1900 Amur anti-Chinese Pogroms

The 1900 Amur anti-Chinese Pogroms were a series of killings and reprisals of Chinese residents of Blagoveshchensk and in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River in the Amur region during the same time as the spread of the Boxer Rebellion throughout China by Russian authorities, ultimately resulting in thousands of civilian Chinese deaths, the loss of residency four Chinese living in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River, and increased Russian control over the region. The Russian justification for the pogroms were attacks made on Russian infrastructure outside Blagoveshchensk by Chinese Boxers, which was then responded to by Russian force. The pogroms themselves occurred between 4–8 July (Old Style, O.S.; 17-21, New Style or N.S.), 1900.

1900 Amur anti-Chinese Pogroms
Gengzi Russian Disaster
Part of Siege of the International Legations
海兰泡惨案.jpg
In the Blagoveshchensk massacres, a Chinese civilian was tied for execution.
DateJuly 4–8, 1900 (Old Style)
Location
Result more than 3,000 Chinese civilians killed; loss of residency for Chinese living in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River
Territorial
changes
Qing dynasty loses control over Sixty-Four Villages East of the River, but still holds claim to land
Belligerents
 Russian Empire  Qing dynasty
Yihetuan flag.png Boxer Rebellion
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Nicholas II of Russia
Russian Empire Aleksey Kuropatkin
Russian Empire Гродеков, Никола́й Ива́нович Гроде́ков
Qing dynasty 寿山 (zh)
Qing dynasty 杨凤翔 (zh)
Qing dynasty 崇崐山
Qing dynasty 王良臣
Strength
More than 26 thousands soldiers, Cossacks Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown 198 officials died[1]

NameEdit

The name for the killings and reprisals that occurred in Amur is not standardized, and has been referred to by different names over time. The most common Chinese name for the pogroms is the Gengzi Russian Disaster (simplified Chinese: 庚子俄难; traditional Chinese: 庚子俄難; pinyin: Gēngzǐ é nán), but the two most major events in Blagoveshchensk and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River are referred to as the Blagoveshchensk Massacre (simplified Chinese: 海兰泡惨案; traditional Chinese: 海蘭泡慘案; pinyin: Hǎilánpào cǎn'àn) and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River Massacre (simplified Chinese: 江东六十四屯惨案; traditional Chinese: 江東六十四屯慘案; pinyin: Jiāngdōng liùshísì tún cǎn'àn) respectively.[2]

The Russian name of the pogroms in Blagoveshchensk is referred to as the Chinese Pogrom in Blagoveshchensk (Russian: Китайский погром в Благовещенске), while the killings and reprisals that took place in the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River are referred to as the Battle on the Amur (Russian: Бои на Амуре).[3]

BackgroundEdit

Blagoveshchensk was founded on the territory ceded to Russia by Treaty of Aigun in 1858.

ProcessEdit

 
The introduction to K.N. Gribskiy's proclamation regarding his intended punishment of Chinese living in Blagoveshchensk and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River

BlagoveshchenskEdit

Sixty-Four Villages East of the RiverEdit

Lieutenant-General Konstantin Nikolaevich Gribskiy ordered the expulsion of all Qing subjects who remained north of the river.[4] This included the residents of the villages, and Chinese traders and workers who lived in Blagoveshchensk proper, where they numbered anywhere between one-sixth and one-half of the local population of 30,000.[4][5] They were taken by the local police and driven into the river to be drowned. Those who could swim were shot by the Russian forces.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 孙蓉图; 徐希廉 (1974). 《瑷珲县志》 (in Chinese). Taipei: Cheng Wen Publishing Co., Ltd. pp. Page 209–210.
  2. ^ Gao, Yongsheng; Li, Lingbao (March 2004). ""庚子俄难"时限的再界定与思考" [Redefinition and Reflection on the Dates of the "Gengzi Russian Disaster"]. History of Heilongjiang (in Chinese). Xunke Country Local Records Office: 35–36 – via Ai Xueshu.
  3. ^ ""Боксерское" восстание в Китае в 1898 - 1901" ["Boxing" Uprising in China 1898-1901]. www.hrono.ru (in Russian). January 2000. Retrieved 2019-12-21.
  4. ^ a b Paine, S.C.M. (1996). Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier. Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-724-8. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  5. ^ Yan, Jiaqi (February 2005). "中俄邊界問題的十個事實──回應俄羅斯駐中國大使館公使銜參贊岡察洛夫等人文章 (Ten facts about the Sino-Russian border problem: In reply to the essays of Russian Minister-Counselor to China Sergey Goncharov and other people)". Twenty-First Century. Chinese University of Hong Kong. 35. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
  6. ^ Maxwell, Neville (June 2007). Iwashita, Akihiro (ed.). Eager Eyes Fixed on Eurasia (PDF). 21st Century COE Program Slavic Eurasian Studies. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University. pp. 47–72. Retrieved 2009-02-24.

Further readingEdit

  • Yang, Chuang; Gao, Fei; Feng (September 2006), "海兰泡和江东六十四屯惨案 (The Tragic Case of Blagoveshchensk/Hailanpao and the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River)", 百年中俄关系 (A Century of China-Russia Relations), Beijing: World Affairs Press, ISBN 7501228760 (in Chinese)