1868 and 1869 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1868 to elect Representatives to the 41st United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1868, which was won by Ulysses S. Grant.

1868 and 1869 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1866 & 1867 June 1, 1868 – August 2, 1869[a][b] 1870 & 1871 →

All 243[c] seats in the United States House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Michael C. Kerr - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James Blaine Michael Kerr
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 3rd Indiana 3rd
Last election 175 seats 47 seats
Seats won 171 67
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 20
Popular vote 3,050,307 2,598,042
Percentage 51.81% 44.13%
Swing Decrease 3.55% Increase 3.44%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Conservative Independent
Last election 2 seats 2 seats
Seats won 5 0
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 2
Popular vote 187,553 58,332
Percentage 3.19% 0.99%
Swing Increase 1.19% Decrease 0.77%

House041ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1868 elections for 41st Congress

Speaker before election

Theodore M. Pomeroy
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

The Democrats gained 20 seats, but Grant's Republican Party retained a commanding majority in the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War, holding onto a firm legitimacy through an association with victory. As more Southern states exited Reconstruction, more Democratic seats appeared in the South. However, Democratic gains in the South were limited, as the Republican power-brokers of Reconstruction held a great deal of influence. The small Conservative Party of Virginia also picked up several seats in Virginia, as it had support among wealthy Southern leaders who wanted to increase the region's power.

Election summaryEdit

Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia were readmitted during this Congress, leaving Congress without vacant State delegations for the first time since 1860. Georgia had been partially readmitted in the previous Congress, but was not initially admitted to the 41st Congress. With Georgia's final readmission in 1870, all former Confederate states were once more represented in Congress.

67 5 171
Democratic [d] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Conservative Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama[e] District 6 2   2 0   4   2
Arkansas District 3 1   1 0   2   1
California District 3 2   0   1  
Connecticut[e] District 4 1   2 0   3   2
Delaware At-large 1 1   0   0  
Florida[f] At-large 1 0   0   1  
Georgia[g] District 7[h] 4   2 0   3   1
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 4   1 0   10   1
Indiana[f] District 11 4   1 0   7   1
Iowa[f] District 6 0   0   6  
Kansas At-large 1 0   0   1  
Kentucky District 9[h] 9   2 0   0   1
Louisiana District 5 0   1 0   5   1
Maine[f] District 5 0   0   5  
Maryland District 5 5   2 0   1 0   1
Massachusetts District 10 0   0   10  
Michigan District 6 0   0   6  
Minnesota District 2 1   1 0   1   1
Mississippi[g] District 5 0   0   5   5
Missouri District 9 2   1 0   7   1
Nebraska[f] At-large 1 0   0   1  
Nevada At-large 1 0   0   1  
New Hampshire[e] District 3 0   0   3  
New Jersey District 5 3   1 0   2   1
New York District 31 12   2 0   19   2
North Carolina District 7 1   1 0   1 6  
Ohio[f] District 19 6   3 0   13   3
Oregon[f] At-large 1 1   1 0   0   1
Pennsylvania[f] District 24 6   0   18  
Rhode Island District 2 0   0   2  
South Carolina District 4 0   0   4  
Tennessee District 8 0   0   8  
Texas[g] District 4 1   1 0   3   3
Vermont[f] District 3 0   0   3  
Virginia[g] District 8 0   5   5 3   3
West Virginia[f] District 3 0   0   3  
Wisconsin District 6 1   0   5  
Total[c] 243 67
27.6%
  22 5
2.1%
  3 171
70.4%
  6
Popular vote
Republican
51.81%
Democratic
44.13%
Conservative
3.19%
Independent
0.99%
Others
0.00%
House seats
Republican
70.08%
Democratic
27.46%
Conservative
2.46%

Election datesEdit

Mississippi held rejected elections on July 1, 1868. New (accepted) elections were held December 1, 1869.

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their congressional elections to that date. 1868 was the first year in which the majority of States (20 of 37) held their elections on that date. There were still 9 states which held elections before that date and 4 that held regular elections after that date, in addition to 4 readmitted states that held elections after that date.

Special electionsEdit

There were special elections in 1868 and 1869 to the 40th United States Congress and 41st United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

40th CongressEdit

Readmission of state are treated here as regular (late) elections, not special elections.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 8 Cornelius S. Hamilton Republican 1866 Incumbent died December 22, 1867.
New member elected January 27, 1868.
Republican hold.
Winner would later be re-elected to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 9 Thaddeus Stevens Republican 1848 Incumbent died August 11, 1868.
New member elected October 13, 1868.
Republican hold.
Winner was also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 20 Darwin A. Finney Republican 1866 Incumbent died August 25, 1868.
New member elected October 13, 1868.
Republican hold.
Winner was not a candidate for the same day's election to the next term, see below.
Missouri 5 Joseph W. McClurg Republican 1862 Incumbent resigned in July 1868.
New member elected November 3, 1868.
Republican hold.
Winner was not a candidate for the same day's election to the next term, see below.
Arkansas 2 James M. Hinds Republican 1868 Incumbent died October 22, 1868.
New member elected on an unknown date.
Republican hold.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.

41st CongressEdit

Readmission of state are treated here as regular (late) elections, not special elections.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 7 George S. Boutwell Republican 1862 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury.
New member elected November 2, 1869.
Republican hold.
Illinois 3 Elihu B. Washburne Republican 1852 Incumbent resigned March 6, 1869, to become U.S. Secretary of State.
New member elected December 6, 1869.
Republican hold.

AlabamaEdit

1868 elections to finish the termEdit

1869 elections to the next termEdit

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

California elections
 
← 1867 November 3, 1868 1871 →

All 3 seats
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 2 1
Seats won 2 1
Seat change    
Popular vote 54,548 53,873
Percentage 50.3% 49.7%

 
  Democratic hold
  Republican hold

California's delegation remained at two Democrats and one Republican.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1867 Incumbent re-elected.
California 2 William Higby Republican 1863 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1867 Incumbent re-elected.

Colorado TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

Dakota TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

United States House of Representatives elections in Florida, 1868[7]
 
← 1865 May 5, 1868 and
December 29, 1868
1870 →

Florida's single seat in the U.S. House of Representatives
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Republican Democratic Independent
Seats won 1 0 0
Popular vote 14,108 7,915 2,276
Percentage 58.1% 32.6% 9.4%

Florida had been unrepresented in Congress since January 21, 1861, when its sole member and both senators withdrew from Congress following the secession of Florida from the Union. Following the end of the Civil War, an election had been held in 1865, but it was rejected by Congress. In 1868, Congress readmitted Florida following Reconstruction.

Election to the current termEdit

The first election, for the duration of the 40th congress, was held May 5, 1868.[8]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large None State readmitted.
New member elected May 5, 1868 to finish the term and seated July 1, 1868.
Republican gain.[9]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term.
  •  Y Charles M. Hamilton (Republican) 58.1%
  • John Friend (Democratic) 32.6%
  • Liberty Billings (Independent) 9.4%

Hamilton was seated on July 1, 1868,[9] during the 2nd session of the 40th Congress.

Election to the next termEdit

Florida elected its one at-large member on December 29, 1868, re-electing Hamilton, who had just been elected in May to finish the current term.[10]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868[i] Re-elected
  •  Y Charles M. Hamilton (Republican) 56.4%
  • W. D. Barnes (Democratic) 38.5%
  • William U. Saunders (Independent) 5.1%

GeorgiaEdit

Idaho TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10 Henry L. Dawes Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.[11]

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

1868 rejected electionsEdit

Mississippi elected its members July 1, 1868, but that election was later rejected by the House.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 None, seat not admitted New member elected, but election rejected by the House.
Mississippi 2 None, seat not admitted New member elected, but election rejected by the House.
Mississippi 3 None, seat not admitted New member elected, but election rejected by the House.
Mississippi 4 None, seat not admitted New member elected, but election rejected by the House.
Mississippi 5 None, seat not admitted New member elected, but election rejected by the House.

1869 accepted electionsEdit

Mississippi then held new elections December 1, 1869 both: to finish the term in the 40th Congress and to the next term (starting in 1871) in the 41st Congress. Both elections had the same vote totals and were accepted by the House. The new members were seated in 1870.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 None, seat not admitted New member elected to finish the term and to the next term.
Republican gain.
Mississippi 2 None, seat not admitted New member elected to finish the term and to the next term.
Republican gain.
Mississippi 3 None, seat not admitted New member elected to finish the term and to the next term.
Republican gain.
Mississippi 4 None, seat not admitted New member elected to finish the term and to the next term.
Republican gain.
Mississippi 5 None, seat not admitted New member elected to finish the term and to the next term.
Republican gain.

MissouriEdit

Montana TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

NebraskaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska at-large John Taffe Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[28]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Eggleston Republican 1864 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 2 Samuel F. Cary Ind-Republican 1867 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William Mungen (Democratic) 59.3%
  • Thomas E. Grissell (Republican) 40.7%
Ohio 6 Reader W. Clarke Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 7 Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Beatty (Republican) 52.0%
  • John H. Benson (Democratic) 48.0%
Ohio 9 Ralph P. Buckland Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley Republican 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 Columbus Delano Republican 1866[j] Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 15 Tobias A. Plants Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Bingham (Republican) 50.8%
  • Josiah M. Estep (Democratic) 49.2%
Ohio 17 Ephraim R. Eckley Republican 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 18 Rufus P. Spalding Republican 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Roderick R. Butler Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 2 Horace Maynard Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 William B. Stokes Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 4 James Mullins Republican 1867 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Tennessee 5 John Trimble Republican 1867 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y William F. Prosser (Republican) 56.05%
  • Joseph Motley (Democratic) 25.64%
  • Samuel C. Mercer (Independent) 17.55%
  • G. M. Garrett (Unknown) 0.77%[33]
Tennessee 6 Samuel M. Arnell Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 7 Isaac R. Hawkins Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 David A. Nunn Republican 1867 Incumbent lost re-election as an Independent Republican.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

TexasEdit

Utah TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Washington TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 Chester D. Hubbard Republican 1864 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
West Virginia 2 Bethuel Kitchen Republican 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
West Virginia 3 Daniel Polsley Republican 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected six members of congress on Election Day, November 3, 1868.[40]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Halbert E. Paine Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Benjamin F. Hopkins Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 Amasa Cobb Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Amasa Cobb (Republican) 61.6%
  • John H. Passmore (Democratic) 38.4%
Wisconsin 4 Charles A. Eldredge Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Philetus Sawyer Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 6 Cadwallader C. Washburn Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

Colorado TerritoryEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado Territory at-large George M. Chilcott Independent Republican 1866 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New delegate elected.
Republican gain.

Montana TerritoryEdit

The election date is speculative.[42]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Montana Territory at-large James M. Cavanaugh Democratic 1868 Incumbent re-elected.

Idaho TerritoryEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Idaho Territory at-large Edward D. Holbrook Democratic 1864 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected August 10, 1868.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Jacob K. Shafer (Democratic) 57.63%
  • T. J. Butler (Republican) 41.19%
  • J. J. May (Independent) 1.17%[43]

Wyoming TerritoryEdit

On July 25, 1868, an act of Congress gave Wyoming Territory the authority to elect a congressional delegate, although the first delegate did not take his seat until 1869.[44]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Wyoming Territory At-large None, new district. Territory organized in previous congress.
New delegate elected December 6, 1869.
Democratic gain.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Excludes states readmitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ The majority of States held elections on November 3, 1868 (i.e. "Election Day") for the first time.
  3. ^ a b Including late elections.
  4. ^ Conservatives won 5 seats.
  5. ^ a b c Elections held late.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Elections held early.
  7. ^ a b c d Readmitted state.
  8. ^ a b Previous election had one vacancy.
  9. ^ Late election to 40th Congress.
  10. ^ Columbus Delano lost election in 1866 to George W. Morgan, contested the election and was seated June 1868.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Our Campaigns - OH District 08 - Special Election Race - Jan 27, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  2. ^ "Our Campaigns - PA District 9 - Special Election Race - Oct 13, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - PA District 20 - Special Election Race - Oct 13, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 5 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 7 - Special Election Race - Nov 02, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - IL District 3-Special Race - Dec 06, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ May results shown here, see article for December election results
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - FL At Large Race - May 05, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ a b "40th Congress membership roster" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - FL At Large Race - Dec 29, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  11. ^ a b Ben. Perley Poore (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. hdl:2027/nyp.33433081796686.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 01 Race - Jun 30, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 02 Race - Jun 30, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 03 Race - Jun 30, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 04 Race - Jun 30, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 05 Race - Jun 30, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 01 - Special Election Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 01 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 02 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 02 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  21. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 03 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 03 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 04 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 04 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  25. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 05 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  26. ^ "Our Campaigns - MS - District 05 Race - Nov 30, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 01 Race - Oct 13, 1868". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  28. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 258, 259.
  29. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  30. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  31. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  32. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  33. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  34. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  35. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  36. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  37. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  38. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  39. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  40. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  41. ^ "Our Campaigns - CO Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 03, 1868".
  42. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MT Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 02, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  43. ^ "ID Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  44. ^ "House History". Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  45. ^ "Our Campaigns - WY Territorial Delegate - Initial Election Race - Sep 02, 1869". www.ourcampaigns.com.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit