1894 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

1894 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1892 November 6, 1894[a] 1896 →

All 356[b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg CharlesFrederickCrisp.jpg John Calhoun Bell.jpeg
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed Charles Frederick Crisp John Calhoun Bell
Party Republican Democratic Populist
Leader's seat Maine 1st Georgia 3rd Colorado 2nd
Last election 124 seats 218 seats 11 seats
Seats before 143 seats[e] 198 seats[f] 13 seats
Seats won 253[c][d] 93[c][d] 9[c][d]
Seat change Increase 110 Decrease 105 Decrease 4
Popular vote 5,442,266 4,252,292 1,242,242
Percentage 48.27% 37.72% 11.02%
Swing Increase 7.45% Decrease 9.66% Increase 2.73%

  Fourth party Fifth party
 
Party Silver Independent
Last election 1 seat 2 seats
Seats before 1 seat 2 seats
Seats won 1[c] 0
Seat change Steady Decrease 2
Popular vote 4,581 82,148
Percentage 0.04% 0.73%
Swing Decrease 0.02% Decrease 0.08%

Speaker before election

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.[2][3] The Democrats ultimately lost 127 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 130 seats (after the resolution of several contested elections). This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States. (A political party would not suffer triple-digit losses again until 1932.)

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP.[4]

Special electionsEdit

Sorted first by election date, then by state and district.

District Vacator Reason for vacancy Candidates
Representative Party First elected
Virginia 7 Charles T. O'Ferrall Democratic 1884 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 28, 1893, after being elected Governor of Virginia.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Winner later re-elected in November, see below.
New York 14 John R. Fellows Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned December 31, 1893, to become District Attorney of New York City.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania at-large William Lilly Republican 1892 Incumbent died December 1, 1893.
New member elected February 26, 1894.
Republican hold.
South Carolina 1 William H. Brawley Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned February 12, 1894, to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina.
New member elected April 12, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Maryland 1 Robert F. Bratton Democratic 1892 Incumbent died May 10, 1894.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 3 George W. Houk Democratic 1890 Incumbent died February 9, 1894.
New member elected May 21, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 7 George B. Shaw Republican 1892 Incumbent died August 27, 1894.
New member elected November 5, 1894.
Republican hold.
Alabama 3 William C. Oates Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned November 5, 1894, after being elected Governor of Alabama.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Kentucky 9 Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1888 Incumbent resigned January 5, 1895, having been elected to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
New member elected November 6, 1894, but didn't take his seat until March 4, 1895.
Republican gain.
Maryland 5 Barnes Compton Democratic 1884
1890 (Lost election contest)
1890
Incumbent resigned May 15, 1894, to become a naval officer.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Republican gain.
Arkansas 2 Clifton R. Breckinridge Democratic 1882 Incumbent resigned August 14, 1894, to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Kentucky 10 Marcus C. Lisle Democratic 1892 Incumbent died July 7, 1894.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana 4 Newton C. Blanchard Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1894, to become the U.S. Senate.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Incumbent resigned April 4, 1894, to become Mayor of Cincinnati.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Republican hold.
New York 15 Ashbel P. Fitch Democratic 1886 Incumbent resigned December 26, 1893, to become New York City Comptroller.
New member elected December 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.

Election summariesEdit

93 10 254
Democratic [g] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Populist Republican Silver
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 5   4 2   2 2   2 0  
Arkansas District 6 6   0   0   0  
California District 7 1   2 0   1 6   3 0  
Colorado District 2 0   1   1 1   1 0  
Connecticut District 4 0   3 0   4   3 0  
Delaware At-large 1 0   1 0   1   1 0  
Florida District 2 2   0   0   0  
Georgia District 11 11   0   0   0  
Idaho At-large 1 0   0   1   0  
Illinois District 22 0   11 0   22   11 0  
Indiana District 13 0   11 0   13   11 0  
Iowa District 11 0   1 0   11   1 0  
Kansas District
+at-large
8 0   1   4 7   4 0  
Kentucky District 11 5   5 0   6   5 0  
Louisiana District 6 6   0   0   0  
Maine[h] District 4 0   0   4   0  
Maryland District 6 3   3 0   3   3 0  
Massachusetts District 13 1   3 0   12   3 0  
Michigan District 12 0   5 0   12   5 0  
Minnesota District 7 0   2 0   1 7   3 0  
Mississippi District 7 7   0   0   0  
Missouri District 15 4   9 0   11   9 0  
Montana At-large 1 0   0   1   0  
Nebraska District 6 0   1 1   1 5   2 0  
Nevada At-large 1 0   1 0   0   1   1
New Hampshire District 2 0   0   2   0  
New Jersey District 8 0   6 0   8   6 0  
New York District 34 4   16 0   30   16 0  
North Carolina District 9 2   6 4   4 3   2 0  
North Dakota At-large 1 0   0   1   0  
Ohio District 21 2   9 0   19   9 0  
Oregon[h] District 2 0   0   2   0  
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 2   8 0   28   8 0  
Rhode Island District 2 0   2 0   2   2 0  
South Carolina District 7 6   0   1   0  
South Dakota At-large 2 0   0   2   0  
Tennessee District 10 6   2 0   4   2 0  
Texas District 13 12   1 0   1   1 0  
Vermont[h] District 2 0   0   2   0  
Virginia District 10 8   2 0   2   2 0  
Washington At-large 2 0   0   2   0  
West Virginia District 4 0   4 0   4   4 0  
Wisconsin District 10 0   6 0   10   6 0  
Wyoming At-large 1 0   1 0   1   1 0  
Total[b] 356 93[c]
26.1%
  107 9[c]
2.5%
  4 253[c]
71.1%
  110 1[c]
0.3%
  1
House seats
Democratic
26.1%
Populist
2.5%
Republican
71.1%
Silver
0.3%
 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Populist
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3 to 5 Democratic gain
 
