1983 Aragonese regional election

The 1983 Aragonese regional election was held on Sunday, 8 May 1983, to elect the 1st Cortes of the autonomous community of Aragon. All 66 seats in the Cortes were up for election. The election was held simultaneously with regional elections in twelve other autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain.

1983 Aragonese regional election

8 May 1983 1987 →

All 66 seats in the Cortes of Aragon
34 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered919,295
Turnout613,550 (66.7%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Portrait placeholder.svg Portrait placeholder.svg Portrait placeholder.svg
Leader Santiago Marraco Rafael Zapatero Hipólito Gómez de las Roces
Party PSOE AP–PDP–UL PAR
Leader since 23 November 1979 March 1983 December 1977
Leader's seat Huesca Zaragoza Zaragoza
Seats won 33 18 13
Popular vote 283,226 136,853 124,018
Percentage 46.8% 22.6% 20.5%

  Fourth party Fifth party
  Portrait placeholder.svg Portrait placeholder.svg
Leader Adolfo Burriel José Luis Merino
Party PCE CDS
Leader since 1982 1983
Leader's seat Zaragoza Zaragoza
Seats won 1 1
Popular vote 23,960 19,902
Percentage 4.0% 3.3%

AragonProvinceMapCortes1983.png
Constituency results map for the Cortes of Aragon

President before election

Juan Antonio de Andrés
Independent (ex-UCD)[a]

Elected President

Santiago Marraco
PSOE

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) came first in the election by winning exactly half the seats—33 out of 66—one short of an overall majority, with 46.8% of the vote. The People's Coalition, a coalition of centre-right parties including the People's Alliance (AP), the People's Democratic Party (PDP) and the Liberal Union (UL) came second with 18 seats and 22.6%, while the Regionalist Aragonese Party (PAR) finished third with 20.5% and 13 seats. The Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and the Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) both obtained 1 seat with between 3–4% of the vote each.[2] The former ruling party of Spain, the Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD), had chosen to dissolve itself in February 1983 and did not contest the election as a result.[1]

The PSOE had initially obtained 34 seats, the absolute majority, but a new count in the constituency of Zaragoza after several claims resulted in the PSOE's 17th seat in the province being awarded to the People's Coalition by few votes.[3][4] As a result of the election, PSOE candidate Santiago Marraco was elected by the Cortes as new president of the General Deputation of Aragon.[5][6]

OverviewEdit

Electoral systemEdit

The Cortes of Aragon were the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Aragon, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the regional Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a regional president.[7]

Transitory Provisions First and Third of the Statute established a specific electoral procedure for the first election to the Cortes of Aragon, to be supplemented by the provisions within Royal Decree-Law 20/1977, of 18 March, and its related regulations. Voting for the Cortes was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Aragon and in full enjoyment of their civil and political rights. The 66 members of the Cortes of Aragon were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied regionally. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Huesca, Teruel and Zaragoza, with each being allocated a fixed number of seats: 18 for Huesca, 16 for Teruel and 32 for Zaragoza.[7][8][9]

The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[10]

Election dateEdit

The General Deputation of Aragon was required to call an election to the Cortes of Aragon within from 1 February to 31 May 1983.[7] On 7 March 1983, it was confirmed that the first election to the Cortes of Aragon would be held on Sunday, 8 May, together with regional elections for twelve other autonomous communities as well as nationwide local elections,[11][12][13] with the election decree being published in the Official Gazette of Aragon on 10 March.[9]

BackgroundEdit

Aragon had been granted a pre-autonomic regime in March 1978,[14][15][16] resulting in the appointment of the first General Deputation of Aragon with Juan Antonio Bolea at its helm.[17][18] After the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the process for negotiating and approving a statute of autonomy for Aragon was initiated in September 1979,[19][20] after local councils—with the support of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), the Regionalist Aragonese Party (PAR) and the Communist Party of Spain (PCE)—started applying to meet the requirements set down in Article 151 of the Constitution for the "fast-track" procedure for autonomy.[21][22][23] Political conflict arose as the governing Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD), concerned that all regions could attempt to achieve maximum devolution within a short timeframe, ruled in January 1980 that all autonomic processes other than those of the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia were to be transacted under the "slow-track" procedure of Article 143;[24][25][26] the difference between both procedures being the pace in the process of devolution.[27]

