1864 and 1865 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1864 to elect Representatives to the 39th United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1864, in which President Abraham Lincoln was re-elected.

1864 and 1865 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1862 & 1863 June 5, 1864 – November 7, 1865[a] 1866 & 1867 →

All 193[b] seats in the United States House of Representatives
97 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg JamesBrooks.jpg
Leader Schuyler Colfax James Brooks
Party National Union Democratic
Leader's seat Indiana 9th New York 8th
Last election 110 seats [c] 72 seats
Seats won 150 33
Seat change Increase 40 Decrease 39
Popular vote 2,078,677 [c] 1,631,393
Percentage 53.47% 41.97%
Swing Decrease 0.78% [d] Decrease 3.14%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Conservative Radical
Last election New New
Seats won 5 4
Seat change Increase 5 Increase 4
Popular vote 84,998 54,008
Percentage 2.19% 1.39%
Swing New New

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 2 seats
Seats won 1 [e]
Seat change Decrease 1
Popular vote 41,360
Percentage 1.06%
Swing Increase 0.50%

Speaker before election

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

In the midst of the American Civil War, the opposition Democrats were deeply divided between the Copperheads, a group that demanded an immediate negotiated settlement with the Confederate States of America, and the War Democrats, who supported the war. With the Democrats lacking any coherent message, they lost half their seats to Lincoln's Republican Party, who increased their majority to a commanding level.

The National Union Party (formerly known as the Unionists) lost seven seats, retaining control of 18 seats (some classify the Representatives as including 13 Unconditional Unionists and five Unionists), all from the border states of Maryland, Tennessee, and Kentucky, as well as West Virginia.

Election summariesEdit

One new seat was added for the new State of Nevada[1] and 8 vacancies were filled by the readmission of Tennessee, the first secessionist state to be readmitted. Three former Confederate States held elections in 1865 that were rejected by Congress.

38 137 18
Democratic Republican Unionist
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Republican Unionist[f]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 5, 1864 1 0   1   0  
Vermont District September 6, 1864 3 0   3   0  
Maine District September 11, 1864 5 0   1 5   1 0  
Indiana District October 10, 1864 11 2   5 9   5 0  
Nevada[g] At-large 1 0   1   1 0  
Ohio District 19 2   12 17   12 0  
Pennsylvania District 24 8   4 16   4 0  
West Virginia District October 22, 1864 3 0   0   3  
California District[h] November 8, 1864
(Election Day)[i]
3 0   3   0  
Delaware At-large 1 1   0   0  
Illinois District +
1 at-large
14 3   6 11   6 0  
Iowa District 6 0   6   0  
Kansas At-large 1 0   1   0  
Maryland District 5 2   1 0   3   1
Massachusetts District 10 0   10   0  
Michigan District 6 0   1 6   1 0  
Minnesota District 2 0   2   0  
Missouri District 9 1   1 8[e]   7 0   8
New Jersey District 5 3   1 2   1 0  
New York District 31 10   7 21   7 0  
Wisconsin District 6 1   2 5   2 0  
Late elections (after the March 4, 1865 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire District March 14, 1865 3 0   1 3   1 0  
Connecticut District April 3, 1865 4 0   1 4   1 0  
Tennessee[j] District August 3, 1865[k] 8 0   0   8   8
Rhode Island District April 5, 1865 2 0   2   0  
Kentucky District August 7, 1865 9 5   5 0   4   5
Nevada At-large November 7, 1865 1 0   1   0  
Secessionist states not yet readmitted
Alabama District 6
Arkansas District 3
Florida At-large November 29, 1865[l] 1
Georgia District 7
Louisiana District 5
Mississippi District October 2, 1865[l] 5
North Carolina District November 9, 1865[l] 7
South Carolina District 4
Texas District 4
Virginia District 8
Total[b] 193
50 vacancies[m]
38
19.7%
 31 137[e]
71.0%
 46 18
9.3%
  6
Popular vote
Nat. Union
53.47%
Democratic
41.97%
Conservative
2.19%
Radical
1.39%
Independent
1.06%
Others
0.00%
House seats
Nat. Union
77.72%
Democratic
17.10%
Conservative
2.59%
Radical
2.07%
Independent
0.52%

Of the rejected elections, Florida's and Mississippi's claimants' parties are unknown, while North Carolina elected 4 Union and 3 Conservative Representatives.

Special electionsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 6

AlabamaEdit

Arizona TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

California elections
 
← 1863 November 8, 1864 1867 →

3 seats
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 3 0
Seats won 3 0
Seat change    
Popular vote 62,039 43,045
Percentage 59.0% 41.0%

 
Results:
     Republican hold

Note: This was the first election in which California elected representatives from congressional districts.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1
New seat
Cornelius Cole
Redistricted from the at-large district.
Republican 1863 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New member elected.
California 2
New seat
William Higby
Redistricted from the at-large district.
Republican 1863 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William Higby (Republican) 61.3%
  • James W. Coffroth (Democratic) 38.7%
California 3
New seat
Thomas B. Shannon
Redistricted from the at-large district.
Republican 1863 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y John Bidwell (Republican) 55.8%
  • Jackson Temple (Democratic) 44.2%

Colorado TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

ConnecticutEdit

Dakota TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

GeorgiaEdit

Idaho TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

Montana TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

Nebraska TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

NevadaEdit

38th CongressEdit

On October 31, 1864, the new state of Nevada elected Republican Henry G. Worthington to finish the term ending March 3, 1865.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nevada at-large New state New member elected.
Republican gain.

39th CongressEdit

Worthington was not renominated for the next term, however, and on November 7, 1865, Republican Delos R. Ashley was elected November 7, 1865 for the term that had already begun but would not formally meet until December 4, 1865.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nevada at-large Henry G. Worthington Republican 1864 (New state) Incumbent lost renomination.[2]
New member elected.
Republican hold.

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

Ohio's delegation swung from 14–5 Democratic to 17-2 Republican as 10 Democratic incumbents lost renomination or re-election.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[4]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 2 Alexander Long Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 John F. McKinney Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 5 Francis C. Le Blond Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 7 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 8 William Johnston Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Wells A. Hutchins Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 12 William E. Finck Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 John O'Neill Democratic 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y Columbus Delano (Republican) 50.5%
  • Charles Follett (Republican) 49.5%
Ohio 14 George Bliss Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 15 James R. Morris Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 16 Joseph W. White Democratic 1882 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 17 Ephraim R. Eckley Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 18 Rufus P. Spalding Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

TennesseeEdit

Elections held late, on August 3 1865.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 None (vacant due to Civil War) New members elected.
Unionist gain.
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
  •  Y John W. Leftwich (Unionist) 47.99%
  • John Bullock (Unionist) 17.21%
  • R. S. Saunders (Unknown) 16.87%
  • William C. Dunlap (Conservative) 15.06%
  • William Hunter (Unknown) 2.87%[13]

TexasEdit

Utah TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Washington TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 Jacob B. Blair Unconditional Unionist 1863 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unconditional Unionist hold.
West Virginia 2 William G. Brown Sr. Unconditional Unionist 1863 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unconditional Unionist hold.
  •  Y George R. Latham (Unconditional Unionist) 84.46%
  • William B. Zinn (Independent) 10.75%
  • Fontain Smith (Independent) 4.39%
  • W. S. Richardson (Independent) 0.40%[15]
West Virginia 3 Kellian Whaley Unconditional Unionist 1863 Incumbent re-elected.

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected six members of congress on Election Day, November 8, 1864.[17]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 James S. Brown Democratic 1862 Incumbent withdrew from election.
New member elected.
National Union gain.
Wisconsin 2 Ithamar Sloan Republican 1862 Incumbent won re-election on National Union ticket.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 3 Amasa Cobb Republican 1862 Incumbent won re-election on National Union ticket.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 Charles A. Eldredge Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Ezra Wheeler Democratic 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
National Union gain.
Wisconsin 6 Walter D. McIndoe Republican 1862 Special Incumbent won re-election on National Union ticket.
Republican hold.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

38th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large New district New seat.
New delegate elected on an unknown date in 1864.
Republican gain.
Montana Territory at-large New district New seat.
New delegate elected.[n]
Democratic gain.

39th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large Charles Debrille Poston Republican 1864 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected September 6, 1865.
Republican hold.
Colorado Territory at-large Hiram Pitt Bennet Conservative Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Dakota Territory at-large John B. S. Todd Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Idaho Territory at-large William H. Wallace Unionist 1860 (Washington Territory)
1862 (Unknown)
1863
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New delegate elected October 10, 1864.
Democratic gain.
Montana Territory at-large Samuel McLean Democratic 1864 Incumbent re-elected to the term starting March 4, 1865.[n]
Nebraska Territory at-large Samuel Gordon Daily Republican 1860 (Won contest) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New delegate elected on an unknown date.
Republican hold.
New Mexico Territory at-large
Utah Territory at-large
Washington Territory at-large

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ a b Represents the combined results of the Republican and Unionist candidates in the last election cycle.
  4. ^ In comparison to the combined results of the Republican and Unionist candidates in the last election cycle.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, John R. Kelso, elected in MO-04.
  6. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists.
  7. ^ New state.
  8. ^ Changed from at-large.
  9. ^ Although "An Act to establish a uniform time for holding elections for electors of President and Vice President in all the States of the Union (28th Congress, 2nd Session, Chapter 1, 5 Stat. 721, enacted January 23, 1845) was only for presidential elections, the date was gradually adopted by the states for congressional elections.
  10. ^ Readmitted state.
  11. ^ Not admitted until July 24, 1866.
  12. ^ a b c Rejected election.
  13. ^ There were a total of 50 vacancies remaining, after the readmission of Tennessee.
  14. ^ a b Date speculative, but presumed to be in 1864[19] and 1865.[20]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 14 Stat. 391
  2. ^ a b History of Nevada, p. 87.
  3. ^ History of Nevada, p. 88–89.
  4. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 195, 196.
  5. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  6. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  7. ^ "Vote of the Knoxville District," Knoxville Whig and Rebel Ventilator, 13 September 1865, p. 2.
  8. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  9. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  10. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  11. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  12. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  13. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  14. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  15. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  16. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  17. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - AZ Territorial Delegate - Initial Election Race - Aug 02, 1864".
  19. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MT Territorial Delegate - Initial Election Race - Nov 08, 1864". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MT Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 07, 1865". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  21. ^ "Our Campaigns - AZ Territorial Delegate Race - Aug 02, 1865". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - ID Territorial Delegate Race - Oct 10, 1864". www.ourcampaigns.com.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit