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13th Commonwealth Games
1986 Commonwealth Games logo.svg
Host city Edinburgh, Scotland
Nations participating 27 nations of the Commonwealth
Athletes participating 1,660
Events 161 events in 10 sports
Opening ceremony 24 July 1986
Closing ceremony 2 August 1986
Officially opened by Elizabeth II
Queen's Baton Final Runner Allan Wells
Main venue Meadowbank Stadium
XII XIV  >

The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.

Contents

OrganisationEdit

Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.[1]

BoycottEdit

 
1986 Commonwealth Games boycotting countries dark red

The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, so that the Games appeared to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries—largely African, Asian and Caribbean states—stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest number of athletes since Auckland 1950.[2] Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.[3]

Boycotting nationsEdit

ControversiesEdit

Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.[5]

Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent games.

Participating teamsEdit

 
Participating countries

27 teams were represented at the 1986 Games.
(Teams competing for the first time are shown in bold).

Opening ceremonyEdit

The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park to Meadowbank Stadium.[7]

VenuesEdit

Medals by countryEdit

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   England 52 43 49 144
2   Canada 51 34 31 116
3   Australia 40 46 35 121
4   New Zealand 8 16 14 38
5   Wales 6 5 12 23
6   Scotland 3 12 18 33
7   Northern Ireland 2 4 9 15
8   Isle of Man 1 0 0 1
9   Guernsey 0 2 0 2
10   Swaziland 0 1 0 1
11   Hong Kong 0 0 3 3
12   Malawi 0 0 2 2
13   Botswana 0 0 1 1
  Jersey 0 0 1 1
  Singapore 0 0 1 1
Total 163 163 176 502

Medals by eventEdit

AquaticsEdit

AthleticsEdit

BadmintonEdit

BowlsEdit

BoxingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Light Flyweight   Scott Olson (CAN)   Mark Epton (ENG)   Johnston Todd (NIR)
  Wilson Docherty (SCO)
Flyweight   John Lyon (ENG)   Leonard Makhanya (SWZ)   Kerry Webber (WAL)
  Steve Beaupré (CAN)
Bantamweight   Sean Murphy (ENG)   Roy Nash (NIR)   Glen Brooks (SCO)
  John Sollitoe (JER)
Featherweight   Billy Downey (CAN)   Peter English (ENG)   Chris Carleton (NIR)
  Johnny Wallace (NZL)
Lightweight   Asif Dar (CAN)   Neil Haddock (WAL)   Lyton Mphande (MAW)
  Joe Jacobs (ENG)
Light Welterweight   Howard Grant (CAN)   David Clencie (AUS)   Brendan Lowe (NIR)
  Solomon Kondowe (MAW)
Welterweight   Darren Dyer (ENG)   John McAllister (SCO)   John Shaw (CAN)
  Damien Denny (NIR)
Light Middleweight   Dan Sherry (CAN)   Rick Finch (AUS)   Glynn Thomas (WAL)
  Alex Mullen (SCO)
Middleweight   Rod Douglas (ENG)   Jeff Harding (AUS)   Patrick Tinney (NIR)
  George Ferrie (SCO)
Light Heavyweight   Jim Moran (ENG)   Harry Lawson (SCO)   Brent Kosolofski (CAN)
Heavyweight   James Peau (NZL)   Douggie Young (SCO)   Dominic D'Amico (CAN)
  Eric Cardouza (ENG)
Super Heavyweight   Lennox Lewis (CAN)   Aneurin Evans (WAL)   James Oyebola (ENG)

CyclingEdit

TrackEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Time Trial   Martin Vinnicombe (AUS) 00:01:06   Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:01:06   Maxwell Rainsford (AUS) 00:01:07
Sprint   Gary Neiwand (AUS)   Alex Ongaro (CAN)   Eddie Alexander (SCO)
Individual Pursuit   Dean Woods (AUS) 00:04:44   Colin Sturgess (ENG) 00:04:51   Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:04:54
Team Pursuit   Australia
Glenn Clarke
Brett Dutton
Bill Hardy
Wayne McCarney
Dean Woods
00:04:27   New Zealand
Gary Anderson
Russell Clune
Stephen Swart
Andrew Whitford
00:04:34   England
Chris Boardman
Gary Colman
Rob Muzio
Jon Walshaw
Guy Rowland
overtaken
10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch   Wayne McCarney (AUS) 00:19:41   Dean Woods (AUS) 00:19:41   Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:19:41

RoadEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Road Race   Paul Curran (ENG) 04:08:50   Brian Fowler (NZL) 04:08:50   Jeff Leslie (AUS) 04:08:50
Team Time Trial   England
Alan Gornall
Deno Davie
Keith Reynolds
Paul Curran
02:13:16   New Zealand
Blair Cox
Graeme Miller
Gregory Fraine
Paul Leitch
02:14:50   Northern Ireland
Alastair Irvine
Cormac McCann
Joseph Barr
Martin Quinn
02:16:13

RowingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Single sculls   England
Steve Redgrave
00:07:28   Australia
Richard Powell
00:07:33   New Zealand
Eric Verdonk
00:07:39
Double sculls   Canada
Bruce Ford
Pat Walter
00:06:19   Australia
Paul Reedy
Brenton Terrell
00:06:21   England
Carl Smith
Allan Whitwell
00:06:34
Coxless pairs   England
Andy Holmes
Steve Redgrave
00:06:40   New Zealand
Barrie Mabbott
Ian Wright
00:06:43   Scotland
Ewan Stuart
David Riches
00:06:43
Coxless fours   Canada
Grant Mann
Kevin Neufeld
Paul Steele
Pat Turner
00:06:01   New Zealand
Andrew Stevenson
Shane O'Brien
Neil Gibson
Don Symon
00:06:01   England
Graham Faultless
Richard Ireland
Mostyn Field
Humphrey Hatton
00:06:06
Coxed fours   England
Martin Cross
Adam Clift
Andy Holmes
Steve Redgrave
Adrian Ellison
00:06:08   New Zealand
Nigel Atherfold
Chris White
Greg Johnston
Bruce Holden
Andrew Bird
00:06:10   Australia
Mark Doyle
James Galloway
Michael McKay
James Tomkins
Dale Caterson
00:06:11
Eights   Australia
Ion Popa
00:05:44   England 00:05:46   New Zealand
Mike Burrell[8]
Neil Gibson[9]
Barrie Mabbott[10]
Shane O'Brien[11]
Andrew Stevenson[12]
Don Symon[13]
Carl Vincent[14]
Ian Wright[15]
Andy Hay (cox)[16]
00:05:48
Lightweight single sculls   Australia
Peter Antonie
00:07:16   Canada
Peter Tattersall
00:07:27   England
Carl Smith
00:07:27
Lightweight coxless fours   England
Christopher Bates
Peter Haining
Neil Staite
Stuart Forbes
00:06:26   Australia
Simon Cook
Brian Digby
Merrick Howes
Joseph Joyce
00:06:28   Canada
Dave Henry
Brian Peaker
Bob Thomas
Ryan Tierney
00:06:36
Women
Single sculls   New Zealand
Stephanie Foster
00:07:43   Canada
Lisa Wright
00:07:49   England
Gillian Bond
00:07:53
Double sculls   New Zealand
Stephanie Foster
Robin Clarke
00:07:22   Canada
Heather Clarke
Lisa Robertson
00:07:49   England
Diane Prince
Claire Parker
00:07:55
Coxless pairs   Canada
Kathryn Barr
Andrea Schreiner
00:07:35   England
Pauline Bird
Fiona Johnson
00:07:42   Australia
Catherine Hall
Alison Smith
00:07:53
Coxed fours   Canada
Tina Clarke
Tricia Smith
Lesley Thompson
Jane Tregunno
Jenny Wallinga
00:06:50   Australia
Debbie Bassett
Susan Chapman-Popa
Robyn Grey-Gardner
Marilyn Kidd
Kaylynn Fry
00:06:54   England
Joanne Gough
Ann Callaway
Kate Holroyd
Patricia Reid
Alison Norrish
00:07:06
Eights   Australia 00:06:44   England 00:06:46   Canada NTT
Lightweight single sculls   Australia
Adair Ferguson
00:07:45   New Zealand
Philippa Baker
00:07:46   Canada
Heather Hattin
00:07:52
Lightweight coxless fours   England
Alexa Forbes
Gillian Hodges
Linda Clark
Judith Burne
00:06:55   Australia
Deborah Clingeleffer
Amanda Cross
Virginia Lee
Karin Riedel
00:07:00   Canada
Anne Drost
Marni Hamilton
Marlene van der Horst
Wendy Wiebe
00:07:01

ShootingEdit

PistolEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men/Open
Free Pistol   Greg Yelavich (NZL) 551   Phil Adams (AUS)
  Ho Kar Fai (HKG)
549
Free Pistol – Pairs   Canada
Tom Guinn
Claude Beaulieu
1099   England
Paul Leatherdale
Richard Wang
1090   Australia
Phil Adams
Bengt Sandström
1085
Centre-Fire Pistol   Bob Northover (ENG) 583   Phil Adams (AUS) 582   Rod Hack (AUS) 580
Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs   Australia
Phil Adams
Rod Hack
1165   England
Bob Northover
Michael Cutler
1157   New Zealand
Rex Hamilton
Barry O'Neale
1153
Rapid-Fire Pistol   Pat Murray (AUS) 591   Adrian Breton (GGY) 588   Mark Howkins (CAN) 585
Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs   England
Brian Girling
Terry Turner
1169   Australia
Pat Murray
Jack Mast
1152   Canada
Mark Howkins
André Chevrefils
1150
Air Pistol   Greg Yelavich (NZL) 575   Tom Guinn (CAN) 574   Gilbert U (HKG) 574
Air Pistol – Pairs   England
Paul Leatherdale
Ian Reid
1143   Australia
Phil Adams
Bruce Favell
1143   New Zealand
Greg Yelavich
Barrie Wickens
1140

RifleEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men/Open
Small Bore Rifle, Prone   Alan Smith (AUS) 599   Alister Allan (SCO) 598   Gale Stewart (CAN)
  John Knowles (SCO)
597
Small Bore Rifle, Prone – Pairs   Canada
Michael Ashcroft
Gale Stewart
1175   Australia
Donald Brook
Alan Smith
1171   Wales
Terry Wakefield
Colin Harris
1165
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions   Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 1170   Alister Allan (SCO) 1167   Jean-François Sénécal (CAN) 1150
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions – Pairs   England
Malcolm Cooper
Sarah Cooper
2278   Canada
Jean-François Sénécal
Michael Dion
2276   Scotland
Alister Allan
Bill MacNeill
2241
Full Bore Rifle   Stan Golinski (AUS) 396   Alain Marion (CAN) 396   John Bloomfield (ENG) 395
Full Bore Rifle – Pairs   Canada
Bill Baldwin
Alain Marion
583   Australia
James Corbett
Stan Golinski
583   Northern Ireland
David Calvert
Martin Millar
582
Air Rifle   Guy Lorion (CAN) 588   Sharon Bowes (CAN) 583   Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 582
Air Rifle – Pairs   Canada
Guy Lorion
Sharon Bowes
1167   Australia
Wolfgang Jobst
Anton Wurfel
1151   England
Malcolm Cooper
Robert Smith
1146

ShotgunEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men/Open
Trap   Ian Peel (ENG) 195   Peter Boden (ENG) 192   Roland Phillips (WAL) 192
Trap – Pairs   England
Peter Boden
Ian Peel
185   Northern Ireland
Tom Hewitt
Eamon Furphy
183   Australia
Terry Rumbel
Domingo Diaz
183
Skeet   Nigel Kelly (IOM) 196   Joe Neville (ENG)
  Brian Gabriel (CAN)
195
Skeet – Pairs   England
Joe Neville
Ken Harman
195   Canada
Brian Gabriel
Don Kwasyncia
193   New Zealand
John Woolley
Jeff Farrell
189

WeightliftingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Flyweight – Overall   Greg Hayman (AUS) 212.5   Charlie Revolta (SCO) 185   Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 177.5
Bantamweight – Overall   Nick Voukelatos (AUS) 245   Clayton Chelley (NZL) 217.5   Teo Yong Joo (SIN) 215
Featherweight – Overall   Ray Williams (WAL) 252.5   David Lowenstein (AUS) 250   Jeffrey Brice (WAL) 235
Lightweight – Overall   Dean Willey (ENG) 315   Ron Laycock (AUS) 307.5   Langis Côté (CAN) 290
Middleweight – Overall   Bill Stellios (AUS) 302.5   Louis Payer (CAN) 300   Neil Taylor (WAL) 270
Light Heavyweight – Overall   Dave Morgan (WAL) 350   Robert Kabbas (AUS) 325   Peter May (ENG) 317.5
Middle Heavyweight – Overall   Keith Boxell (ENG) 350   David Mercer (ENG) 342.5   Guy Greavette (CAN) 340
Sub Heavyweight – Overall   Denis Garon (CAN) 360   Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 332.5   Andrew Saxton (ENG) 327.5
Heavyweight – Overall   Kevin Roy (CAN) 375   Gino Frantangelo (AUS) 372.5   Andrew Davies (WAL) 370
Super Heavyweight – Overall   Dean Lukin (AUS) 392.5   David Bolduc (CAN) 347.5   Charles Garzarella (AUS) 342.5

WrestlingEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Light Flyweight   Ron Moncur (CAN)   Duncan Burns (ENG)   David Connelly (SCO)
Flyweight   Chris Woodcroft (CAN)   James McAlary (AUS)   Nigel Donahue (ENG)
Bantamweight   Mitch Ostberg (CAN)   Steve Reinsfield (NZL)   Brian Aspen (ENG)
Featherweight   Paul Hughes (CAN)   Dan Cumming (AUS)   Stephen Bell (NZL)
Lightweight   Dave McKay (CAN)   Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)   Stephen Cooper (ENG)
Welterweight   Gary Holmes (CAN)   George Marsh (AUS)   Fitzlloyd Walker (ENG)
Middleweight   Chris Rinke (CAN)   Wally Koenig (AUS)   Anthony Bell (ENG)
Light Heavyweight   Noel Loban (ENG)   Doug Cox (CAN)   Graeme English (SCO)
Heavyweight   Clark Davis (CAN)   Robert Algie (NZL)   David Kilpin (ENG)
Super Heavyweight   Wayne Brightwell (CAN)   Albert Patrick (SCO)   Keith Peache (ENG)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The forgotten story of … Robert Maxwell's 1986 Commonwealth Games | Sport | theguardian.com". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  2. ^ "Scottish independence referendum will increase interest in Glasgow 2014, it is claimed | Glasgow 2014". insidethegames.biz. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  3. ^ Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2014-11-02.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "8 More Nations Join Boycott of Commonwealth Games; Total Now 23". Los Angeles Times. 
  5. ^ "Glasgow makes final call for 2014 Games - Athletics - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  6. ^ Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2015-08-19.
  7. ^ "Power From Within - Commonwealth Games 1986 Opening Ceremony - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  8. ^ "Mike Burrell". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  9. ^ "Neil Gibson". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  10. ^ "Barrie Mabbott". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  11. ^ "Shane O'Brien". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  12. ^ "Andrew Stevenson". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  13. ^ "Don Symon". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  14. ^ "Carl Vincent". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "Ian Wright". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "Andrew Hay". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 

External linksEdit


Preceded by
Brisbane
Commonwealth Games
Edinburgh
XIII Commonwealth Games
Succeeded by
Auckland