The decision caused outcry among opposition parties and led to the application process bogging down, as some Aragonese local councils had applied for Article 151, others clinged on to the route of Article 143 and many others did not specify any preference, resulting in an insufficient support for either of the two constitutional procedures for autonomy.[28][29][30] Similar complications arose in the Valencian Country and the Canary Islands,[31] and parties agreed to hold talks to re-activate the autonomy process,[32] leading to an inter-party agreement in May 1981—which was not joined by the PAR—in favour of the application of Article 143, as long as Aragon was guaranteed an autonomy equivalent to that provided for in Article 151 within five years,[33] and in the drafting of a regional Statute.[34][35][36]

Concurrently, the pre-autonomic General Deputation had seen a change in leadership in March 1981, when Juan Antonio Bolea was replaced by Gaspar Castellano.[37] The former would end up leaving the party over disagreements with the regional government's policy both in the autonomic procedure to adopt—Bolea had been a staunch defender of Article 151's application from the beginning—and the so-called "Ebro mini-transfer" to Tarragona (Spanish: Minitrasvase del Ebro), opposed by Bolea.[38] Further tensions within UCD over the electoral system to be established by the Statute led to an internal party crisis,[39][40] which was aggravated after the split of former prime minister Adolfo Suárez's Democratic and Social Centre (CDS).[41] The Statute would be finally approved on 10 August 1982, coming into force on 5 September.[42][43] As a result of UCD securing a majority in the newly elected Provisional Assembly, its candidate Gaspar Castellano was re-elected, this time as the first president of the autonomous community of Aragon.[44][45] After the UCD's collapse in the region in the 1982 general election,[46][47] Castellano resigned as regional president,[48][49] being replaced by Juan Antonio de Andrés, who maintained UCD's control over the regional government until the celebration of the May 1983 regional election.[50]

Parliamentary statusEdit

The composition of the Provisional Assembly was determined by the provisions of Transitory Provision Second of the Statute, which established that its members would be those designated by the various political parties based on a distribution which was to be made by applying the D'Hondt method to the provincial results obtained in the 1979 Spanish general election, to candidacies obtaining at least five percent of the valid votes cast in Aragon.[7] As a result, the composition of the Provisional Assembly of Aragon, upon its constitution in September 1982, was established as indicated below:[42][51]

Parliamentary composition in September 1982
Parties % of
votes
By province Seats
H T Z Total +/−
UCD 40.95 10 10 14 34 n/a
PSOE 28.30 7 5 10 22 n/a
PCE 7.09 1 0 3 4 n/a
PAR 6.07 0 0 3 3 n/a
AP 5.62 0 1 2 3 n/a
Total 18 16 32 66 n/a

Unlike what happened in other autonomous communities, the composition of the Aragonese regional assembly did not change as a result of the 1982 general election, despite efforts from the PAR for the Second Transitory Provision to be applied extensively to recalculate the seat distribution according to the most recent general election's results.[52][53]

Parties and candidatesEdit

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within fifteen days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one-thousandth of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election—with a compulsory minimum of 500 signatures—disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.[8]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Gov. Ref.
PSOE   Santiago Marraco Social democracy  N [54]
[55]
[56]
[57]
AP–PDP–UL   Rafael Zapatero Conservatism
Christian democracy
 N [56]
[57]
[58]
PAR   Hipólito Gómez de las Roces Regionalism
Conservatism
 N [56]
[57]
PCE   Adolfo Burriel Eurocommunism  N [56]
[57]
CDS   José Luis Merino Centrism
Liberalism
 N [56]
[57]

The electoral disaster of the Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) in the October 1982 general election and the outcome of its extraordinary congress held in December, in which the party's leadership chose to transform the UCD into a christian democratic political force,[59] brought the party to a process of virtual disintegration as many of its remaining members either switched party allegiances, split into new, independent candidacies or left politics altogether.[60][61] Subsequent attempts to seek electoral allies ahead of the incoming 1983 local and regional elections, mainly the conservative People's Alliance (AP) and the christian democratic People's Democratic Party (PDP),[62][63] had limited success due to concerns from both AP and UCD over such an alliance policy:[64][65] AP strongly rejected any agreement that implied any sort of global coalition with UCD due to the party's ongoing decomposition,[66][67] and prospects about a possible PDP–UCD merger did not come into fruition because of the latter's reluctance to dilute its brand within another party.[68][69][70] By the time the UCD's executive had voted for the liquidation of the party's mounting debts and its subsequent dissolution on 18 February 1983,[1][71][72] electoral alliances with the AP–PDP coalition had only been agreed in some provinces of the Basque Country and Galicia.[73][74][75]

Together with AP, the PDP had agreed to maintain their general election alliance—now rebranded as the People's Coalition—for the May local and regional elections,[76][77][78] with the inclusion of the Liberal Union (UL), a political party created in January 1983 out of independents from the AP–PDP coalition in an attempt to appeal to former UCD liberal voters.[79][75] The Coalition had seen its numbers soar from late February as a result of many former members from the UCD's christian democratic wing joining the PDP.[80][81][82]

Opinion pollsEdit

he tables below lists opinion polling results in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll.

Voting preferences

The table below lists raw, unweighted voting preferences.

ResultsEdit

OverallEdit

Summary of the 8 May 1983 Cortes of Aragon election results
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 283,226 46.83 n/a 33 n/a
People's Coalition (APPDPUL) 136,853 22.63 n/a 18 n/a
Regionalist Aragonese Party (PAR) 124,018 20.51 n/a 13 n/a
Communist Party of Spain (PCE) 23,960 3.96 n/a 1 n/a
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 19,902 3.29 n/a 1 n/a
United Left of Aragon (MCALCR) 4,645 0.77 n/a 0 n/a
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 4,289 0.71 n/a 0 n/a
Social Aragonese Movement (MAS) 1,381 0.23 n/a 0 n/a
Liberal Democratic Party (PDL) 1,341 0.22 n/a 0 n/a
Communist Party of Aragon (PCA) 1,285 0.21 n/a 0 n/a
Blank ballots 3,918 0.65 n/a
Total 604,818 66 n/a
Valid votes 604,818 98.58 n/a
Invalid votes 8,732 1.42 n/a
Votes cast / turnout 613,550 66.74 n/a
Abstentions 305,745 33.26 n/a
Registered voters 919,295
Sources[83][84][85][86]
Popular vote
PSOE
46.83%
AP–PDP–UL
22.63%
PAR
20.51%
PCE
3.96%
CDS
3.29%
Others
2.14%
Blank ballots
0.65%
Seats
PSOE
50.00%
AP–PDP–UL
27.27%
PAR
19.70%
PCE
1.51%
CDS
1.51%

Distribution by constituencyEdit

Constituency PSOE CP PAR PCE CDS
% S % S % S % S % S
Huesca 49.1 10 27.1 6 13.1 2 4.5 3.7
Teruel 38.5 7 30.7 5 23.4 4 1.8 4.2
Zaragoza 47.8 16 19.8 7 22.0 7 4.2 1 3.0 1
Total 46.8 33 22.6 18 20.5 13 4.0 1 3.3 1
Sources[83][84][85][86]

AftermathEdit

Under Article 22 of the Statute, investiture processes to elect the president of the General Deputation of Aragon required of an absolute majority—more than half the votes cast—to be obtained in the first ballot. If unsuccessful, a new ballot would be held 24 hours later requiring only of a simple majority—more affirmative than negative votes—to succeed. If the proposed candidate was not elected, successive proposals were to be transacted under the same procedure within ten-day periods. In the event of the investiture process failing to elect a regional president within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Cortes were to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called, with elected deputies merely serving out what remained of their four-year terms.[7]

On 27 May 1983, PSOE candidate Santiago Marraco was elected by the Cortes as new Aragonese president by an absolute majority of 35 out of 66, with support from both PCE and CDS and the abstention of the PAR.[5][87]

Investiture
Santiago Marraco (PSOE)
Ballot → 27 May 1983
Required majority → 34 out of 66  Y
Yes
35 / 66
No
18 / 66
Abstentions
13 / 66
Absentees
0 / 66
Sources[86][88]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The UCD was dissolved as a political party in February 1983,[1] with its regional presidents and elected officials maintaining their offices either as independents or joining other parties ahead of the May 1983 regional elections.
  2. ^ Within AP–PDP.

ReferencesEdit

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "Preelectoral municipales y autonómicas 1983 (VII). Aragón (Estudio nº 1352. Abril 1983)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 9 April 1983.
Other
  1. ^ a b c "La crisis de UCD culmina con la decisión de disolverse como partido político". El País (in Spanish). 19 February 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  2. ^ "El primer Gobierno será socialista". El País (in Spanish). 10 May 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  3. ^ "La formación del Gobierno aragonés provoca división en el partido vencedor". El País (in Spanish). 13 May 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  4. ^ "El PSOE pierde la mayoría absoluta en las Cortes de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 15 May 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Cinco socialistas y dos independientes forman el Gobierno autónomo de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 4 June 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  6. ^ "El presidente de la Diputación General de Aragón, Santiago Marraco". El País (in Spanish). 7 June 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Ley Orgánica 8/1982, de 10 de agosto, de Estatuto de Autonomía de Aragón". Organic Law No. 8 of 10 August 1982. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b "Real Decreto-ley 20/1977, de 18 de marzo, sobre Normas Electorales". Royal Decree-Law No. 20 of 18 March 1977. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Decreto 24/83, de 9 de marzo, de la Diputación General de Aragón por el que se convocan elecciones a Cortes de Aragón". Boletín Oficial de Aragón (in Spanish) (8): 101–102. 10 March 1983. ISSN 9941-3256. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  10. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  11. ^ "Se confirma el 8 de mayo como la fecha de las elecciones locales". El País (in Spanish). 8 March 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  12. ^ "Hoy se hará oficial la convocatoria de elecciones locales para el 8 de mayo". El País (in Spanish). 9 March 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  13. ^ "Convocadas elecciones autonómicas en Valencia, Navarra y Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 10 March 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Aprobadas las preautonómicas para el País Valenciano, Aragón y Canarias". El País (in Spanish). 12 March 1978. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  15. ^ "Poco entusisamo popular ante la autonomía aragonesa". El País (in Spanish). 12 March 1978. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  16. ^ "Real Decreto-ley 8/1978, de 17 de marzo, por el que se aprueba el régimen preautonómico para Aragón". Royal Decree-Law No. 8 of 17 March 1978. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Constituida la Diputación General de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 11 April 1978. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  18. ^ "Constituido el Gobierno preautonómico de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 25 April 1978. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  19. ^ "Diputación General de Aragón y el Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza se disputan la iniciativa del proceso autonómico". El País (in Spanish). 2 September 1979. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  20. ^ "Los socialistas cortan el paso a UCD en la iniciativa autonómica". El País (in Spanish). 4 September 1979. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Las provincias de Zaragoza y Huesca". El País (in Spanish). 9 December 1979. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  22. ^ "Los partidos aragoneses, a favor del artículo 151". El País (in Spanish). 20 December 1979. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  23. ^ "El PSOE se reafirma en la vía del artículo 151 para cinco regiones". El País (in Spanish). 12 March 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  24. ^ "La decisión ucedista causa fuerte impacto en Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 18 January 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  25. ^ "UCD acepta la vía autonómica lenta". El País (in Spanish). 24 January 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  26. ^ "No hay acuerdo sobre la vía autonómica aragonesa". El País (in Spanish). 1 March 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  27. ^ "El acceso a la autonomía: la vía del artículo 143". El País (in Spanish). 17 January 1980. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  28. ^ "Los pronunciamientos de los ayuntamientos aragonenses, en poder del Gobierno". El País (in Spanish). 16 April 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  29. ^ "El desencanto preside la celebración del Día de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 23 April 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  30. ^ "La iniciativa, insuficiente para las dos vías constitucionales". El País (in Spanish). 26 October 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  31. ^ "País Valenciano, Aragón y Canarias, nuevos escollos en la normalización de las autonomías". El País (in Spanish). 26 October 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  32. ^ "El PSOE busca salidas para las autonomías de Aragón, Canarias, Valencia y Baleares". El País (in Spanish). 27 November 1980. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  33. ^ "Sinopsis del Estatuto de Aragón". congreso.es (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  34. ^ "Ultimadas las bases del Estatuto aragonés". El País (in Spanish). 6 May 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  35. ^ "Los partidos aragoneses deciden llevar la autonomía por el artículo 143". El País (in Spanish). 26 May 1981. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  36. ^ "La España de las Autonomías. Aragón. Breve historia". El Mundo (in Spanish). June 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  37. ^ "Ultimada la remodelación de la Diputación General de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 29 March 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  38. ^ "El ex presidente de la Diputación de Aragón se aleja de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 18 June 1981. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  39. ^ "El sistema electoral dificulta la tramitación del Estatuto de Autonomía aragonés". El País (in Spanish). 1 June 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  40. ^ "Dimite el presidente de la UCD de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 25 July 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  41. ^ "Al menos una decena de parlamentarios centristas se unirán a Suárez". El País (in Spanish). 