1982 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1982 Atlantic hurricane season was a well below average season featuring only six tropical storms. The season was tied as the least active season since the satellite era begun until the following year when only 4 named storms formed. The season officially began on June 1, 1982, and lasted until November 30, 1982. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. This season produced five named storms and an unnamed subtropical storm (no subtropical storms were named between 1974 and 2001). The season only produced two hurricanes (record low since 1944), one of which reached major hurricane status. The season started early with Hurricane Alberto forming on the first day of the season. Alberto threatened the Southwestern Florida coast as a tropical storm, causing twenty-three fatalities in Cuba. The next storm, a subtropical storm, formed in June and affected the same area as Alberto, causing $10 million in damage.
|1982 Atlantic hurricane season|
Season summary map
|First system formed||June 1, 1982|
|Last system dissipated||October 3, 1982|
|• Maximum winds||130 mph (215 km/h)|
|• Lowest pressure||950 mbar (hPa; 28.05 inHg)|
|Total fatalities||29 total|
|Total damage||$100 million (1982 USD)|
Tropical Storm Beryl formed on August 28, after a quiet July in the open Atlantic Ocean. Beryl grazed Cape Verde, killing 3 people. Tropical Depression Three formed just behind Beryl, tracking east and north of the Caribbean sea in early September. Soon after the dissipation of Beryl, Tropical Storm Chris formed in the Gulf of Mexico on September 9. Chris stayed as a weak storm, making landfall near Sabine Pass, Texas, and dissipated over land on September 13. Hurricane Debby was the next storm and the strongest of the season. The formative stage of Debby produced rainfall in Puerto Rico and soon strengthened into a Category 4 Major Hurricane. Debby passed by Newfoundland on September 18 and merged with a non-tropical low on September 20. In mid-September, Tropical Depression Six formed west of Africa, and tracked west-northwest, dissipating before reaching the Leeward Islands on September 20. Its remnant thunderstorm activity continued moving west-northwest, forming Tropical Depression Seven which moved near Bermuda on September 25 before dissipating offshore Nova Scotia. The final storm of the season, Tropical Storm Ernesto, was the shortest lasting storm of the season and stayed out to sea, dissipating on October 2.
- 1 Season summary
- 2 Systems
- 3 Storm names
- 4 Season effects
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The season was very inactive because of strong vertical wind shear due to stronger than normal westerly winds aloft. The wind shear was contributed by a variety of factors including a strong El Niño. Vertical wind shear was strong enough to disrupt convection in areas of disturbed weather so they could not develop further. The El Niño which affected this hurricane season extended into the 1983 Atlantic hurricane season. Higher than average values of African mineral dust during the most active portion of the hurricane season could have also suppressed tropical cyclone activity.
The season's activity was reflected with a cumulative accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 32, which is classified as "below normal". ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Although officially, subtropical cyclones are excluded from the total, the figure above includes periods when storms were in a subtropical phase.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 1 – June 6|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 985 mbar (hPa)|
On June 1, a tropical depression formed off western Cuba from an organized cloud system. It moved slowly northeastward through the Gulf of Mexico, and strengthened into Tropical Storm Alberto on June 3. Alberto traveled generally northeast on an erratic course, and briefly intensified to a Category 1 hurricane, one of the earliest hurricanes of June, and the earliest date for a hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean since Hurricane Alma in May 1970. Due to strengthening vertical wind shear, Alberto then quickly weakened into a tropical storm, doubled back to the west, and dissipated near the Florida Keys on June 6. Alberto is an example of a storm to enter the Gulf of Mexico and dissipating while never making landfall, which is an unusual event.
Though the storm never made landfall, 23 deaths were reported in Cuba from significant flooding, the worst in 32 years. Southern Florida experienced moderate rainfall, with a peak of 16.47 inches (418 mm) occurring in Tavernier.
Subtropical Storm OneEdit
|Subtropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 18 – June 20|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 984 mbar (hPa)|
The first subtropical storm of the season formed in the east-central Gulf of Mexico on June 18, and moved northeast for its entire life cycle. It crossed the Florida peninsula that night, causing the issuance of numerous severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. The cyclone also dropped heavy rainfall, peaking at 10.72 inches (272 mm) eight miles (13 km) southwest of DeSoto City, Florida. The storm continued, crossing the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and retained its strength until June 20 when it became extratropical near Newfoundland. The cyclone caused three deaths in Florida, sank a fishing trawler off the coast of North Carolina, and caused $10 million in damage (1982 USD). This was the only subtropical or tropical cyclone to impact the Eastern seaboard this season.
Tropical Storm BerylEdit
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 28 – September 6|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 988 mbar (hPa)|
A well-developed tropical wave exited Africa on August 27. The next day, it developed into a tropical depression, and shortly thereafter it intensified into Tropical Storm Beryl. On August 29, it passed just south of Cape Verde as it continued intensifying on its west-northwest track. An eye feature appeared in the convection on August 31, suggesting winds of near hurricane status; since the feature was located on the western side of the deep convection and the storm was slightly asymmetric, the intensity was held just below hurricane status. Shortly after, strong wind shear caused the storm to deteriorate, leaving the low-level circulation exposed on the western side. Beryl weakened to a tropical depression the next day due to the lack of convection, and it continued westward without redevelopment. On September 5, a reconnaissance flight into the depression found winds of 65 mph (100 km/h); this was deemed unrepresentative of the actual intensity as it was recorded in a squall line. The depression became disorganized once more and by September 6, it was no longer identifiable on satellites.
Early in its duration, Tropical Storm Beryl produced heavy rainfall and gusty winds on the Cape Verde island of Sal. The storm caused moderate damage across the archipelago, totaling $3 million (1982 USD). The passage of Beryl resulted in three casualties in Brava Island, as well as 122 injuries. In the period after the storm's passage, the United States provided humanitarian aid and economic assistance to the country, helping the archipelago to reverse the effects of Beryl.
Tropical Depression ThreeEdit
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 6 – September 9|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1012 mbar (hPa)|
This system formed east of the Lesser Antilles on September 6 to the southeast of Tropical Storm Beryl in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The depression moved northeast of the Leeward Islands during the afternoon of September 7 while experiencing southwest vertical wind shear, and moved into the southwest North Atlantic before dissipating east of the Bahamas on September 9.
Tropical Storm ChrisEdit
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 9 – September 12|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 994 mbar (hPa)|
A surface low pressure area developed on September 8 in the Gulf of Mexico. It drifted westward, and the next day it organized into a subtropical depression. Under the influence of a trough of low pressure, the depression turned northward, and after steadily becoming better organized it transitioned into Tropical Storm Chris by late on September 10. The storm attained peak winds of 65 miles per hour (105 km/h) before moving ashore near Sabine Pass in Texas. Chris continued inland until it dissipated over central Arkansas on September 13. Prior to making landfall, as many as 6,500 people evacuated from southern Louisiana, while offshore many oil workers were evacuated inland.
Chris produced moderate rainfall along its path, peaking at 16 inches (410 mm) in Delhi, Louisiana, with totals of over 10 inches (250 mm) in Mississippi and Tennessee. The rainfall caused locally severe flooding as far inland as Tennessee and Kentucky, with flooding of some rivers reported. The storm spawned nine tornadoes, of which four were F2 or stronger on the Fujita scale. Upon moving ashore, the hurricane produced a 5 feet (1.5 m) to 6 feet (1.8 m) storm tide, resulting in severe damage to several boats in the Gulf of Mexico. Throughout its path, damage totaled $2 million (1982 USD).
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 13 – September 20|
|Peak intensity||130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 950 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave moved westward offshore the coast of Africa. The wave traveled across the Atlantic, and organized into a tropical depression off the northern coast of Haiti on September 13. The depression turned north and strengthened into a tropical storm and then a hurricane. Hurricane Debby moved north-northeast, brushing Bermuda with tropical storm-force winds. It continued strengthening as it moved north, peaking at 135 miles per hour as a powerful category 4 hurricane. Hurricane Debby was the only known hurricane on record to reach category 4 north of 38°N latitude, at 38.8° North. Debby was also the second northernmost known Category 4 hurricane Atlantic hurricane, behind Hurricane Ella of 1978. Tropical storm-force winds were also recorded at Cape Race in Newfoundland when Debby passed on September 18. The storm accelerated and began weakening over the colder waters of the north Atlantic. Debby merged with a strong non-tropical system over the British Isles on September 20. A storm development related to Debbie left 2 dead in Finland.
The precursor disturbance to Debby dropped heavy rainfall across Puerto Rico, peaking at 12.86 inches (327 mm) in the southwestern portion of the island. Debby had little effect on Atlantic Canada, outside of heavy rainfall.
Tropical Depression SixEdit
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 16 – September 20|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)|
This tropical depression formed 900 miles (1,400 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands on September 16, and moved west-northwest across the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The system moved within 750 miles (1,210 km) east of the Leeward Islands before dissipating on September 20.
Tropical Depression SevenEdit
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 24 – September 27|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1007 mbar (hPa)|
The remnant area of disturbed weather from Tropical Depression Six continued moving west-northwest into the southwest north Atlantic. A tropical depression formed from this area 275 miles (443 km) west of Bermuda on September 25. The system recurved off the north and northeast, dissipating in north Atlantic shipping lanes southeast of Nova Scotia on September 27.
Tropical Storm ErnestoEdit
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 30 – October 3|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave formed off the coast of Africa on September 23. The west side of the wave expanded and was declared as Tropical Depression Six on September 30. The depression intensified, making a sharp turn on October 1. An Air Force plane found 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) winds with a pressure of 1,003 hectopascals (29.6 inHg) and the depression was given the name Ernesto. A second Air Force plane on October 1 found 71 miles per hour (114 km/h) winds with a pressure of 997 millibars (29.4 inHg). However, on October 2 Ernesto rapidly weakened and the next day, Ernesto became unidentifiable after merging with an extratropical low. Ernesto never approached land and caused no reported damage.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1982. These names were used again in the 1988 season. This is the first time this name set was used since the post-1978 naming change, except for Florence and Helene which had been previously used in 1954, 1958, 1960, and 1964. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.
This is a table of the storms in 1982 and their landfall(s), if any. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or low.
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained
|Alberto||June 1 – 6||Category 1 hurricane||85 mph (140 km/h)||985 hPa (29.09 inHg)||Cuba, Florida||$85 million||23|||
|One||June 18 – 20||Subtropical storm||70 mph (110 km/h)||984 hPa (29.06 inHg)||Southeastern United States, Atlantic Canada||$10 million||3|
|Beryl||August 28 – September 6||Tropical storm||70 mph (110 km/h)||989 hPa (29.21 inHg)||Cape Verde Islands||$3 million||3|
|Three||September 6 – 9||Tropical depression||35 mph (55 km/h)||1012 hPa (29.88 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Chris||September 9 – September 12||Tropical storm||65 mph (100 km/h)||994 hPa (29.35 inHg)||Southern United States||$2 million||None|
|Debby||September 13 – 20||Category 4 hurricane||130 mph (215 km/h)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Bermuda, Newfoundland||Minimal||None|
|Six||September 16 – 20||Tropical depression||35 mph (55 km/h)||Unknown||None||None||None|
|Seven||September 24 – 27||Tropical depression||35 mph (55 km/h)||1007 hPa (29.74 inHg)||None||None||None|
|Ernesto||September 30 – October 3||Tropical storm||70 mph (110 km/h)||997 hPa (29.44 inHg)||None||None||None|
|9 systems||June 1 – October 3||130 mph (215 km/h)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||$100 million||29|
- Gilbert B. Clark (1983). Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1982. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- William S. Kessler (1999). Southern Oscillation Index. University of Washington. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Evan, Amato T.; Dunion, Jason; Foley, Jonathan A.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Velden., Christopher S. (2006). "New Evidence For a Relationship Between Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity and African Dust Outbreaks" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (19): L19813. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..3319813E. doi:10.1029/2006GL026408. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Hurricane Research Division (March 2011). "Atlantic basin Comparison of Original and Revised HURDAT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (May 27, 2010). "Background information: the North Atlantic Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- David Levinson (August 20, 2008). "2005 Atlantic Ocean Tropical Cyclones". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. December 12, 2019.
- David Roth (2009). Hurricane Alberto Rainfall Totals. Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved on October 21, 2006.
- Miles B. Lawrence (1983). Hurricane Alberto Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on October 21, 2006.
- David M. Roth (2009). Rainfall from Subtropical Storm One. Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved on May 23, 2009.
- Joseph Pelissier (1983). Subtropical Storm One Report National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on October 21, 2006.
- David M. Roth (2009). CLIQR tropical cyclone database. Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved on October 28, 2008.
- National Hurricane Center (1983). "Tropical Storm Beryl Preliminary Report, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- National Hurricane Center (1983). "Tropical Storm Beryl Preliminary Report, Page Two". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- EM-DAT: the International Disaster Database (2007). "Disaster List for Cape Verde". Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
- Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (1992). Disaster History: Major Disasters Worldwide 1900 – present. Labat-Anderson Incorporated. Retrieved on June 8, 2009.
- Geography I.Q. (2007). "U.S.-CAPE VERDEAN RELATIONS". Geography I.Q. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
- Gilbert B. Clark (September 27, 1982). "Tropical Storm Chris Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- David Roth (2007). "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall: Tropical Storm Chris". Hydrometeorogical Prediction Center. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- U.S. Geological Survey Kansas Water Science Center (2007). "Summary of Significant Floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970 Through 1989 – 1982". U.S. Geological Survey Kansas Water Science Center. Archived from the original on March 25, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Tom Grazulis of The Tornado Project and Bill McCaul of USRA Huntsville (2007). "List of Known Tropical Cyclones Which Have Spawned Tornadoes". Tornado Project. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Laurila, Terhi K.; Sinclair, Victoria A.; Gregow, Hilppa (October 16, 2019). "The Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Debby (1982) and the Subsequent Development of an Intense Windstorm over Finland". Monthly Weather Review. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-19-0035.1.
- David Roth (2006). Hurricane Debby Rainfall Totals. Retrieved on October 21, 2006.
- National Hurricane Center (1983). Hurricane Debby Report. Retrieved on October 21, 2006.
- Canadian Hurricane Centre (2003-09-18). Storms of 1982. Archived May 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Green Lane. Retrieved on June 8, 2009.
- Associated Press (1982-09-17). Hurricane brushes past Bermuda. Galveston Daily News. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Associated Press (1982-09-19). Hurricane Debby threatens shipping interests. Galveston Daily News. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Associated Press (1982-09-20). Debby weakens; depression forms. Galveston Daily News. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Associated Press (1982-09-26). Tropical Winds Threaten Shipping. Syracuse Herald Journal. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Associated Press (1982-09-27). Tornado kills one. Galveston Daily News. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Associated Press (1982-09-27). Tropical storm loses ferocity. Indiana Gazette. Retrieved on May 23, 2008.
- Miles B. Lawrence (1983). Tropical Storm Ernesto Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on October 21, 2006.
- National Hurricane Center (2009). Retired Hurricane Names Since 1954. Retrieved on June 8, 2009.