1902 Costa Rican general election

General elections were held in Costa Rica on 16 February 1902.[1] They occurred under growing political tensions.[2] The authoritarian government of Rafael Yglesias was in direct confrontation with the opposition and had re-elected himself as single-candidate in the previous election by a questionable constitutional reform.[2] The liberal Republican Party represented the most staunch opposition and the country was on the edge of civil war. However, Yglesias managed to negotiate with the moderate branch of the Republicans for a peaceful power exchange.

1902 Costa Rican general election
Flag of Costa Rica (1848-1906).svg
← 1897 16 February 1902 1906 →
Presidential election
  Ascención Esquivel Ibarra (adjusted).JPG Máximo Fernández Alvarado.jpg
Nominee Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra Máximo Fernández Alvarado
Party PUN Republican
Electoral vote 610 164
Percentage 78.81% 21.19%

President before election

Rafael Yglesias Castro

Elected President

Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra

This new election was called with two candidates: Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra from the newly formed National Union Party and Máximo Fernández Alvarado under the banner of the "Republican Club".[2] Both liberals. Esquivel won by a large margin.


In the first round, Yglesias did not run, but some electors voted for him rather than for Esquivel.

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Ascensión Esquivel IbarraNational Union Party54971.3061078.81
Máximo Fernández AlvaradoRepublican Party13417.4016421.19
Rafael Yglesias CastroCivil Party8711.30
Source: TSE, Salazar[3]

First round by provinceEdit

Province Esquivel Fernández Yglesias1
  San José Province 204 30 -
  Alajuela 132 63 -
  Cartago Province 90 12 15
  Heredia 60 29 -
  Guanacaste 3 - 72
  Puntarenas 33 - -
  Limón 27 - -
Total 549 134 87
Source: Salazar[3]

Second round by provinceEdit

Province Esquivel Fernández
  San José Province 199 42
  Alajuela 122 70
  Cartago Province 96 12
  Heredia 56 40
  Guanacaste 69 -
  Puntarenas 39 -
  Limón 29 -
Total 610 164
Source: TSE


  1. ^ "Historia de las elecciones presidenciales 1824–2014" (PDF). Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones de Costa Rica. 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Molina, Iván (2001). "Elecciones y democracia en Costa Rica, 1885-1913" (PDF). European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. 70: 41–57. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
  3. ^ a b Salazar, O. (2003) El apogeo de la República Liberal en Costa Rica, 1870-1914, p 207 ISBN 9977-67-131-1