Events in the year 1938 in Brazil.
- Alagoas: Osman Laurel
- Amazonas: Álvaro Botelho Maia
- Bahia: Antônio Fernandes Dantas then Landulfo Alves
- Ceará: Francisco de Meneses Pimentel
- Espírito Santo: João Punaro Bley
- Goiás: Pedro Ludovico Teixeira
- Mato Grosso: Júlio Strübing Müller
- Minas Gerais: Benedito Valadares Ribeiro
- Pará: José Carneiro da Gama Malcher
- Paraíba: Argemiro de Figueiredo
- Paraná: Manuel Ribas
- Pernambuco: Agamenon Magalhães
- Piauí: Leônidas Melo
- Rio Grande do Norte: Rafael Fernandes Gurjão
- Rio Grande do Sul:
- Santa Catarina: Nereu Ramos
- São Paulo:
- Sergipe: Erônides de Carvalho
- May – The Brazilian integralist movement attempt a coup d'état, supported by the Axis powers. The failure of the "Pajama Putsch" leads to the dissolution of the AIB.
- 28 July – Folk hero Lampião and his band are ambushed in one of his hideouts, the Angicos farm, in the state of Sergipe.
- date unknown
Arts and cultureEdit
- Alma e Corpo de uma Raça
- Maridinho de Luxo
- Tererê Não Resolve
- 27 January – Raul Gil, television presenter and singer
- 5 April – Marly Marley, actress and vedette (died 2014)
- 18 August – Orestes Quércia, politician (died 2010)
- 6 June – Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, pretender to the Brazilian throne
- 23 July – Menalton Braff, novelist and short story writer
- 25 July – Sérgio Ferro, painter
- 5 November – Enéas Carneiro, politician (died 2007)
- 25 November – Luiz Henrique Rosa, musician and soccer player (died 1985)
- R.S. Rose (2000), One of the Forgotten Things: Getúlio Vargas and Brazilian Social Control, 1930–1954, Westport: Greenwood, p. 86.
- "Michel Bernanos". Pages Françaises de Science-Fiction (in French). Retrieved March 31, 2012.
- Suárez, José I., and Tomlins, Jack E., Mário de Andrade: The Creative Works (Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 2000). p 21
- Menalton Braff, leitor de Cecília Meireles
- Chandler, Billy Jaynes (1978). The Bandit King: Lampião of Brazil. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-194-8.