  3 to 5 Republican gain
  1 to 2 Democratic gain
  1 to 2 Populist gain
  1 to 2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

In 1894, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

AlabamaEdit

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas J. Geary Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 2 Anthony Caminetti Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 3 Warren B. English Democratic 1892 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 36.8%
  • Joseph P. Kelly (Democratic) 23.0%
  • James T. Rogers (Populist) 21.5%
  • James Denman (Prohibition) 18.7%
California 6 Marion Cannon Populist 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William W. Bowers (Republican) 42.9%
  • W. H. Alford (Democratic) 28.2%
  • J. L. Gilbert (Populist) 25.0%
  • W. H. Somers (Prohibition) 3.9%

ColoradoEdit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen R. Mallory Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.

GeorgiaEdit

IdahoEdit

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

MontanaEdit

NebraskaEdit

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New MexicoEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

North DakotaEdit

OhioEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Ohio 1 Bellamy Storer Republican 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 5 Dennis D. Donovan Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Byron F. Ritchie Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1893 (s) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 13 Darius D. Hare Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 14 Michael D. Harter Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 16 Albert J. Pearson Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 17 James A. D. Richards Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 George P. Ikirt Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 William J. White Republican 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 Tom L. Johnson Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 James F. Izlar Democratic 1894 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.
George W. Murray
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Murray successfully challenged Elliott's election and was awarded the seat on June 4, 1896.[8]
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Asbury Latimer (Democratic) 81.3%
  • Robert Moorman (Republican) 13.9%
  • Others 4.8%
South Carolina 4 George W. Shell Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Stanyarne Wilson (Democratic) 75.1%
  • Lawson D. Melton (Republican) 24.7%
  • Others 0.2%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Thomas J. Strait (Democratic) 67.6%
  • G. G. Alexander (Republican) 17.0%
  • W. R. Davie (Independent) 12.8%
  • Others 2.6%
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 None (Open seat due to redistricting) New member elected.
Democratic gain.
The election was voided on June 1, 1896 due to electoral fraud.
  •  Y J. William Stokes (Democratic) 73.0%
  • T. B. Johnson (Republican) 26.3%
  • Others 0.7%

South DakotaEdit

TennesseeEdit

TexasEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

WashingtonEdit

West VirginiaEdit

WisconsinEdit

WyomingEdit

Non-voting delegatesEdit

Oklahoma TerritoryEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Oklahoma Territory at-large Dennis T. Flynn Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 4 and September 10.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Martis's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.[1]
  4. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 312) counts 244 Republicans, 105 Democrats, 7 Populists, and 1 Silver at the opening of the 54th Congress, before the results of several contested elections were overturned in favor of Republican (and a few Populist) candidates. Dubin counts 253 Republicans, 93 Democrats, 9 Populists, and 1 Silver at the start of the 2nd session of the 54th Congress, which closely matches Martis' figure (pp. 148–49). Dubin's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.
  5. ^ Includes two vacancies.
  6. ^ Includes five vacancies.
  7. ^ Populists won 9 seats and Silver won 1.
  8. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  9. ^ Full name unavailable.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Martis, pp. 148–49.
  2. ^ "Senate and House Secured; Republican Control in the Next Congress Assured". The New York Times. November 9, 1894. p. 5.
  3. ^ "African-Americans and Populism". Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  4. ^ Jensen (1971), Chap. 9.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 07 Special Election Race - Jan 30, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 656–57.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 01 Race - Nov 06, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 01 Race - Nov 06, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - OK Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 06, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit