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Neil Gibson". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Barrie Mabbott". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Shane O'Brien". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Andrew Stevenson". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Don Symon". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Carl Vincent". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Ian Wright". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Andrew Hay". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- Commonwealth Games Official Site
- 1986 Commonwealth Games – Australian Commonwealth Games Association official website
- Video of the Opening Ceremony
| Commonwealth Games
XIII Commonwealth Games