1880 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1880 United States House of Representatives elections, coincided with the 1880 presidential election which was won by James A. Garfield, who was a member of the House at the time.

1880 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1878 / 1879 June 1, 1880 – November 2, 1880 1882 →

All 293 seats in the United States House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Joseph Keifer Samuel Randall
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Ohio 4th Pennsylvania 3rd
Last election 132 seats 141 seats
Seats won 151[1][a] 128[1][a]
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 13
Popular vote 4,080,609 4,330,113
Percentage 44.94% 47.68%
Swing Increase 5.38% Increase 3.48%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Greenback Readjuster
Last election 13 seats 0 seats
Seats won 10[1][a] 2[2]
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 2
Popular vote 504,097 56,058
Percentage 5.55% 0.62%
Swing Decrease 6.74% New

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 7 seats[b]
Seats won 2[c]
Seat change Decrease 5
Popular vote 99,511
Percentage 1.10%
Swing Decrease 1.65%

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Issues such as Civil War loyalties, tariffs, graft and corruption dominated the year's elections, though none became substantive a national issue. The economy was growing stronger after emerging from a long Depression. It was in this political environment that Garfield's Republican Party gained 19 seats and regained control of the House from the Democratic Party. The Greenback Party, an emerging party of workers and farmers, also lost seats in these elections, after gaining more than a dozen two years earlier.[3][4]

Election summariesEdit

131 10 151
Democratic Gb Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Greenback Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 6   1 1   1   1
Arkansas District 4 4   0   0  
California District 4 2   1 0   2   1
Colorado At-large 1 0   0   1  
Connecticut District 4 1   0   3  
Delaware At-large 1 1   0   0  
Florida District 2 1   0   1  
Georgia District 9 9[d]   0   0  
Illinois District 19 6   0   1 13   1
Indiana District 13 5   1 0   8   2
Iowa District 9 1   1 0   2 8   1
Kansas District 3 0   0   3  
Kentucky District 10 9   1 0   1   1
Louisiana District 6 5   1 0   1   1
Maine[e] District 5 0   2   3  
Maryland District 6 5   0   1  
Massachusetts District 11 1   0   10  
Michigan District 9 0   0   9  
Minnesota District 3 0   1 0   3   1
Mississippi District 6 5   1 0   1   1
Missouri District 13 7   5 4   3 2   2
Nebraska At-large 1 0   0   1  
Nevada At-large 1 1   1 0   0   1
New Hampshire District 3 0   0   3  
New Jersey District 7 3   0   4  
New York District 33[f] 12   3 0   20   4
North Carolina District 8 7   1 0   1 1  
Ohio[e] District 20 5   6 0   15   6
Oregon[e] At-large 1 0   1 0   1   1
Pennsylvania District 27 7   1 2   18   1
Rhode Island District 2 0   0   2  
South Carolina District 5 4   1 0   1   1
Tennessee District 10 7   2 0   3   2
Texas[e] District 6 5   1   0  
Vermont[e] District 3 0   0   1 3   1
Virginia District 9 7[g]   1 0   2   1
West Virginia District 3 3   0   0  
Wisconsin District 8 2   1 0   6   1
Total 293[f] 131[1]
44.7%
  13 10[1]
3.4%
  4 151[1]
51.5%
  16
Popular vote
Democratic
47.68%
Republican
44.94%
Greenback
5.55%
Readjuster
0.62%
Independent
1.10%
Others
0.11%
House seats
Republican
51.54%
Democratic
43.69%
Greenback
3.42%
Readjuster
0.68%
Independent
0.68%
 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Greenback gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[5] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well.

In 1880, no states held their elections after Election Day for the first time (California was the last state to hold late elections, in 1878). But 5 states, with 35 seats among them, held their elections before the rest of the states:

Special electionsEdit

46th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 7 Alfred M. Lay Democratic 1878 Incumbent died December 8, 1879.
New member elected January 10, 1880.[6]
Democratic hold.
Successor seated January 26, 1880.[7]
Successor later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
New York 32 Ray V. Pierce Republican 1878 Incumbent resigned September 18, 1880.
New member elected November 2, 1880.[8]
Democratic gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1880.[7]
Successor also elected to the next term, see below.
Alabama 6 Burwell B. Lewis Democratic 1874
1876 (Lost)
1878
Incumbent resigned October 1, 1880 to become President of the University of Alabama.
New member elected sometime in 1880.[citation needed]
Democratic hold.
Successor seated December 8, 1880.[7]
Successor had not been a candidate to the next term, see below.
Ohio 19th James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent resigned November 8, 1880 to become U.S. President.
New member November 30, 1880.[10]
Republican hold.
Successor seated December 13, 1880.[7]
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
New Hampshire 3 Evarts Worcester Farr Republican 1878 Incumbent died November 30, 1880.
New member elected December 28, 1880.[11]
Republican hold.
Successor seated January 8, 1881.[12]
Successor was also elected to the next term.

47th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 3 Evarts Worcester Farr Republican 1878 Incumbent member-elect died November 30, 1880, having just been re-elected.
New member elected December 28, 1880.[13]
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to finish the current term.

AlabamaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1 Thomas H. Herndon Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 2 Hilary A. Herbert Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 3 William J. Samford Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 4 Charles M. Shelley Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y James Q. Smith (Republican) 52.53%
  • Charles M. Shelley (Democratic) 39.74%
  • William J. Stevens (Republican) 7.73%[17]
Alabama 5 Thomas Williams Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 6 Newton N. Clements Democratic 1880 (special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 7 William H. Forney Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 8 William M. Lowe Greenback 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

ArkansasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas 1
Arkansas 2
Arkansas 3
Arkansas 4

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic Gain.
  •  Y William Rosecrans (Democratic) 51%
  • Horace Davis (Republican) 47.3%
  • Stephen Maybell (Greenback) 1.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Campbell P. Berry (Democratic) 51.1%
  • George A. Knight (Republican) 48.2%
  • A. Musselman (Greenback) 0.6%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Romualdo Pacheco (Republican) 45.8%
  • Wallace Leach (Democratic) 45.3%
  • J. F. Godfrey (Greenback) 8.9%

ColoradoEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado at-large

ConnecticutEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1
Connecticut 2
Connecticut 3
Connecticut 4

DelawareEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large Edward L. Martin Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Noble A. Hull Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Horatio Bisbee Jr. later successfully challenged the election of Jesse J. Finley and was seated June 1, 1882.

GeorgiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia 1
Georgia 2
Georgia 3
Georgia 4
Georgia 5
Georgia 6
Georgia 7
Georgia 8
Georgia 9

IllinoisEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7
Illinois 8
Illinois 9
Illinois 10
Illinois 11
Illinois 12
Illinois 13
Illinois 14
Illinois 15
Illinois 16
Illinois 17
Illinois 18
Illinois 19

IndianaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10
Indiana 11
Indiana 12
Indiana 13

IowaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 1
Iowa 2
Iowa 3
Iowa 4
Iowa 5
Iowa 6
Iowa 7
Iowa 8
Iowa 9

KansasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kansas 1
Kansas 2
Kansas 3

KentuckyEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

LouisianaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4
Louisiana 5
Louisiana 6

MaineEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5

MarylandEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6

MassachusettsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 William W. Crapo Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William W. Crapo (Republican) 69.88%
  • Charles G. Davis (Democratic) 28.44%
  • Whitman Chace (Democratic) 0.64%
  • Rodney French (Prohibition) 0.54%
  • Henry B. Maglathhia (Unknown) 0.50%
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin W. Harris Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Benjamin W. Harris (Republican) 62.81%
  • Edgar E. Dean (Democratic) 35.81%
  • Charles G. Davis (Democratic) 0.52%
  • Joseph Sherman (Prohibition) 0.43%
  • Whitman Chace (Greenback) 0.43%
Massachusetts 3 Walbridge A. Field Republican 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Ambrose A. Ranney (Republican) 51.92%
  • Axel Dearborn (Democratic) 47.73%
  • Orrin Fairbanks (Greenback) 0.30%
  • Henry D. Cushing (Prohibition) 0.06%
Massachusetts 4 Leopold Morse Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Leopold Morse (Democratic) 49.39%
  • Francis B. Hayes (Republican) 48.86%
  • William Gaston (Greenback) 1.03%
  • Gustavius B. Hutchinson (Prohibition) 0.39%
  • Scattering 0.33%
Massachusetts 5 Selwyn Z. Bowman Republican 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 6 George B. Loring Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-nomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Eben F. Stone (Republican) 54.27%
  • Eben Moody Boynton (Democratic) 45.73%
Massachusetts 7 William A. Russell Republican 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William A. Russell (Republican) 58.84%
  • Samuel N. Aldrich (Democratic) 39.38%
  • Levi H. Whitney (Greenback) 1.79%
Massachusetts 8 William Claflin Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y John W. Candler (Republican) 58.21%
  • Charles T. Russell (Democratic) 40.37%
  • James L. Babcock (Greenback) 1.07%
  • George W. Stacey (Prohibition) 0.35%
Massachusetts 9 William W. Rice Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William W. Rice (Republican) 61.69%
  • Matthew J. McCafferty (Democratic) 36.86%
  • Aaron B. Brown (Greenback) 1.45%
Massachusetts 10 Amasa Norcross Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 11 George D. Robinson Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George D. Robinson (Republican) 58.33%
  • Albert C. Woodworth (Democratic) 41.00%
  • E. W. Dickenson (Greenback) 0.41%
  • Charles A. Merrill (Prohibition) 0.26%

MichiganEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3
Michigan 4
Michigan 5
Michigan 6
Michigan 7
Michigan 8
Michigan 9

MinnesotaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota 1
Minnesota 2
Minnesota 3

MississippiEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 Henry L. Muldrow Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Van. H. Manning Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Van. H. Manning (Democratic) 52.90%
  • George M. Buchanan (Republican) 34.67%
  • Thomas W. Harris (Greenback) 12.43%[24]
Mississippi 3 Hernando Money Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 5 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Charles E. Hooker (Democratic) 61.59%
  • J. Bots Deason (Independent Republican) 32.41%
  • Isaac N. Osborn (Republican) 4.84%
  • William Patterson (Greenback) 1.16%[27]
Mississippi 6 James R. Chalmers Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Election overturned by Congress in 1882.
Results corrected.
Republican gain.

MissouriEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1
Missouri 2
Missouri 3
Missouri 4
Missouri 5
Missouri 6
Missouri 7
Missouri 8
Missouri 9
Missouri 10
Missouri 11
Missouri 12
Missouri 13

NebraskaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska at-large Edward K. Valentine Republican 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Edward K. Valentine (Republican) 62.37%
  • James E. North (Democratic) 28.00%
  • Allen Root (Greenback) 4.81%
  • Scattering 4.83%[30]

NevadaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nevada at-large

New HampshireEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1
New Hampshire 2
New Hampshire 3

New JerseyEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
New Jersey 2
New Jersey 3
New Jersey 4
New Jersey 5
New Jersey 6
New Jersey 7

New YorkEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33

North CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8

OhioEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19
Ohio 20

OregonEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Oregon at-large

PennsylvaniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24
Pennsylvania 25
Pennsylvania 26
Pennsylvania 27

Rhode IslandEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1
Rhode Island 2

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 Michael P. O'Connor Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y D. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 74.1%
  • C. J. Stollbrand (Republican) 25.9%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John H. Evins (Democratic) 69.7%
  • A. Blythe (Republican) 29.3%
  • J. Hendrix McLane (Greenback) 1.0%
South Carolina 5 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Robert L. Taylor Democratic 1878 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Tennessee 2 Leonidas C. Houk Republican 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 George G. Dibrell Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George G. Dibrell (Democratic) 53.58%
  • Xenophon Wheeler (Republican) 41.49%
  • John James (Greenback) 4.93%[33]
Tennessee 4 Benton McMillin Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 5 John M. Bright Democratic 1870 Incumbent lost re-election as an Independent Democrat.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Tennessee 6 John F. House Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John F. House (Democratic) 60.57%
  • Andrew M. McClain (Republican) 36.38%
  • B. F. Brooks (Independent Democratic) 3.05%[36]
Tennessee 7 Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 John D. C. Atkins Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John D. C. Atkins (Democratic) 46.62%
  • Samuel W. Hawkins (Republican) 41.84%
  • W. E. Travis (Democratic) 11.54%[38]
Tennessee 9 Charles B. Simonton Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 10 H. Casey Young Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

TexasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Texas 1
Texas 2
Texas 3
Texas 4
Texas 5
Texas 6

VermontEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3

VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 Benjamin Wilson Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Benjamin Wilson (Democratic) 46.55%
  • John H. Hutchinson (Republican) 46.27%
  • James Bassell (Greenback) 7.18%[41]
West Virginia 2 Benjamin F. Martin Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
West Virginia 3 John E. Kenna Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected eight members of congress on Election Day, November 2, 1880.[44][45]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Charles G. Williams Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Lucien B. Caswell Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 George C. Hazelton Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 4 Peter V. Deuster Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Edward S. Bragg Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 6 Gabriel Bouck Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Wisconsin 7 Herman L. Humphrey Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 8 Thaddeus C. Pound Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large
Dakota Territory at-large
Idaho Territory at-large George Ainslie Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Montana Territory at-large Martin Maginnis Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
New Mexico Territory at-large
Utah Territory at-large
Washington Territory at-large
Wyoming Territory at-large Stephen W. Downey Republican 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 255) counts 147 Republicans, 135 Democrats, 2 Readjusters, 1 Independent Democrat, and 8 Greenbacks at the start of the 47th United States Congress.
  2. ^ Included 7 Independent Democrats.
  3. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat elected in Georgia.
  4. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat elected in the 9th district.
  5. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  6. ^ a b 1 Independent, J. Hyatt Smith elected to the 3rd district.
  7. ^ Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats, elected to the 7th district and 9th district.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Martis 1989, pp. 134–135
  2. ^ Martis 1989, pp. 136–137.
  3. ^ Kennedy, Robert C. "A Midsummer-Night's Dream Nomination". The Learning Network: The New York Times on the web. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  4. ^ Hartman, Dorothy W. "Politics of the 1870s and 1880s". connerprairie.org. Fishers, Indiana: Conner Prairie. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  5. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  6. ^ a b "MO District 7 - Special Election". December 17, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  7. ^ a b c d "Forty-Sixth Congress March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1881". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  8. ^ a b "NY District 32 - Special Election". April 24, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  9. ^ Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. 1975. p. 642.
  10. ^ a b "OH District 19 - Special Election". April 18, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  11. ^ a b "NH District 3 - Special Election". January 5, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Forty-Sixth Congress March 4, 1879, to March 3, 1881". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  13. ^ a b "NH District 3 - Special Election". January 5, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "AL District 01". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  15. ^ "AL District 02". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  16. ^ "AL District 03". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  17. ^ "AL District 04". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  18. ^ "AL District 05". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  19. ^ "AL District 06". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  20. ^ "AL District 07". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  21. ^ "AL District 08". Our Campaigns. April 27, 2021.
  22. ^ "DE At-Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  23. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  24. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  25. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  26. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  27. ^ "MS - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  28. ^ "MS - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  29. ^ "MS - District 06 (overturned)". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  30. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 01 Race - Nov 2, 1880". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  31. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  32. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  33. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  34. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  35. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  36. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  37. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  38. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  39. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  40. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  41. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  42. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  43. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  44. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2021 – via Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ Heg, J. E., ed. (1882). "Biographical Sketches" (PDF). The Blue Book of the State of Wisconsin (Report). Madison, Wisconsin: State of Wisconsin. pp. 521–524. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  46. ^ "ID Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  47. ^ "MT Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  48. ^ "WY Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 11, 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit