1957 Defence White Paper
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The 1957 White Paper on Defence (Cmnd. 124) was a British white paper setting forth the perceived future of the British military. It had profound effects on all aspects of the defence industry but probably the most affected was the British aircraft industry. Duncan Sandys, the recently appointed Minister of Defence, produced the paper.
The decisions were influenced by two major factors: the finances of the country and the coming of the missile age. Where before combat in the air would have been between aircraft, with high flying bombers carrying nuclear weapons and fast interceptor fighter aircraft trying to stop them, now the guided missile, particularly the surface-to-air missile, threatened all aircraft. The emergent space age showed that missiles could also deliver those nuclear weapons anywhere in the world.
Main aspects of paperEdit
The role of missilesEdit
UK war plans of the 1950s were based on a "three-day war", in which the Warsaw Pact's forces would begin with a conventional attack in Europe, but the war would quickly progress to the use of nuclear weapons. From that point, strategic weapons would be unleashed and the battle would be between the strategic bombers and the opposing defences. The massive superiority of the western air forces meant this battle would be short and largely one-sided, but the UK would have to survive at least one wave of Soviet attacks.
To handle this attack, in the post-World War II era the Royal Air Force deployed the ROTOR radar network that covered the entire British Isles in order to attack any strategic bomber that might attempt to approach. The defensive weapons of the system included new jet-powered interceptor aircraft and, originally, reorganized anti-aircraft artillery with new tactical control radars. By the early 1950s, the increasing speeds and altitudes of bombers meant they could "toss" their weapons from ranges outside even the largest anti-aircraft artillery, and plans began to replace these weapons with surface-to-air missiles.
By the mid-1950s, the USSR was known to be developing a variety of ballistic missiles able to deliver nuclear warheads. Split into classes based on their range, much of the attention was on the longest-ranged intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). However, short-range missiles were both less expensive and easier to develop, and these had the performance needed to deliver a warhead to the UK from bases in East Germany. There was no defence from these medium range ballistic missiles and it appeared they would be widespread by the mid-1960s.
The introduction of strategic missiles seriously upset the nature of the UK's defensive posture. The only way to stop an attack from missiles would be to stop it from being launched, and the only way to do that was through deterrence. Although the survival of the V force was demanded even before this point, there was some expectation that it would survive direct air attack given the ROTOR defence. With missiles, there was no way to do this. Any attack would require the immediate launch of the V force to ensure its survival - even if an initial attack was made by bombers, missiles were sure to follow. In this case, there was no point trying to defend their airfields - they would either be empty or the war was already lost.
In such a scenario the need for air defences was essentially eliminated. If an attack occurred, even the complete attrition of attacking bombers would have little to no effect on the ultimate outcome. As a result, the White Paper cancelled many defensive systems, like the Blue Envoy SAM and Saunders-Roe SR.177 interceptor, and significantly reduced the scope and mission of the Linesman/Mediator network that was being planned to replace ROTOR. Linesman was now tasked mostly with intercepting aircraft carrying carcinotron jammers, which the Soviets might use to mask an attack.
Aircraft industry reorganizationEdit
The paper stated that the aircraft industry should re-organise, with a number of smaller companies becoming a few larger ones. It was made clear that new contracts would only be given to such merged firms, including the only new aircraft project, which would become the TSR-2.
Under pressure, in 1960 English Electric, Bristol Aeroplane Company and Vickers-Armstrong merged to form the British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC. Hunting Aircraft soon joined the BAC group. In the same year, de Havilland, Blackburn Aircraft and Folland merged into Hawker Siddeley, which had already consisted of Armstrong Whitworth, Avro, Gloster and Hawker since 1935. Westland Aircraft took over all the helicopter manufacturers, including Saunders-Roe, Fairey Aviation and Bristol's helicopter work. Saunders-Roe's hovercraft work was spun off and merged with Vickers Supermarine as the British Hovercraft Corporation.
Very few companies were left independent after this wave of mergers, leaving only Handley Page as a major independent, along with the smaller companies like Auster, Boulton Paul, Miles Aircraft, Scottish Aviation and Short Brothers. Most of these disappeared by the 1970s, leaving only Scottish Aviation to merge into British Aerospace in 1977, and Shorts, which was purchased by Bombardier in 1989.
Engine companies were likewise "encouraged" to merge. In 1959 Armstrong Siddeley and Bristol's engine division merged to become Bristol Siddeley, but were shortly purchased by Rolls-Royce in 1966, leaving RR as the only major British aircraft engine manufacturer.
Reduction in manned aircraft projectsEdit
With the development of missiles, those roles that missiles could cover meant that certain aircraft in development could be cancelled.
These included the next generation of supersonic interceptor for high flying bombers, the F.155 and the interim aircraft that would have covered it until introduction in 1963, namely the Saunders-Roe SR.53 and Saunders-Roe SR.177. The Avro 730 supersonic light bomber was also cancelled, as was the Blue Rosette nuclear weapon to arm it. Oddly, the Blue Envoy surface-to-air missile was also cancelled, although it would have been more in keeping with the spirit of the paper. The English Electric P.1 (which would become the Lightning) was spared only because it was too far advanced to bother cancelling.
The Royal Auxiliary Air Force's flying role was also brought to an end.
Restructuring of the British ArmyEdit
The British Army was to be reduced in size and reorganised to reflect the ending of National Service and the change to a voluntary army, and to "keep the Army abreast of changing circumstances, policies, weapons and techniques of war". 51 major units and a large number of smaller ones were to be disbanded or amalgamated, leaving the army with a strength of 165,000 officers and men. The process was to be carried out in two phases, to be completed by the end of 1959 and 1962 respectively.
The Royal Armoured Corps was to be reduced by the amalgamation of:
- 1st King's Dragoon Guards and the Queen's Bays (2nd Dragoon Guards) as 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards
- 3rd The King's Own Hussars and 7th Queen's Own Hussars as Queen's Own Hussars
- 4th Queen's Own Hussars and 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars as Queen's Royal Irish Hussars
- 3rd Royal Tank Regiment and 6th Royal Tank Regiment
- 4th Royal Tank Regiment and 7th Royal Tank Regiment
- 5th Royal Tank Regiment and 8th Royal Tank Regiment
The infantry of the line was to undergo major changes. Existing regiments were to be grouped in "brigades". Each brigade was to have a single depot with those of the individual regiments being reduced to the status of regimental headquarters. There was to be a reduction in the number of regular infantry battalions from 64 to 49 by the merging of pairs of regiments. The brigades and regiments were to be:
- The Lowland Brigade: The Royal Scots, The King's Own Scottish Borderers, The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) and a regiment formed by the merger of the Royal Scots Fusiliers and the Highland Light Infantry
- The Home Counties Brigade: The Royal Sussex Regiment, The Middlesex Regiment and two regiments to be formed by the amalgamation of the Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) with The East Surrey Regiment and The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) with The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment.
- The Lancastrian Brigade: The Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire), and three amalgamated regiments formed by The King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster)/The Border Regiment, The King's Regiment (Liverpool)/The Manchester Regiment and The East Lancashire Regiment/The South Lancashire Regiment
- The Fusilier Brigade: The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, The Royal Fusiliers and The Lancashire Fusiliers
- The Midland Brigade: The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, The Royal Leicestershire Regiment and The Sherwood Foresters
- The East Anglian Brigade: Three regiments were to be formed by amalgamation of The Royal Norfolk Regiment/The Suffolk Regiment, The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment/The Northamptonshire Regiment and The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment/The Essex Regiment
- The Wessex Brigade:The Gloucestershire Regiment, The Royal Hampshire Regiment and two regiments formed by amalgamation of The Devonshire Regiment with The Dorset Regiment and The Royal Berkshire Regiment with The Wiltshire Regiment
- The Light Infantry Brigade: The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, The King's Shropshire Light Infantry, The Durham Light Infantry and a regiment formed by a merger of the Somerset Light Infantry and The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry
- The Yorkshire Brigade: The Green Howards, The Duke of Wellington's Regiment, The York and Lancaster Regiment and a regiment formed by the merger of The East Yorkshire Regiment and The West Yorkshire Regiment
- The Mercian Brigade: The Cheshire Regiment, The Worcestershire Regiment and a regiment formed by the merging of The North Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales's) with The South Staffordshire Regiment
- The Welsh Brigade: The Royal Welch Fusiliers, The South Wales Borderers and The Welch Regiment
- The North Irish Brigade: The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, The Royal Ulster Rifles and The Royal Irish Fusiliers
- The Highland Brigade: The Black Watch, The Gordon Highlanders, The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and a regiment formed by the merger of The Seaforth Highlanders with The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
- The Green Jackets Brigade: The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, The King's Royal Rifle Corps and The Rifle Brigade
- The Parachute Regiment was to continue to have three battalions.
The Royal Engineers would be reduced by approximately 15,000 officers and men, with divisional engineer regiments to be replaced by field squadrons. The Royal Signals was to lose 13,000 soldiers by reduction of second-line units. Some of the work of the Royal Army Service Corps was to pass to civilian contractors, allowing a loss of 18,000 men. The Royal Army Ordnance Corps was to lose 11,000 soldiers, and was to be organised more efficiently with a large number of depots closed. The Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers was to lose 23,000 soldiers. Other arms and services were to be reduced in proportion.
Ending of air branch RNVREdit
Since 1938 the Air Branch of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve had been contributing reservists for air operations. From 1947 it had been curtailed to anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and fighter units only — there being a large number of propeller aircraft still in use. The increasing complexity of weapons system and the use of helicopters for ASW was thought to be beyond what reservist training could manage. With the ending of the Air branch, the Short Seamew was no longer required and production was cancelled.
- Merged regiments and new brigading — many famous units to lose separate identity, The Times, July 25, 1957.
- Draft copy of 1957 Defence White Paper
- https://archives.nato.int/reorganization-of-united-kingdom-armed-forces;isad - REORGANIZATION OF UNITED KINGDOM ARMED FORCES - statement by UK representative to NATO allies, including details of drawdown of I (BR) Corps and 2nd TAF.