Events from the year 1943 in the United States.
- President: Franklin D. Roosevelt (D-New York)
- Vice President: Henry A. Wallace (D-Iowa)
- Chief Justice: Harlan F. Stone (New York)
- Speaker of the House of Representatives: Sam Rayburn (D-Texas)
- Senate Majority Leader: Alben W. Barkley (D-Kentucky)
- Congress: 77th (until January 3), 78th (starting January 3)
- January 1 – Project Y, the Manhattan Project's secret laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for development and production of the first atomic bombs under the direction of J. Robert Oppenheimer, begins operations.
- January 4 – Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California, is succeeded by Earl Warren.
- January 11 – The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China.
- January 14
- January 15 – The world's largest office building, The Pentagon, is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.
- January 23
- February 3 – The legendary Four Chaplains of the U.S. Army are drowned when their ship (Dorchester) is struck by a German torpedo.
- February 5 – Howard Hughes's Western The Outlaw, starring Jane Russell, is released for a week prior to Motion Picture Production Code censors requiring its withdrawal from distribution.
- February 6 – Walt Disney Productions' sixth feature film, Saludos Amigos, is released. It is the first of six package films they would release throughout the remainder of the 1940s.
- February 7 – WWII: It is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in the US in two days.
- February 8 – WWII – Battle of Guadalcanal: United States forces defeat Japanese troops.
- February 11 – General Dwight D. Eisenhower is selected to command the Allied armies in Europe.
- February 14 – Battle of the Kasserine Pass: German General Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Korps launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia; it is the United States' first major battle defeat of the war.
- February 17 – Aircraft carrier USS Lexington is commissioned.
- February 20 – American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies.
- February 25 – Aircraft carrier USS Princeton is commissioned.
- February 27 – The Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, explodes, killing 74 men.
- March 2 – WWII: Battle of the Bismarck Sea – United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.
- March 4 – The 15th Academy Awards, hosted by Bob Hope, are presented at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, with William Wyler's Mrs. Miniver winning Outstanding Motion Picture. The film also receives 12 and 6 respective nominations and awards, with Wyler also winning Best Director.
- March 8 – WWII: American forces are attacked by Japanese troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville, in a battle that lasts five days.
- March 13 – WWII: On Bougainville, Japanese troops end their assault on American forces at Hill 700.
- March 26 – WWII – Battle of the Komandorski Islands: In the Aleutian Islands, the battle begins when United States Navy forces intercept Japanese troops attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska.
- March 31 – Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! opens on Broadway, heralds a new era in "integrated" stage musicals, becomes an instantaneous stage classic, and goes on to be Broadway's longest-running musical up to that time (1948).
- April 13 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birthday. The bronze statue is added in 1947.
- April 27 – The U.S. Federal Writers' Project is shuttered.
- May 11 – WWII: American troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands, in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces.
- May 12 – The Trident Conference begins in Washington, D.C., with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill taking part.
- May 17
- May 19 – Winston Churchill addresses a joint session of the U.S. Congress.
- May 23 – Aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill is commissioned.
- May 31 – The Zoot Suit Riots erupt between military personnel and Mexican American youths in East Los Angeles.
- June 3-10 The Zoot Suit Riots; The notorious riots lasted 10 days and carry the name of the targeted victims — young people dressed in wide trousers pegged at the ankle and long coats — but the violent rampage was led by sailors, soldiers and Marines.
- June 6 – The first game of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League is played, a precursor of professional women's sports in the U.S.
- June 15–17 – Beaumont race riot of 1943 in Texas.
- June 20–22 – 1943 Detroit race riot.
- June 22 – The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division lands in North Africa, prior to training at Arzew, French Algeria.
- July 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the Battle of Kula Gulf off Kolombangara.
- July 10 – WWII – Allied invasion of Sicily: The Allied invasion of Axis-controlled Europe begins with landings on the island of Sicily off mainland Italy, by the U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division and a number of Allied paratroopers.
- July 11 – United States Army forces assault the village of Piano Lupo, just outside Gela, Sicily.
- July 21 – Release of the musical film Stormy Weather starring Lena Horne, "Bojangles" Bill Robinson, Cab Calloway, the Nicholas Brothers and other African American performers.
- July 24 –
- WWII: Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian airplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.
- Aircraft carrier USS Cabot is commissioned.
- August 1 – WWII: Operation Tidal Wave – 177 B-24 Liberator bombers from the U.S. Army Air Force bomb oil refineries at Ploieşti, Romania.
- August 1–2 – Harlem riot of 1943, a race riot.
- August 3 – WWII: John F. Kennedy's patrol torpedo boat PT-109 is rammed by a destroyer.
- August 5 – WWII: John F. Kennedy and crew are found by Solomon Islanders coastwatchers Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana with their dugout canoe.
- August 6 – WWII – Battle of Vella Gulf: Americans defeat a Japanese convoy off Kolombangara, as the U.S. Army drives the Japanese out of Munda airfield on New Georgia.
- August 14 – WWII: The Quadrant Conference begins in Quebec City; Canadian Prime Minister MacKenzie King meets with Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- August 16 – WWII: Aircraft carrier USS Intrepid is commissioned.
- August 17 – WWII: The US 7th Army under General George S. Patton arrives in Messina, Sicily, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.
- August 30 – The Lackawanna Limited train wreck at Wayland in upstate New York causes 29 deaths and injures 114 others.
- September 5 – WWII: The 503rd Parachute Regiment under American General Douglas MacArthur lands and occupies Nadzab, just east of the port city of Lae in northeastern Papua New Guinea.
- September 7 – A fire at the Gulf Hotel in Houston, Texas, kills 55 people.
- September 8 – United States General Dwight D. Eisenhower publicly announces the surrender of Italy to the Allies.
- October 1 – WWII: American forces enter liberated Naples.
- October 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Vella Lavella.
- October 11 – The New York Yankees defeat the St. Louis Cardinals, 4 games to 1, to win their 10th World Series Title.
- October 12 – The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) begins broadcasting.
- October 28 – The alleged date of the Philadelphia Experiment, in which the U.S. destroyer escort USS Eldridge was to be rendered invisible to human observers for a brief period.
- October 30 – The Merrie Melodies animated short Falling Hare, one of the few shorts with Bugs getting out-smarted, is released in the United States.
- November 1 – WWII – Operation Goodtime: United States Marines land on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
- November 2 – WWII: In the early morning hours, American and Japanese ships fight the inconclusive Battle of Empress Augusta Bay off Bougainville.
- November 14 – Leonard Bernstein, substituting at the last minute for ailing principal conductor Bruno Walter, directs the New York Philharmonic in its regular Sunday afternoon broadcast concert over CBS Radio. The event receives front-page coverage in The New York Times the following day.
- November 16
- November 17 – Aircraft carrier USS Bataan is commissioned
- November 20 – WWII: Battle of Tarawa: United States Marines land on Tawara and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands and take heavy fire from Japanese shore guns.
- November 22 – WWII: War in the Pacific: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and ROC leader Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss ways to defeat Japan.
- November 25 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Cape St. George between Buka and New Ireland.
- November 28 – WWII – Tehran Conference: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy (on November 30 they establish an agreement concerning a planned June 1944 invasion of Europe codenamed Operation Overlord).
- November 29 – WWII: Aircraft carrier USS Hornet is commissioned.
- December 2 – Fifteen atomic scientists, including Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs, arrive from Britain to join the US atomic research project.
- December 3 – Edward R. Murrow delivers his classic "Orchestrated Hell" broadcast over CBS Radio, describing a Royal Air Force nighttime bombing raid on Berlin.
- December 4 – The Great Depression officially ends in the United States: With unemployment figures falling fast due to World War II-related employment, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes the Works Progress Administration.
- December 15 – Aircraft carrier USS San Jacinto is commissioned.
- December 24 – WWII: U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe.
- World War II, U.S. involvement (1941–1945)
- January 1
- January 3 – Adrian Garrett, American baseball player (died 2021)
- January 4 – Doris Kearns Goodwin, American writer
- January 8
- January 9 – Scott Walker, singer and composer (d. 2019 in the United Kingdom)
- January 10 – Jim Croce, American surburbia musician (d. 1973)
- January 11 – Jim Hightower, American radio host, author
- January 13 – Richard Moll, American actor
- January 14
- January 16 – Peter T. Snowe, American politician, businessman (d. 1973)
- January 18 – Kay Granger, American politician
- January 19 – Janis Joplin, American rock singer (d. 1970)
- January 23
- January 24
- January 25 – Tobe Hooper, American film director (d. 2017)
- January 28 – John Beck, American actor
- February 3
- February 5
- February 8 – Creed Bratton, actor
- February 9
- February 10
- February 14
- February 19 – Homer Hickam, American author, retired NASA engineer
- February 20 – Moshe Cotel, American composer, pianist (d. 2008)
- February 21 – David Geffen, American record executive, film producer
- February 23 – Fred Biletnikoff, American football player, coach
- February 24
- February 26
- February 27 – Morten Lauridsen, American composer
- February 28 – Donnie Iris, American rock singer, guitarist (The Jaggerz, Wild Cherry, Donnie Iris and the Cruisers)
- March 1
- March 2 – Peter Straub, American author (d. 2022)
- March 9
- March 12 – Nosson Tzvi Finkel, Chicago-born Israeli rabbi (d. 2011 in Israel)
- March 14
- March 15 – Sly Stone, African-American singer (Sly and the Family Stone)
- March 16 – Helen Armstrong, American violinist (d. 2006)
- March 18
- March 20
- March 22 – George Benson, African-American guitarist, singer and songwriter
- March 23
- March 25 – Paul Michael Glaser, American actor
- March 26 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
- March 30
- March 31 – Christopher Walken, American actor
- April 4 – Judy Buenoano, American serial killer (d. 1998)
- April 5 – Max Gail, American actor (Barney Miller)
- April 6 − Susan Tolsky, American actress and voice actress
- April 8
- April 11 – Harley Race, American professional wrestler, promoter and trainer (d. 2019)
- April 12 – Robert Durst, American real estate heir and convicted murderer (d. 2022)
- April 15 – Mighty Sam McClain, American singer, songwriter (d. 2015)
- April 21 – Jim Jamieson, American golfer (d. 2018)
- April 22 – Louise Glück, American poet, 12th US Poet Laureate and 2020 Nobel Prize laureate
- April 24 – Richard Sterban, American singer (The Oak Ridge Boys)
- April 25
- April 26 – Gary Wright, American singer, songwriter, musician and composer
- April 28 – John Oliver Creighton, American astronaut
- April 30 – Bobby Vee, American pop singer (d. 2016)
- May 3 – Jim Risch, American politician
- May 5 – Raymond A. Jordan, American politician (d. 2022)
- May 6 – James Kallstrom, American FBI officer (d. 2021)
- May 8 – Danny Whitten, American musician (d. 1972)
- May 10 – Richard Darman, American federal government official, businessman (d. 2008)
- May 11
- May 12 – Linda Dano, American actress and author
- May 16
- May 17 – Mark W. Olson, American economist, politician (d. 2018)
- May 23 – Jim Mueller, American sportscaster (d. 2022)
- May 24 – Gary Burghoff, American actor (M*A*S*H)
- May 25 – Jessi Colter, American singer, composer
- May 27 – Bruce Weitz, American actor
- May 30 – James Chaney, African-American civil rights worker (d. 1964)
- May 31
- June 1 – Richard Goode, American pianist
- June 6
- June 7
- June 11 – Henry Hill, American gangster (d. 2012)
- June 14 – Jim Sensenbrenner, American politician
- June 16 – Joan Van Ark, American actress
- June 17
- June 23
- June 26
- June 27 – Rico Petrocelli, American baseball player
- June 29 – Gene Littles, American basketball player and coach (d. 2021)
- June 30 – Florence Ballard, African-American singer, founder of The Supremes (d. 1976)
- July 1
- July 2 – Lauri Peters, American actress, dancer, singer, drama teacher, and author
- July 3 – Kurtwood Smith, American actor (That '70s Show)
- July 4 – Geraldo Rivera, American reporter, talk show host
- July 5 – Curt Blefary, American baseball player (d. 2001)
- July 7 – Joel Siegel, American film critic (d. 2007)
- July 9 – Suzanne Rogers, American actress
- July 10 – Arthur Ashe, African-American tennis player (d. 1993)
- July 11 – Tom Holland, American screenwriter, actor, and filmmaker
- July 12 – Walter Murch, American film editor, sound designer
- July 14
- July 16 – Jimmy Johnson, American football coach, television analyst
- July 18 – Jerry Chambers, American basketball player
- July 20 – Christopher Murney, American actor, vocal artist
- July 21
- July 22 – Kay Bailey Hutchison, American politician
- July 23
- July 27 – Mary Love, African-American soul, gospel singer (d. 2013)
- July 28
- August 2 – Max Wright, American actor (d. 2019)
- August 5 – Nelson Briles, American baseball player (d. 2005)
- August 6 – Jim Hardin, American baseball pitcher (Baltimore Orioles, New York Yankees, Atlanta Braves) (d. 1991)
- August 9 – Ken Norton, African-American boxer, actor (d. 2013)
- August 10 – Ronnie Spector, born Veronica Bennett, American pop singer (The Ronettes) (d. 2022)
- August 11 – Abigail Folger, American heiress, murder victim (d. 1969)
- August 17 – Robert De Niro, American actor
- August 19 – Edwin Hawkins, American urban contemporary gospel musician (d. 2018)
- August 21 – Clydie King, American musician (d. 2019)
- August 23 – Bobby Diamond, American actor (d. 2019)
- August 27
- August 28 – Lou Piniella, American baseball player, manager
- August 30
- September 6 – Harris Hines, American judge (d. 2018)
- September 7 – Tommy Matchick, American baseball player (d. 2022)
- September 8 − Alvy Ray Smith, American computer scientist, co-founded Pixar
- September 9 – Art LaFleur, American actor (d. 2021)
- September 10
- September 11
- September 13 – Mildred D. Taylor, American writer
- September 18 – Nina Wayne, American actress
- September 19 – Joe Morgan, American Hall of Fame baseball player (d. 2020)
- September 21 – Jerry Bruckheimer, American film and television producer
- September 22 – Toni Basil, American musician, video artist ("Mickey")
- September 25 – Robert Gates, 22nd United States Secretary of Defense
- September 28 – J. T. Walsh, American actor (d. 1998)
- October 1 – Jerry Martini, American musician
- October 2 – Franklin Rosemont, American poet (d. 2009)
- October 3 – Jeff Bingaman, American politician
- October 4 – Buddy Roemer, American politician, investor and banker (d. 2021)
- October 5
- October 6 – Michael Durrell, American actor
- October 7 – Oliver North, American military officer, military historian, political commentator, author and television host
- October 8
- October 11 – Gene Watson, American country singer
- October 12 – Jeffrey R. MacDonald, American physician and United States Army Officer
- October 14
- October 15 – Penny Marshall, American actress, director and producer (d. 2018)
- October 18 – Herschel Sparber, American actor
- October 24
- October 27
- October 29 – Don Simpson, American film producer, screenwriter, and actor (d. 1996)
- November 4 – Chuck Scarborough, American news anchor
- November 5 – Sam Shepard, American playwright, actor (d. 2017)
- November 7
- November 10 – Saxby Chambliss, American politician
- November 12 – Wallace Shawn, American actor
- November 13 – Jay Sigel, American golfer
- November 14 – Peter Norton, American software engineer, businessman
- November 17
- November 21 – Larry Mahan, American rodeo cowboy
- November 22
- November 24 – Dave Bing, American mayor, longtime NBA player
- November 25 – Peter Adair, American filmmaker (d. 1996)
- November 26 – Marilynne Robinson, American writer
- November 28 – Randy Newman, American musician
- November 30 – Terrence Malick, American film director
- December 1 – Kenny Moore, American athlete and journalist (d. 2022)
- December 2
- December 8
- December 11 – John Kerry, American politician, 68th U.S. Secretary of State
- December 12
- December 13 – David W. Huff, American rock singer, guitarist of (David and the Giants)
- December 16 – Steven Bochco, American television producer (d. 2018)
- December 17 – Rick Nolan, American politician
- December 19 – Ross M. Lence, American political scientist (d. 2006)
- December 21 – Jack Nance, American actor (d. 1996)
- December 22 – Paul Wolfowitz, American political scientist
- December 23
- December 24
- December 27 – Cokie Roberts, American broadcast political journalist (d. 2019)
- December 28 – Craig MacIntosh, American illustrator
- December 31 – John Denver, American musician (d. 1997)
- January 5 – George Washington Carver, African American botanist (b. 1864)
- January 6 – Alice May Douglas, author (b. 1865)
- January 7 – Nikola Tesla, electrical engineer (b. 1856 in Serbia)
- January 23 – Alexander Woollcott, critic (b. 1887)
- February 3 – Verina Morton Jones, African-American physician, suffragist and clubwoman (b. 1865)
- February 11 – Bess Houdini, stage assistant and wife of Harry Houdini (b. 1876)
- April 3 – Conrad Veidt, actor (b. 1893 in Germany)
- April 4 – David Roitman, cantor (b. 1884 in Russia)
- May 20 – Joe Trees, athlete and oil executive (b. 1870)
- May 22 – Helen Herron Taft, First Lady of the United States (b. 1861)
- July 16 – Saul Raphael Landau, Polish Jewish lawyer, journalist, publicist and Zionist activist (b. 1870 in Kraków)
- September 15 – John Flammang Schrank, attempted assassin of Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1876)
- November 22 – Lorenz Hart, lyricist (b. 1895)
- December 14
- December 15 – Fats Waller, African American jazz pianist (b. 1904)
- "UPI Almanac for Tuesday, Jan. 1, 2019". United Press International. January 1, 2019. Archived from the original on September 2, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
businessman Ron Perelman in 1943 (age 76)
- Elizabeth A. Brennan; Elizabeth C. Clarage (1999). Who's who of Pulitzer Prize Winners. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-57356-111-2.
- Sharon Davis (1997). The Sixties. Mainstream. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-85158-836-7.
- Steve Hochman (1999). Popular Musicians. Salem Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-89356-987-7.
- "UPI Almanac for Wednesday, Jan. 13, 2021". United Press International. January 13, 2021. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
- "Former NM Chief Justice Charles Daniels dies". Albuquerque Journal. 1 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- William Grant Laskey
- Colin Larkin, ed. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music (First ed.). Guinness Publishing. p. 1561. ISBN 0-85112-939-0.
- Yardley, William (December 2, 2014). "Kent Haruf, Acclaimed Novelist of Small-Town Life, Is Dead at 71". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Memorial service announced for former legislator Raymond Jordan
- James Kallstrom, FBI agent who investigated TWA Flight 800 explosion, dies at 78
- Jim Mueller, former Cleveland sportscaster and radio voice of the Browns, dies at 79
- Former Charlotte Hornets coach Gene Littles dies at 78
- Obituary: Dr. Susan Shaw
- Bev Scalze, former state lawmaker and Little Canada city council member, dies at 77
- Alice May Douglas (1865–1943)
- Media related to 1943 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons