1890 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1890 for members of the 52nd Congress, taking place in the middle of President Benjamin Harrison's term.

1890 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1888 June 3, 1890 – November 4, 1890 1892 →

All 332 seats in the United States House of Representatives
167 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  CharlesFrederickCrisp.jpg Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg Jerry Simpson (cropped).jpg
Leader Charles Frederick Crisp Thomas Brackett Reed Jerry Simpson
Party Democratic Republican Populist
Leader's seat Georgia 3rd Maine 1st Kansas 7th
Last election 152 seats 179 seats 0 seats
Seats won 238[1][a] 86[1][a] 8[1][a]
Seat change Increase 86 Decrease 93 Increase 8
Popular vote 4,945,756 4,173,605 182,797
Percentage 50.71% 42.80% 1.87%
Swing Increase 2.03% Decrease 4.56% New

House052ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1890 elections for 52nd Congress

Speaker before election

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elected Speaker

Charles Crisp
Democratic

A stagnant economy which became worse after the Panic of 1890, combined with a lack of support for then Representative William McKinley's (defeated in the election) steep tariff act, which favored large industries at the expense of consumers, led to a sharp defeat for Harrison's Republican Party, giving a large majority to the Democratic Party and presaging Harrison's defeat in the 1892 United States presidential election. The Republican-controlled Congress was highly criticized for its lavish spending, and it earned the unflattering nickname of The Billion Dollar Congress. Democrats promised to cut the outlandish budget.

Furthermore, aggressive Republican promotion of controversial English-only education laws enacted by Wisconsin and Illinois in 1889, accompanied by a surge in nativist and anti-Catholic sentiment within the state parties, had greatly hollowed out the party's support base in these former strongholds. A rare multi-confessional alliance of mainly German clergy rallied their flocks in defense of language and faith to the Democratic Party, which tore through incumbent Republican majorities in both states, capturing a total of 11 formerly Republican seats between them alone.[2] Bitterly divisive struggles over temperance laws had also been alienating immigrants from the increasingly prohibitionist Republican Party across the Midwest more broadly. Dramatic losses in the previous year's gubernatorial elections in Iowa and Ohio (which would lose another 14 Republican congressional seats between them during this election) were due in no small part to wet immigrant communities, especially Germans, expressing their resentment toward Republican efforts to ban or otherwise curtail alcohol consumption by throwing their support behind the Democratic candidates.[3]

This election also saw the Populist Party, a coalition of farmers and laborers who wanted to overhaul the nation's financial system, make a small mark on Congress.

Special electionsEdit

Election summariesEdit

238 8 86
Democratic P Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Populist Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 8   1 0   0   1
Arkansas District 5 5   2 0   1[b] 0   1
California District 6 2   0   4  
Colorado At-large 1 0   0   1  
Connecticut District 4 3   2 0   1   2
Delaware At-large 1 1   0   0  
Florida District 2 2   0   0  
Georgia District 10 10   0   0  
Idaho[c] At-large 1 0   0   1  
Illinois District 20 14   7 0   6   7
Indiana District 13 11   1 0   2   1
Iowa District 11 6   5 0   5   5
Kansas District 7 0   5   5 2   5
Kentucky District 11 10   1 0   1   1
Louisiana District 6 6   1 0   0   1
Maine[c] District 4 0   0   4  
Maryland District 6 6   3 0   0   3
Massachusetts District 12 7   5 0   5   5
Michigan District 11 8   6 0   3   6
Minnesota District 5 3   3 1   1 1   4
Mississippi District 7 7   0   0  
Missouri District 14 14   4 0   0   4
Montana At-large 1 1   1 0   0   1
Nebraska District 3 1   1 2   2 0   3
Nevada At-large 1 0   0   1  
New Hampshire District 2 2   2 0   0   2
New Jersey District 7 5   2 0   2   2
New York District 34 23   8 0   11   8
North Carolina District 9 8   2 0   1   2
North Dakota At-large 1 0   0   1  
Ohio District 21 14   9 0   7   9
Oregon[c] At-large 1 0   0   1  
Pennsylvania District 28 11   4 0   17   4
Rhode Island District 2 2   2 0   0   2
South Carolina District 7 7   0   0  
South Dakota At-large 2 0   0   2  
Tennessee District 10 8   1 0   2   1
Texas District 11 11   0   0  
Vermont[c] District 2 0   0   2  
Virginia District 10 10   4 0   0   4
Washington At-large 1 0   0   1  
West Virginia District 4 4   2 0   0   2
Wisconsin District 9 8   6 0   1   6
Wyoming[c] At-large 1 0   0   1  
Total 332 238[5]
71.7%
  74 8[5]
2.4%
  9 86[5]
25.9%
  83
Popular vote
Democratic
50.71%
Republican
42.80%
Populist
1.87%
Others
4.62%
House seats
Democratic
71.69%
Republican
25.90%
Populist
2.41%

The previous election of 1888 saw the election of one Labor Party representative in Arkansas.

 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Populist
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
 
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Populist gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Populist gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

In 1890, five states, with 9 seats among them, held elections early:

Idaho and Wyoming held elections for both the outgoing 51st Congress and the incoming 52nd Congress in 1890, having been admitted that year, and held future elections on the standard election day.

AlabamaEdit

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Vacant Incumbent resigned October 1, 1890.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
California 2 Marion Biggs Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
California 3 Joseph McKenna Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
California 4 William W. Morrow Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
California 5 Thomas J. Clunie Democratic 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 6 William Vandever Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

ColoradoEdit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Florida 2 Robert Bullock Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.

GeorgiaEdit

IdahoEdit

There were two elections to the new state of Idaho.

51st CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Idaho at-large New district New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

52nd CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Idaho at-large Willis Sweet Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MississippiEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 John M. Allen Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 James B. Morgan Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y John C. Kyle (Democratic) 67.07%
  • George M. Buchanan (Republican) 32.93%[9]
Mississippi 3 Thomas C. Catchings Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 4 Clarke Lewis Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 5 Chapman L. Anderson Democratic 1886 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Mississippi 6 T. R. Stockdale Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 7 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.

MissouriEdit

MontanaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Montana at-large Thomas H. Carter Republican 1889 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

NebraskaEdit

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

North DakotaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Dakota at-large Henry C. Hansbrough Republican 1889 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

OhioEdit

The Ohio Legislature redistricted the state between censuses. Coupled with other Democratic gains, this redistricting gave the Democrats a nine-seat net gain.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[17]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Butterworth Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Elihu S. Williams Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
Henry Lee Morey
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 4 Samuel S. Yoder Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 George E. Seney Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 6 Melvin M. Boothman Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 7 William E. Haynes
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Robert P. Kennedy Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 William C. Cooper Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Joseph H. Outhwaite
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 10 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1886 Lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Jacob J. Pugsley Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 13 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 14 Charles Preston Wickham Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
James W. Owens
Redistricted from the 16th district
Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 15 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1886 Lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 16 William McKinley
Redistricted from the 18th district
Republican 1886 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 18 Joseph D. Taylor
Redistricted from the 17th district
Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 Ezra B. Taylor Republican 1880 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 Martin L. Smyser Republican 1888 Lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 Theodore E. Burton Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Samuel Dibble Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 James S. Cothran Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 4 William H. Perry Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 5 John J. Hemphill Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 George W. Dargan Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 7 Thomas E. Miller Republican 1888[d] Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

South DakotaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Dakota at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John Pickler Republican 1889 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Pickler (Republican) 22.65%
  •  Y John R. Gamble (Republican) 22.45%
  • F. A. Leavitt (Independent) 16.18%
  • Fred Zipp (Independent) 16.12%
  • F. A. Clark (Democratic) 11.39%
  • W. Y. Quigley (Democratic) 11.22%[18]
Oscar S. Gifford Republican 1889 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Alfred A. Taylor Republican 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 2 Leonidas C. Houk Republican 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Leonidas C. Houk (Republican) 60.13%
  • J. C. Williams (Democratic) 34.75%
  • S. W. Williams (Democratic) 3.43%
  • W. C. Murphy (Prohibition) 1.70%[20]
Tennessee 3 Henry C. Evans Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 4 Benton McMillin Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Benton McMillin (Democratic) 64.03%
  • C. W. Garrett (Republican) 33.66%
  • J. R. Goodpasture (Prohibition) 2.31%[22]
Tennessee 5 James D. Richardson Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y James D. Richardson (Democratic) 69.02%
  • P. C. Smithsen (Republican) 23.24%
  • H. R. Moore (Prohibition) 6.93%
  • P. C. Isbell (Independent) 0.82%[23]
Tennessee 6 Joseph E. Washington Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 7 Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Nicholas N. Cox (Democratic) 60.86%
  • A. M. Hughes (Republican) 31.51%
  • John Graham (Prohibition) 7.63%[25]
Tennessee 8 Benjamin A. Enloe Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Benjamin A. Enloe (Democratic) 64.07%
  • J. R. McKinney (Republican) 23.01%
  • George McCall (Republican) 7.41%
  • James T. Warren (Prohibition) 5.51%[26]
Tennessee 9 Rice A. Pierce Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Rice A. Pierce (Democratic) 70.64%
  • W. F. Poston (Republican) 22.94%
  • J. B. Cummings (Prohibition) 6.43%[27]
Tennessee 10 James Phelan Jr. Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Josiah Patterson (Democratic) 74.95%
  • L. B. Eaton (Republican) 24.38%
  • G. H. McClowan (Prohibition) 0.33%
  • W. A. Ealey (Unknown) 0.20%
  • J. W. Ewing (Unknown) 0.15%[28]

TexasEdit

UtahEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

WashingtonEdit

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 George W. Atkinson Republican 1888 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
West Virginia 2 William L. Wilson Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William L. Wilson (Democratic) 51.20%
  • George Hourian (Republican) 48.39%
  • Aaron Baker (Prohibition) 0.36%
  • John M. Hancock (Union Labor) 0.05%[30]
West Virginia 3 John D. Alderson Democratic 1888 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John D. Alderson (Democratic) 56.06%
  • Theophilus Gaines (Republican) 43.29%
  • J. E. Middleton (Prohibition) 0.65%[31]
West Virginia 4 Charles B. Smith Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

WisconsinEdit

WyomingEdit

Republican Clarence D. Clark was elected over Democrat George T. Beck in a single ballot both to finish the current term (ending 1891) and the next term (beginning 1891).[33]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wyoming at-large Vacant (new seat) New member elected.
Republican gain.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

51st CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Oklahoma Territory at-large New seat New seat.
New delegate elected to finish the current term.
Republican gain.

52nd CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large
New Mexico Territory at-large
Oklahoma Territory at-large New seat New seat.
New delegate elected to the next term.
Republican gain.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Dubin (pp. 293–94) counts 235 Democrats, 88 Republicans, and 8 Populists at the opening of the 52nd Congress.
  2. ^ One Labor Party member had been elected in 1888.
  3. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  4. ^ After disputed election.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Martis, p. 144–145.
  2. ^ Jensen, Richard J. (1971). "5: The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896". Education, the Tariff, and the Melting Pot. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 122–153. ISBN 9780226398259.
  3. ^ Jensen, p. ch. 4: Iowa, Wet or Dry?. pp. 89-121.
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - KY - District 06 Special Election Race - Jun 21, 1890". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Martis.
  6. ^ "ID At Large - Initial Election". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  7. ^ "ID - At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  8. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  9. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  10. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  11. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  12. ^ "MS - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  13. ^ "MS - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  14. ^ "MS - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  15. ^ "MT - At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  16. ^ "ND At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  17. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 592, 593.
  18. ^ "SD At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  19. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  20. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  21. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  22. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  23. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  24. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  25. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  26. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  27. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  28. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  29. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  30. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  31. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  32. ^ "WV District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  33. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - WY At-Large Race - Sep 11, 1890". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
  34. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=299870
  35. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=264142

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit