1938 Tour de France
The 1938 Tour de France was the 32nd edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 5 to 31 July. It was composed of 21 stages over 4,694 km (2,917 mi).The race was won by Italian cyclist Gino Bartali, who also won the mountains classification.
|Stages||21, including five split stages|
|Distance||4,694 km (2,917 mi)|
|Winning time||148h 29' 12"|
Innovations and changesEdit
The bonification system was reduced compared to 1937: the winner of a stage now only received one minute bonification time, added by the margin to the second arriving cyclist, with a maximum of 75 seconds. The cyclists who reached a mountain top that counted towards the mountains classification first, now received only one minute bonification time.
The team trial stages, where the teams departed 15 minutes separately, were removed from the race. They would later return in the 1954 Tour de France, in a different form. Instead, the 1938 Tour de France featured two individual time trials.
In previous years, some cyclists were in teams and other rode individually. In 1937, there had been problems with individual cyclists being accused of helping other cyclists, culminating in the Belgian cyclists leaving the Tour. To avoid these problems, the categories for individual cyclists were removed for the 1938 Tour de France, and the race was contested by national teams. But because there were many French cyclists that did not fit into the national team, there were two extra French teams, the Bleuets and Cadets. The Bleuets was a kind of French "B"-team, while the Cadets consisted of young French promises.
The big cycling nations in 1938, Belgium, Italy, Germany and France, each sent a team of 12 cyclists. Other countries, Spain, Luxembourg, Switzerland and the Netherlands, sent smaller teams of six cyclists each. The French had two extra teams of 12 cyclists, the Cadets and Bleuets.
The three most powerful teams were the Belgian, the French and the Italian national team. The Italian team was led by Bartali, who had been close to winning the Tour de France in 1937 until he crashed. The Italian cycling federation had requested him to skip the 1938 Giro d'Italia so he could focus on the Tour de France.
The teams entering the race were:
- France Cadets
- France Bleuets
Route and stagesEdit
|1||5 July||Paris to Caen||215 km (134 mi)||Plain stage||Willi Oberbeck (GER)|
|2||6 July||Caen to Saint-Brieuc||237 km (147 mi)||Plain stage||Jean Majerus (LUX)|
|3||7 July||Saint-Brieuc to Nantes||238 km (148 mi)||Plain stage||Gerrit Schulte (NED)|
|4a||8 July||Nantes to La Roche-sur-Yon||62 km (39 mi)||Plain stage||Éloi Meulenberg (BEL)|
|4b||La Roche-sur-Yon to La Rochelle||83 km (52 mi)||Plain stage||Éloi Meulenberg (BEL)|
|4c||La Rochelle to Royan||83 km (52 mi)||Plain stage||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|9 July||Royan||Rest day|
|5||10 July||Royan to Bordeaux||198 km (123 mi)||Plain stage||Éloi Meulenberg (BEL)|
|6a||11 July||Bordeaux to Arcachon||53 km (33 mi)||Plain stage||Jules Rossi (ITA)|
|6b||Arcachon to Bayonne||171 km (106 mi)||Plain stage||Glauco Servadei (ITA)|
|7||12 July||Bayonne to Pau||115 km (71 mi)||Plain stage||Theo Middelkamp (NED)|
|13 July||Pau||Rest day|
|8||14 July||Pau to Luchon||193 km (120 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|15 July||Luchon||Rest day|
|9||16 July||Luchon to Perpignan||260 km (160 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)|
|10a||17 July||Perpignan to Narbonne||63 km (39 mi)||Plain stage||Antoon van Schendel (NED)|
|10b||Narbonne to Béziers||27 km (17 mi)||Individual time trial||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|10c||Béziers to Montpellier||73 km (45 mi)||Plain stage||Antonin Magne (FRA)|
|11||18 July||Montpellier to Marseille||223 km (139 mi)||Plain stage||Gino Bartali (ITA)|
|12||19 July||Marseille to Cannes||199 km (124 mi)||Plain stage||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)|
|20 July||Cannes||Rest day|
|13||21 July||Cannes to Digne||284 km (176 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Dante Gianello (FRA)|
|14||22 July||Digne to Briançon||219 km (136 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Gino Bartali (ITA)|
|15||23 July||Briançon to Aix-les-Bains||311 km (193 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Marcel Kint (BEL)|
|24 July||Aix-les-Bains||Rest day|
|16||25 July||Aix-les-Bains to Besançon||284 km (176 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Marcel Kint (BEL)|
|17a||26 July||Besançon to Belfort||89 km (55 mi)||Plain stage||Émile Masson Jr. (BEL)|
|17b||Belfort to Strasbourg||143 km (89 mi)||Plain stage||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)|
|18||27 July||Strasbourg to Metz||186 km (116 mi)||Plain stage||Marcel Kint (BEL)|
|19||28 July||Metz to Reims||196 km (122 mi)||Plain stage||Fabien Galateau (FRA)|
|28 July||Reims||Rest day|
|20a||30 July||Reims to Laon||48 km (30 mi)||Plain stage||Glauco Servadei (ITA)|
|20b||Laon to Saint-Quentin||42 km (26 mi)||Individual time trial||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|20c||Saint-Quentin to Lille||107 km (66 mi)||Plain stage||François Neuville (BEL)|
|21||31 July||Lille to Paris||279 km (173 mi)||Plain stage|| Antonin Magne (FRA)|
André Leducq (FRA)[b]
|Total||4,694 km (2,917 mi)|
Before the Pyrenees, all the favourites remained calm. André Leducq did not lose much time in the first stages, and when he got in a breakaway in the second part of the sixth stage, he took over the lead from Jean Majerus. In the eighth stage, Gino Bartali attacked, and dropped everybody. On the descent of the Col d'Aspin, his wheel collapsed, and Félicien Vervaecke and Ward Vissers overtook him. Bartali came back to finish in third place, but Vervaecke took the lead in the general classification. In that stage, former winner Georges Speicher was caught holding on to a car, and was removed from the race.
After that stage, Bartali was in second place in the general classification. He won some time on Vervaecke because of bonifications for reaching the tops of the Portet d'Aspet and the Braus first and winning the 11th stage, but lost some time in the individual time trial in stage 10b.
In the fourteenth stage, Bartali attacked again, and gained 17 minutes on Vervaecke and 20 on Vissers. Bartali was now leader of the race. Before the next stage, Bartali felt poorly. His team director, Costante Girardengo, told him not to force himself. Bartali let the others get away on the first mountains, but during the descent of the Iseran, Bartali went as fast as he could, and reach his concurrents. During that stage, Mathias Clemens, who started the stage in second place, lost a lot of time, so Vervaecke was back in second place, 20 minutes behind Bartali.
In the rest of the race, Bartali defended his lead with ease. Vervaecke won back some time in the last individual time trial, but that was not enough to endanger Bartali's lead.
In the last stage, Antonin Magne (winner of the Tour de France in 1931 and 1934) and André Leducq (winner of the Tour de France in 1930 and 1932) escaped together, and crossed the finish line together. The Tour jury declared them both winner. This was Leducq's 25th and final stage victory. For both cyclists it was also the last stage they ever rode in the Tour de France.
Classification leadership and minor prizesEdit
The time that each cyclist required to finish each stage was recorded, and these times were added together for the general classification. If a cyclist had received a time bonus, it was subtracted from this total; all time penalties were added to this total. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey.
For the mountains classification, 12 mountains were selected by the Tour organisation. The Iseran was included for the first time in 1938. On the top of these mountains, ten points were given for the first cyclist to pass, nine points to the second cyclist, and so on, until the tenth cyclist who got one point. The mountains classification in 1938 was won by Gino Bartali. Bartali was the first cyclist to win the general classification and the mountains classification of the Tour de France in the same year.
The team classification was calculated in 1938 by adding up the times of the best three cyclists of a team; the team with the least time was the winner. In 1938, there were eight teams of twelve cyclists. Belgium, Italy, Germany and France had a team, Luxembourg and Switzerland both supplied six cyclists for a combined team, as did Spain and the Netherlands, and there were two extra French teams, the bleuets and the cadets. The bleuets were also described as "France B", and the cadets as "France C".
|1||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Italy||148h 29' 12"|
|2||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)||Belgium||+ 18' 27"|
|3||Victor Cosson (FRA)||France||+ 29' 26"|
|4||Ward Vissers (BEL)||Belgium||+ 35' 08"|
|5||Matt Clemens (LUX)||Luxembourg||+ 42' 08"|
|6||Mario Vicini (ITA)||Italy||+ 44' 59"|
|7||Jules Lowie (BEL)||Belgium||+ 48' 56"|
|8||Antonin Magne (FRA)||France||+ 49' 00"|
|9||Marcel Kint (BEL)||Belgium||+ 59' 49"|
|10||Dante Gianello (FRA)||Bleuets||+ 1h 06' 47"|
|Final general classification (11–55)|
|11||Jean-Marie Goasmat (FRA)||France||+ 1h 07' 34"|
|12||Albertin Disseaux (BEL)||Belgium||+ 1h 12' 16"|
|13||Robert Tanneveau (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 13' 54"|
|14||Sylvère Maes (BEL)||Belgium||+ 1h 21' 11"|
|15||Pierre Gallien (FRA)||France||+ 1h 24' 34"|
|16||Mariano Cañardo (ESP)||Spain||+ 1h 26' 48"|
|17||François Neuville (BEL)||Belgium||+ 1h 35' 43"|
|18||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)||France||+ 1h 37' 24"|
|19||Rafael Ramos (ESP)||Spain||+ 1h 37' 40"|
|20||Glauco Servadei (ITA)||Italy||+ 1h 41' 38"|
|21||Otto Weckerling (GER)||Germany||+ 1h 42' 27"|
|22||Raymond Passat (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 47' 19"|
|23||Yvan Marie (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 49' 49"|
|24||Jean Fontenay (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 50' 04"|
|25||Giordano Cottur (ITA)||Italy||+ 1h 50' 08"|
|26||Raymond Louviot (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 50' 21"|
|27||Giuseppe Martano (ITA)||Italy||+ 1h 52' 31"|
|28||Fabien Galateau (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 52' 43"|
|29||Julián Berrendero (ESP)||Spain||+ 1h 53' 31"|
|30||André Leducq (FRA)||Cadets||+ 1h 53' 42"|
|31||Paul Egli (SUI)||Switzerland||+ 2h 00' 06"|
|32||Arsène Mersch (LUX)||Luxembourg||+ 2h 03' 16"|
|33||Vasco Bergamaschi (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 07' 07"|
|34||Émile Masson jr (BEL)||Belgium||+ 2h 13' 39"|
|35||Albert Bourlon (FRA)||Bleuets||+ 2h 18' 00"|
|36||Lucien Le Guével (FRA)||Bleuets||+ 2h 22' 33"|
|37||François Neuens (LUX)||Luxembourg||+ 2h 23' 10"|
|38||Enrico Mollo (ITA)||Italy||+ 2h 24' 35"|
|39||Constant Lauwers (BEL)||Belgium||+ 2h 26' 28"|
|40||Oreste Bernardoni (FRA)||Bleuets||+ 2h 29' 34"|
|41||Robert Oubron (FRA)||Cadets||+ 2h 43' 41"|
|42||Camille Leroy (FRA)||Bleuets||+ 3h 02' 15"|
|43||Theo Middelkamp (NED)||Netherlands||+ 3h 02' 45"|
|44||Pierre Jaminet (FRA)||France||+ 3h 05' 40"|
|45||Josef Arents (GER)||Germany||+ 3h 15' 14"|
|46||Augusto Introzzi (ITA)||Italy||+ 3h 18' 59"|
|47||Bruno Carini (FRA)||Cadets||+ 3h 20' 52"|
|48||Aldo Bini (ITA)||Italy||+ 3h 20' 55"|
|49||Jean Majerus (LUX)||Luxembourg||+ 3h 22' 02"|
|50||Antoon Van Schendel (NED)||Netherlands||+ 3h 32' 24"|
|51||René Walschot (BEL)||Belgium||+ 3h 40' 43"|
|52||Herbert Hauswald (GER)||Germany||+ 3h 50' 46"|
|53||Reinhold Wendel (GER)||Germany||+ 3h 52' 57"|
|54||Nello Troggi (ITA)||Italy||+ 4h 18' 17"|
|55||Janus Hellemons (NED)||Netherlands||+ 5h 02' 34"|
|8||Aubisque||1,709 metres (5,607 ft)||Pyrenees||Gino Bartali|
|8||Tourmalet||2,115 metres (6,939 ft)||Pyrenees||Gino Bartali|
|8||Aspin||1,489 metres (4,885 ft)||Pyrenees||Gino Bartali|
|8||Peyresourde||1,569 metres (5,148 ft)||Pyrenees||Félicien Vervaecke|
|9||Portet d'Aspet||1,069 metres (3,507 ft)||Pyrenees||Gino Bartali|
|13||Braus||1,002 metres (3,287 ft)||Alps-Maritimes||Gino Bartali|
|14||Allos||2,250 metres (7,380 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|14||Vars||2,110 metres (6,920 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|14||Izoard||2,361 metres (7,746 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|15||Galibier||2,556 metres (8,386 ft)||Alps||Mario Vicini|
|15||Iseran||2,770 metres (9,090 ft)||Alps||Félicien Vervaecke|
|16||Faucille||1,320 metres (4,330 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|1||Belgium||447h 10' 07"|
|2||France||+ 43' 29"|
|3||Italy||+ 44' 06"|
|4||Luxembourg/Switzerland||+ 3h 02' 29"|
|5||Cadets||+ 3h 11' 31"|
|6||Spain/Netherlands||+ 3h 15' 29"|
|7||Bleuets||+ 4h 04' 49"|
|8||Germany||+ 7h 05' 57"|
Because of the political tensions in Europe before the Second World War, Italy did not send a team to the 1939 Tour de France, so Bartali was unable to defend his title. After the war, the Tour de France resumed in 1947. In 1948, Bartali won his second Tour, becoming the first and so far only cyclist to win editions of the Tour de France ten years apart.
- The icons shown here indicate whether the stage was run as a time trial, the stage was flat or the stage included mountains for the mountains classification.
- Magne and Leducq were both declared winners of stage 21.
- No jersey was awarded to the leader of the mountains classification until a white jersey with red polka dots was introduced in 1975.
- "32ème Tour de France 1938" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- McGann & McGann 2006, pp. 139–144.
- "De Ronde van Frankrijk". De Halle (in Dutch). 2 January 1938. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Tom James (15 August 2003). "1938: A final fling for les Bleus". VeloArchive. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1938 – The starters". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Gino "the Pious" Climbs to Victory". Cycling revealed. 2004. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
- Augendre 2016, p. 178.
- "Vandaag begint de "Tour de France"" [Today the "Tour de France" starts]. Het Volksdagblad (in Dutch). 5 July 1938. p. 4 – via Delpher.
- Augendre 2016, p. 36.
- Arian Zwegers. "Tour de France GC top ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
- "The history of the Tour de France – Year 1938 – The stage winners". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Augendre 2016, p. 108.
- "The Tour - André Leducq". Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "The Tour - Antonin Magne". Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- Moliterno 2000, p. 73.
- van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1938" [Information about the Tour de France from 1938]. TourDeFranceStatistieken.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
- "La clasificacion international" (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 1 August 1938. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
- Augendre 2016, pp. 175–192.
- "Tour-Giro-Vuelta". Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "De Ronde van Frankrijk door Bartali gewonnen" (in Dutch). Leeuwarder Courant. 1 August 1938. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "33ème Tour de France 1939" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Augendre 2016, pp. 108–109.
- Augendre, Jacques (2016). Guide historique [Historical guide] (PDF). Tour de France (in French). Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour de France: 1903–1964. 1. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59858-180-5.
- Moliterno, Gino (2000). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-415-14584-8.
- Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles (2012). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-300-2.
Media related to 1938 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons