1986 Commonwealth Games

The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.

XIII Commonwealth Games
1986 Commonwealth Games logo.svg
Host cityEdinburgh,  Scotland
Nations participating27
Athletes participating1,660
Events161 events in 10 sports
Opening ceremony24 July
Closing ceremony2 August
Officially opened byElizabeth II
Queen's Baton Final RunnerAllan Wells
Main venueMeadowbank Stadium


Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.[1]


Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.[2]

Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent Games.

Participating teamsEdit

Due to the boycott only 27 teams from across the Commonwealth were represented at the 1986 Games.

Participating Commonwealth countries and Territories
Participating Commonwealth countries and territories

^ Note: Bermuda withdrew from the games to join the boycott after the opening day of competition.[3]

Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories


1986 Commonwealth Games boycotting countries dark red

The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, meaning that the Games appeared largely to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries, largely African, Asian and Caribbean states, stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest turnout since Auckland 1950.[4] Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes had appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.[5]

Commonwealth countries and territories that boycotted the Games

Opening ceremonyEdit

The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park to Meadowbank Stadium.[7]


Medals by countryEdit

  *   Host nation (Scotland)

1  England (ENG)524349144
2  Canada (CAN)513431116
3  Australia (AUS)404635121
4  New Zealand (NZL)8161438
5  Wales (WAL)651223
6  Scotland (SCO)*3121833
7  Northern Ireland (NIR)24915
8  Isle of Man (IOM)1001
9  Guernsey (GUE)0202
10  Eswatini (SWZ)0101
11  Hong Kong (HKG)0033
12  Malawi (MAW)0022
13  Botswana (BOT)0011
  Jersey (JEY)0011
  Singapore (SIN)0011
Totals (15 nations)163163176502

Medals by eventEdit






Event Gold Silver Bronze
Light Flyweight   Scott Olson (CAN)   Mark Epton (ENG)   Johnston Todd (NIR)
  Wilson Docherty (SCO)
Flyweight   John Lyon (ENG)   Leonard Makhanya (SWZ)   Kerry Webber (WAL)
  Steve Beaupré (CAN)
Bantamweight   Sean Murphy (ENG)   Roy Nash (NIR)   Glen Brooks (SCO)
  John Sollitoe (JER)
Featherweight   Billy Downey (CAN)   Peter English (ENG)   Chris Carleton (NIR)
  Johnny Wallace (NZL)
Lightweight   Asif Dar (CAN)   Neil Haddock (WAL)   Lyton Mphande (MAW)
  Joey Jacobs (ENG)
Light Welterweight   Howard Grant (CAN)   David Clencie (AUS)   Brendan Lowe (NIR)
  Solomon Kondowe (MAW)
Welterweight   Darren Dyer (ENG)   John McAllister (SCO)   John Shaw (CAN)
  Damien Denny (NIR)
Light Middleweight   Dan Sherry (CAN)   Rick Finch (AUS)   Glynn Thomas (WAL)
  Alec Mullen (SCO)
Middleweight   Rod Douglas (ENG)   Jeff Harding (AUS)   Patrick Tinney (NIR)
  George Ferrie (SCO)
Light Heavyweight   Jim Moran (ENG)   Harry Lawson (SCO)   Brent Kosolofski (CAN)
Heavyweight   Jimmy Thunder (NZL)   Doug Young (SCO)   Dominic D'Amico (CAN)
  Eric Cardouza (ENG)
Super Heavyweight   Lennox Lewis (CAN)   Aneurin Evans (WAL)   James Oyebola (ENG)



Event Gold Silver Bronze
Time Trial   Martin Vinnicombe (AUS) 00:01:06   Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:01:06   Max Rainsford (AUS) 00:01:07
Sprint   Gary Neiwand (AUS)   Alex Ongaro (CAN)   Eddie Alexander (SCO)
Individual Pursuit   Dean Woods (AUS) 00:04:44   Colin Sturgess (ENG) 00:04:51   Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:04:54
Team Pursuit   Australia
Glenn Clarke
Brett Dutton
Bill Hardy
Wayne McCarney
Dean Woods
00:04:27   New Zealand
Gary Anderson
Russell Clune
Stephen Swart
Andrew Whitford
00:04:34   England
Chris Boardman
Gary Coltman
Rob Muzio
Jon Walshaw
Guy Rowland
10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch   Wayne McCarney (AUS) 00:19:41   Dean Woods (AUS) 00:19:41   Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:19:41


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Road Race   Paul Curran (ENG) 04:08:50   Brian Fowler (NZL) 04:08:50   Jeff Leslie (AUS) 04:08:50
Team Time Trial   England
Alan Gornall
Deno Davie
Keith Reynolds
Paul Curran
02:13:16   New Zealand
Blair Cox
Graeme Miller
Gregory Fraine
Paul Leitch
02:14:50   Northern Ireland
Alastair Irvine
Cormac McCann
Joseph Barr
Martin Quinn


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Single sculls   England
Steve Redgrave
7:28   Australia
Richard Powell
7:33   New Zealand
Eric Verdonk
Double sculls   Canada
Bruce Ford
Pat Walter
6:19   Australia
Paul Reedy
Brenton Terrell
6:21   England
Carl Smith
Allan Whitwell
Coxless pair   England
Andy Holmes
Steve Redgrave
6:40   New Zealand
Barrie Mabbott
Ian Wright
6:43   Scotland
Ewan Pearson
David Riches
Coxless four   Canada
Grant Main
Kevin Neufeld
Paul Steele
Pat Turner
6:01   New Zealand
Andrew Stevenson
Shane O'Brien
Neil Gibson
Don Symon
6:01   England
Graham Faultless
Richard Ireland
Mostyn Field
Humphry Hatton
Coxed four   England
Martin Cross
Adam Clift
Andy Holmes
Steve Redgrave
Adrian Ellison
6:08   New Zealand
Nigel Atherfold
Chris White
Greg Johnston
Bruce Holden
Andrew Bird
6:10   Australia
Mark Doyle
James Galloway
Mike McKay
James Tomkins
Dale Caterson
Eights   Australia
James Galloway
Malcolm Batten
Andrew Cooper
Mike McKay
Mark Doyle
James Tomkins
Ion Popa
Steve Evans
Dale Caterson
5:44   England
John Garrett
John Maxey
Jonathan Spencer-Jones
Mark Buckingham
Patrick Broughton
Richard Stanhope
Stephen Peel
Terence Dillon
Vaughan Thomas
5:46   New Zealand
Mike Burrell[8]
Neil Gibson[9]
Barrie Mabbott[10]
Shane O'Brien[11]
Andrew Stevenson[12]
Don Symon[13]
Carl Vincent[14]
Ian Wright[15]
Andy Hay (cox)[16]
Lightweight single sculls   Australia
Peter Antonie
7:16   Canada
Peter Tattersall
7:27   England
Carl Smith
Lightweight coxless four   England
Christopher Bates
Peter Haining
Neil Staite
Stuart Forbes
6:26   Australia
Simon Cook
Brian Digby
Merrick Howes
Joseph Joyce
6:28   Canada
Dave Henry
Brian Peaker
Bob Thomas
Ryan Tierney
Single sculls   New Zealand
Stephanie Foster
7:43   Canada
Lisa Wright
7:49   England
Gillian Bond
Double sculls   New Zealand
Stephanie Foster
Robin Clarke
7:22   Canada
Heather Clarke
Lisa Robertson
7:49   England
Diane Prince
Claire Parker
Coxless pair   Canada
Kathryn Barr
Andrea Schreiner
7:35   England
Pauline Bird
Flo Johnston
7:42   Australia
Catherine Hall
Alison Smith
Coxed four   Canada
Tina Clarke
Tricia Smith
Lesley Thompson
Jane Tregunno
Jenny Wallinga
6:50   Australia
Deborah Bassett
Susan Chapman-Popa
Robyn Grey-Gardner
Marilyn Kidd
Kaylynn Fry
6:54   England
Joanne Gough
Ann Callaway
Kate Holroyd
Trish Reid
Alison Norrish
Eights   Australia
Annelies Voorthuis
Deborah Bassett
Kaylynn Fry
Margot Foster
Marilyn Kidd
Robyn Grey-Gardner
Susan Chapman
Urszula Anne Kay
Vicki Spooner
6:44   England
Pauline Bird
Alison Bonner
Ann Callaway
Kate Grose
Joanne Gough
Kate Holroyd
Flo Johnston
Alison Norrish
Trish Reid
6:46   Canada
Angela Schneider
Brenda Taylor
Carla Pace
Cathy Harry
Cathy Lund
Gill Saxby
Sandy Coppinger
Sarah Ogilvy
Susan Beck
Lightweight single sculls   Australia
Adair Ferguson
7:45   New Zealand
Philippa Baker
7:46   Canada
Heather Hattin
Lightweight coxless four   England
Alexa Forbes
Gillian Hodges
Lin Clark
Judith Burne
6:55   Australia
Deborah Clingeleffer
Amanda Cross
Virginia Lee
Karin Riedel
7:00   Canada
Anne Drost
Marni Hamilton
Marlene van der Horst
Wendy Wiebe



Event Gold Silver Bronze
Free Pistol   Greg Yelavich (NZL) 551   Phil Adams (AUS)
  Ho Kar Fai (HKG)
Free Pistol – Pairs   Canada
Tom Guinn
Claude Beaulieu
1099   England
Paul Leatherdale
Richard Wang
1090   Australia
Phil Adams
Bengt Sandström
Centre-Fire Pistol   Bob Northover (ENG) 583   Phil Adams (AUS) 582   Rod Hack (AUS) 580
Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs   Australia
Phil Adams
Rod Hack
1165   England
Bob Northover
Michael Cutler
1157   New Zealand
Rex Hamilton
Barry O'Neale
Rapid-Fire Pistol   Pat Murray (AUS) 591   Adrian Breton (GGY) 588   Mark Howkins (CAN) 585
Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs   England
Brian Girling
Terry Turner
1169   Australia
Pat Murray
Jack Mast
1152   Canada
Mark Howkins
André Chevrefils
Air Pistol   Greg Yelavich (NZL) 575   Tom Guinn (CAN) 574   Gilbert U (HKG) 574
Air Pistol – Pairs   England
Paul Leatherdale
Ian Reid
1143   Australia
Phil Adams
Bruce Favell
1143   New Zealand
Greg Yelavich
Barrie Wickens


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Small Bore Rifle, Prone   Alan Smith (AUS) 599   Alister Allan (SCO) 598   Gale Stewart (CAN)
  John Knowles (SCO)
Small Bore Rifle, Prone – Pairs   Canada
Michael Ashcroft
Gale Stewart
1175   Australia
Donald Brook
Alan Smith
1171   Wales
Terry Wakefield
Colin Harris
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions   Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 1170   Alister Allan (SCO) 1167   Jean-François Sénécal (CAN) 1150
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions – Pairs   England
Malcolm Cooper
Sarah Cooper
2278   Canada
Jean-François Sénécal
Michael Dion
2276   Scotland
Alister Allan
Bill MacNeill
Full Bore Rifle   Stan Golinski (AUS) 396   Alain Marion (CAN) 396   John Bloomfield (ENG) 395
Full Bore Rifle – Pairs   Canada
Bill Baldwin
Alain Marion
583   Australia
James Corbett
Stan Golinski
583   Northern Ireland
David Calvert
Martin Millar
Air Rifle   Guy Lorion (CAN) 588   Sharon Bowes (CAN) 583   Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 582
Air Rifle – Pairs   Canada
Guy Lorion
Sharon Bowes
1167   Australia
Wolfgang Jobst
Anton Wurfel
1151   England
Malcolm Cooper
Robert Smith


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Trap   Ian Peel (ENG) 195   Peter Boden (ENG) 192   Roland Phillips (WAL) 192
Trap – Pairs   England
Peter Boden
Ian Peel
185   Northern Ireland
Tom Hewitt
Eamon Furphy
183   Australia
Terry Rumbel
Domingo Diaz
Skeet   Nigel Kelly (IOM) 196   Joe Neville (ENG)
  Brian Gabriel (CAN)
Skeet – Pairs   England
Joe Neville
Ken Harman
195   Canada
Brian Gabriel
Don Kwasyncia
193   New Zealand
John Woolley
Jeff Farrell


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Flyweight – Overall   Greg Hayman (AUS) 212.5   Charlie Revolta (SCO) 185   Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 177.5
Bantamweight – Overall   Nick Voukelatos (AUS) 245   Clayton Chelley (NZL) 217.5   Teo Yong Joo (SIN) 215
Featherweight – Overall   Ray Williams (WAL) 252.5   David Lowenstein (AUS) 250   Jeffrey Brice (WAL) 235
Lightweight – Overall   Dean Willey (ENG) 315   Ron Laycock (AUS) 307.5   Langis Côté (CAN) 290
Middleweight – Overall   Bill Stellios (AUS) 302.5   Louis Payer (CAN) 300   Neil Taylor (WAL) 270
Light Heavyweight – Overall   Dave Morgan (WAL) 350   Robert Kabbas (AUS) 325   Peter May (ENG) 317.5
Middle Heavyweight – Overall   Keith Boxell (ENG) 350   David Mercer (ENG) 342.5   Guy Greavette (CAN) 340
Sub Heavyweight – Overall   Denis Garon (CAN) 360   Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 332.5   Andrew Saxton (ENG) 327.5
Heavyweight – Overall   Kevin Roy (CAN) 375   Gino Frantangelo (AUS) 372.5   Andrew Davies (WAL) 370
Super Heavyweight – Overall   Dean Lukin (AUS) 392.5   David Bolduc (CAN) 347.5   Charles Garzarella (AUS) 342.5


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Light Flyweight   Ron Moncur (CAN)   Duncan Burns (ENG)   David Connelly (SCO)
Flyweight   Chris Woodcroft (CAN)   James McAlary (AUS)   Nigel Donohue (ENG)
Bantamweight   Mitch Ostberg (CAN)   Steve Reinsfield (NZL)   Brian Aspen (ENG)
Featherweight   Paul Hughes (CAN)   Dan Cumming (AUS)   Stephen Bell (NZL)
Lightweight   Dave McKay (CAN)   Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)   Steve Cooper (ENG)
Welterweight   Gary Holmes (CAN)   Geoffrey Marsh (AUS)   Fitz Walker (ENG)
Middleweight   Chris Rinke (CAN)   Wally Koenig (AUS)   Tony Bull (ENG)
Light Heavyweight   Noel Loban (ENG)   Doug Cox (CAN)   Graeme English (SCO)
Heavyweight   Clark Davis (CAN)   Robert Algie (NZL)   David Kilpin (ENG)
Super Heavyweight   Wayne Brightwell (CAN)   Albert Patrick (SCO)   Keith Peache (ENG)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "The forgotten story of … Robert Maxwell's 1986 Commonwealth Games | Sport | theguardian.com". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  2. ^ "Glasgow makes final call for 2014 Games - Athletics - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. 9 May 2007. Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  3. ^ Fraser, Graham (25 April 2014). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts Archived 11 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 19 August 2015.
  4. ^ "Scottish independence referendum will increase interest in Glasgow 2014, it is claimed | Glasgow 2014". insidethegames.biz. 29 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  5. ^ Fraser, Graham (25 April 2014). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts Archived 11 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2 November 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "8 More Nations Join Boycott of Commonwealth Games; Total Now 23". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  7. ^ "Power From Within – Commonwealth Games 1986 Opening Ceremony – YouTube". youtube.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  8. ^ "Mike Burrell". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Neil Gibson". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  10. ^ "Barrie Mabbott". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Shane O'Brien". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Andrew Stevenson". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Don Symon". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  14. ^ "Carl Vincent". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Ian Wright". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  16. ^ "Andrew Hay". New Zealand Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2016.

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Commonwealth Games
XIII Commonwealth Games
Succeeded by