30 July 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  42. ^ a b "UCD ocupará la presidencia del ejecutivo provisional de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 20 August 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  43. ^ "El próximo día 21 se constituirá el Parlamento autónomo". El País (in Spanish). 13 September 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  44. ^ "Gaspar Castellano, investido con tan sólo los votos de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 28 September 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  45. ^ "Aragón: una autonomía a la defensiva". El País (in Spanish). 12 October 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  46. ^ "ARAGÓN". El País (in Spanish). 30 October 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  47. ^ "Giro a la izquierda del electorado en Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 11 November 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  48. ^ "Dimisión técnica del presidente de la Diputación General". El País (in Spanish). 15 November 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  49. ^ "Gaspar Castellano abandona la presidencia de la Diputación de Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 27 November 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  50. ^ "UCD mantiene el control del Gobierno regional aragonés". El País (in Spanish). 16 December 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  51. ^ "Constituida la Asamblea provisional de Aragón con mayoría de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 22 September 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  52. ^ "El PAR pide la remodelación del Parlamento aragonés". El País (in Spanish). 4 November 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  53. ^ "Aplazada la remodelación de las instituciones aragonesas". El País (in Spanish). 12 November 1982. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  54. ^ "Congreso en varias federaciones socialistas". El País (in Spanish). 21 November 1979. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  55. ^ "Dimite un dirigente del PSOE por diferencias ante las elecciones regionales". El País (in Spanish). 22 February 1983. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  56. ^ a b c d e "Sainz de Varanda candidato del PSOE a la alcaldía de Zaragoza". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 1983. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  57. ^ a b c d e "Duelo de primeras figuras". El País (in Spanish). 16 April 1983. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  58. ^ "Concluidas las listas de la Coalición AP-PDP-UL para las próximas elecciones". ABC (in Spanish). 23 March 1983. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  59. ^ "Los democristianos ganan la batalla a los 'azules' en el congreso de UCD y mantienen a Lavilla en la presidencia". El País (in Spanish). 13 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  60. ^ "Ex ministros y 'notables' de UCD inician la fuga del partido". El País (in Spanish). 14 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  61. ^ "El proceso de desintegración de UCD se acelera con peticiones de bajas en numerosas regiones". El País (in Spanish). 16 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  62. ^ "Sigue en el aire la posibilidad de pacto electoral entre AP-UCD". El País (in Spanish). 21 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  63. ^ "UCD, a favor de seguir negociando con AP para llegar a un pacto de cara a las municipales". El País (in Spanish). 30 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  64. ^ "Fraga se muestra reticente sobre la conveniencia de llegar a un pacto electoral con UCD". El País (in Spanish). 18 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  65. ^ "División en UCD sobre la conveniencia de un pacto electoral con Alianza Popular". El País (in Spanish). 22 December 1982. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  66. ^ "Aumentan los obstáculos para un acuerdo electoral entre UCD y AP". El País (in Spanish). 4 January 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  67. ^ "UCD negociará pactos locales para los próximos comicios". El País (in Spanish). 18 January 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  68. ^ "Lavilla desmiente su dimisión y asegura que "aun existen muchas incógnitas por decidir" en UCD". El País (in Spanish). 9 February 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  69. ^ "El mantenimiento de las siglas, máximo obstáculo para el acercamiento de UCD al Partido Demócrata Popular". El País (in Spanish). 17 February 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  70. ^ "La mayoría de los parlamentarios de UCD se opone a las negociaciones para una integración en el PDP". El País (in Spanish). 18 February 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  71. ^ "Exito y fracaso sin precedentes en la historia de las democracias". El País (in Spanish). 19 February 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  72. ^ "Disolución formal del partido centrista en Salamanca, donde llegó a tener 256 alcaldes". El País (in Spanish). 21 February 1983. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  73. ^ "Acuerdo entre UCD y AP, para concurrir juntos, a las municipales en algunas provincias". El País (in Spanish). 8 January 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  74. ^ "UCD adoptará esta semana una decisión sobre las municipales". El País (in Spanish). 31 January 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  75. ^ a b "UCD y AP-PDP sólo irán en coalición a las municipales en el País Vasco". El País (in Spanish). 11 February 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  76. ^ "Formado un comité coordinador de los partidos coaligados con AP". El País (in Spanish). 3 March 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  77. ^ "El Partido Demócrata Popular considera "correctas, pero muy difíciles", las negociaciones con AP para las próximas elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 13 March 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  78. ^ "Formalizada la coalición AP-PDP-UL en todas las provincias". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  79. ^ "Dos nuevos grupos se unen a la 'operación liberal' de Fraga". El País (in Spanish). 19 January 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  80. ^ "El partido de Oscar Alzaga trata de forzar una próxima 'fuga' de militantes de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 8 February 1983. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  81. ^ "Centenares de militantes democristianos de UCD se integrarán hoy en el partido de Oscar Alzaga". El País (in Spanish). 20 February 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  82. ^ "19 dirigentes democristianos de UCD se integran en el consejo político del PDP". El País (in Spanish). 21 February 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
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