Presidential elections were held in Guatemala on 15 December 1921.
On the evening of 5 December 1921 a group of senior army officers entered the residence of the President Carlos Herrera y Luna and demanded his resignation. He left power in the hands of a military triumvirate. The new junta was made up of Generals José María Lima, José María Orellana and Miguel Larrave.
“Within hours after the cuartelazo, the triumvirate declared that the incumbent Congress had been seated illegally and that, therefore, all of the Assembly’s legislation, including the promulgation of the Constitution, had no legal basis. The pre-1921 Constitution and the Assembly that existed at the time of Cabrera’s fall were reinstated; and Herrera’s First Designate, José Ernesto Zelaya, was disqualified from succeeding to the presidency”.
"The coup was clearly a victory for the old Liberal guard that had been loyal to Estrada Cabrera. Orellana was a personal favorite and protégé of Estrada Cabrera. ... Although it is unlikely that American interests initiated the coup, the United States assisted Orellana’s efforts to consolidate power".
- Díaz Romeu, Guillermo. “ Del régimen de Carlos Herrera a la elección de Jorge Ubico.” Historia general de Guatemala. 1993-1999. Guatemala: Asociación de Amigos del País, Fundación para la Cultura y el Desarrollo. Volume 5. 1996. Pp. 38.
- Pitti, Joseph A. Jorge Ubico and Guatemalan politics in the 1920s. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. Unpublished dissertation. 1975. Pp. 36.
- Jiménez, Ernesto Bienvenido. Ellos los presidentes. Guatemala: Editorial José de Pineda Ibarra. 1981. Pp. 192.
- Dosal, Paul J. Doing business with the dictators: a political history of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1944. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources.1993. Pp. 102.