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Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1880 for Representatives to the 47th Congress, and coincided with the 1880 presidential election which was won by James A. Garfield, who was a member of the House at the time.

1880 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1878 / 1879 June 1, 1880 – November 2, 1880 1882 →

All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Joseph Keifer Samuel Randall
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Ohio 4th Pennsylvania 3rd
Last election 132 seats 148 seats[a]
Seats won 151[1][b] 131[1][b][c]
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 17

  Third party
 
Party Greenback
Last election 13 seats
Seats won 10[1][b]
Seat change Decrease 3

House047ElectionMap.png
Elections results from the 1880 elections

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Issues such as Civil War loyalties, tariffs, graft and corruption dominated the year's elections, though none became substantive a national issue. The economy was growing stronger after emerging from a long Depression. It was in this political environment that Garfield's Republican Party gained 19 seats and regained control of the House from the Democratic Party. The Greenback Party, an emerging party of workers and farmers, also lost seats in these elections, after gaining more than a dozen two years earlier.[2][3]

Election summariesEdit

131 10 151
Democratic Gb Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Greenback Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 6   1 1   1   1
Arkansas District 4 4   0   0  
California District 4 2   1 0   2   1
Colorado At-large 1 0   0   1  
Connecticut District 4 1   0   3  
Delaware At-large 1 1   0   0  
Florida District 2 1   0   1  
Georgia District 9 9[d]   0   0  
Illinois District 19 6   0   1 13   1
Indiana District 13 5   1 0   8   2
Iowa District 9 1   1 0   2 8   1
Kansas District 3 0   0   3  
Kentucky District 10 9   1 0   1   1
Louisiana District 6 5   1 0   1   1
Maine[e] District 5 0   2   3  
Maryland District 6 5   0   1  
Massachusetts District 11 1   0   10  
Michigan District 9 0   0   9  
Minnesota District 3 0   1 0   3   1
Mississippi District 6 5   1 0   1   1
Missouri District 13 7   5 4   3 2   2
Nebraska At-large 1 0   0   1  
Nevada At-large 1 1   1 0   0   1
New Hampshire District 3 0   0   3  
New Jersey District 7 3   0   4  
New York District 33[f] 12   3 0   20   4
North Carolina District 8 7   1 0   1 1  
Ohio[e] District 20 5   6 0   15   6
Oregon[e] At-large 1 0   1 0   1   1
Pennsylvania District 27 7   1 2   18   1
Rhode Island District 2 0   0   2  
South Carolina District 5 4   1 0   1   1
Tennessee District 10 7   2 0   3   2
Texas[e] District 6 5   1   0  
Vermont[e] District 3 0   0   1 3   1
Virginia District 9 7[g]   1 0   2   1
West Virginia District 3 3   0   0  
Wisconsin District 8 2   1 0   6   1
Total 293[f] 131[1][c]
44.7%
  13 10[1]
3.4%
  4 151[1]
51.5%
  16
House seats
Democratic
44.71%
Greenback
3.41%
Republican
51.54%
 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Greenback gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[4] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well.

In 1880, no states held their elections after Election Day for the first time (California was the last state to hold late elections, in 1878). But 5 states, with 35 seats among them, held their elections before the rest of the states:

Special electionsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 7 Alfred M. Lay Democratic 1878 Incumbent died December 8, 1879.
New member elected January 10, 1880.[5]
Democratic hold.
Successor seated January 26, 1880.[6]
Successor later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
New York 32 Ray V. Pierce Republican 1878 Incumbent resigned September 18, 1880.
New member elected November 2, 1880.[7]
Democratic gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1880.[6]
Successor also elected to the next term, see below.
Alabama 6 Burwell B. Lewis Democratic 1874
1876 (Lost)
1878
Incumbent resigned October 1, 1880 to become President of the University of Alabama.
New member elected sometime in 1880.[citation needed]
Democratic hold.
Successor seated December 8, 1880.[6]
Successor had not been a candidate to the next term, see below.
Ohio 19th James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent resigned November 8, 1880 to become U.S. President.
New member November 30, 1880.[9]
Republican hold.
Successor seated December 13, 1880.[6]
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
New Hampshire 3 Evarts Worcester Farr Republican 1878 Incumbent died November 30, 1880.
New member elected December 28, 1880.[10]
Republican hold.
Successor seated January 8, 1881.[11]
Successor was also elected to the next term.
New Hampshire 3 Evarts Worcester Farr Republican 1878 Incumbent member-elect died November 30, 1880, having just been re-elected.
New member elected December 28, 1880.[12]
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to finish the current term.

AlabamaEdit

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic Gain.
  •  Y William Rosecrans (Democratic) 51%
  • Horace Davis (Republican) 47.3%
  • Stephen Maybell (Greenback) 1.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Campbell P. Berry (Democratic) 51.1%
  • George A. Knight (Republican) 48.2%
  • A. Musselman (Greenback) 0.6%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Romualdo Pacheco (Republican) 45.8%
  • Wallace Leach (Democratic) 45.3%
  • J. F. Godfrey (Greenback) 8.9%

ColoradoEdit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Robert H. M. Davidson (Democratic) 57.2%
  • George W. Witherspoon (Republican) 42.3%
  • Livingston W. Bethel (Independent) 0.5%
Florida 2 Noble A. Hull Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Horatio Bisbee Jr. later successfully challenged the election of Jesse J. Finley and was seated June 1, 1882.

GeorgiaEdit

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

NebraskaEdit

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 Michael P. O'Connor Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y D. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 74.1%
  • C. J. Stollbrand (Republican) 25.9%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John H. Evins (Democratic) 69.7%
  • A. Blythe (Republican) 29.3%
  • J. Hendrix McLane (Greenback) 1.0%
South Carolina 5 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

TennesseeEdit

TexasEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

West VirginiaEdit

WisconsinEdit

Non-voting membersEdit

There were elections in Montana Territory.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Included 7 Independent Democrats.
  2. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 255) counts 147 Republicans, 135 Democrats, 2 Readjusters, 1 Independent Democrat, and 8 Greenbacks at the start of the 47th United States Congress.
  3. ^ a b Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats elected in Virginia and 1 Independent Democrat elected in Georgia.
  4. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat elected in the 9th district.
  5. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  6. ^ a b 1 Independent, J. Hyatt Smith elected to the 3rd district.
  7. ^ Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats, elected to the 7th district and 9th district.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Martis, pp. 134-135.
  2. ^ Kennedy, Robert C. ""A Midsummer-Night's Dream Nomination"". The Learning Network: The New York Times on the web. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  3. ^ Hartman, Dorothy W. "Politics of the 1870s and 1880s". connerprairie.org. Fishers, Indiana: Conner Prairie. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  4. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  5. ^ a b "MO District 7 - Special Election". December 17, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  6. ^ a b c d "Forty-Sixth Congress March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1881". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "NY District 32 - Special Election". April 24, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  8. ^ Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. 1975. p. 642.
  9. ^ a b "OH District 19 - Special Election". April 18, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  10. ^ a b "NH District 3 - Special Election". January 5, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Forty-Sixth Congress March 4, 1879, to March 3, 1881". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "NH District 3 - Special Election". January 5, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit