1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections
All 234 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
118 seats needed for a majority
Democrats increased their House majority while electing Franklin Pierce to the Presidency. Though sectionalism remained a problem, the parties unified around the presidential campaign. Two small parties, the Constitutional Unionists and States' Rights parties, collapsed prior to this election, while the anti-slavery Free Soil Party retained four seats. One Independent, Caleb Lyon, was elected from New York.
Following the 1850 Census, the House was reapportioned. In the initial apportionment bill, the number of seats was unchanged at 233, but later one seat was added to California's delegation, increasing the total apportionment to 234, due to returns from California being determined to be incomplete.
|Iowa||Districts||August 2, 1852||2||1||1||0||1||1||0|
|Missouri||Districts||August 2, 1852||7||2||3||1||0||4||1||0|
|Vermont||Districts||September 7, 1852||3||1||0||1||0||3||0|
|Maine||Districts||September 13, 1852||6||1||3||2||0||3||1||0|
|Florida||At-large||October 5, 1852||1||1||1||0||0||1||0|
|Indiana||Districts||October 12, 1852||11||1||10||2||0||1||1||0|
|Ohio||Districts||October 12, 1852||21||12||1||2||1||7||2||0|
|Pennsylvania||Districts||October 12, 1852||25||1||16||1||0||9||0|
|California||At-large||November 2, 1852
|Delaware||At-large||November 8, 1852||1||1||0||0||0|
|Massachusetts||Districts||November 8, 1852||11||1||1||1||1||9||2||0|
|South Carolina||Districts||February 28–March 1, 1853||6||1||6||1||0||0||0|
|Late elections (after the March 4, 1853 beginning of the term)|
|New Hampshire||Districts||March 8, 1853||3||1||3||1||0||0||2||0|
|Connecticut||Districts||April 4, 1853||4||4||1||0||0||1||0|
|Rhode Island||Districts||April 6, 1853||2||2||1||0||0||1||0|
|Virginia||Districts||May 26, 1853||13||2||13||0||0||2||0|
|Arkansas||Districts||August 1, 1853||2||1||2||1||0||0||0|
|Kentucky||Districts||August 1, 1853||10||5||0||5||0|
|Texas||Districts||August 1, 1853||2||2||0||0||0|
|North Carolina||Districts||August 4, 1853||8||1||5||2||0||3||3||0|
|Tennessee||Districts||August 4, 1853||10||1||5||2||0||5||1||0|
|Alabama||Districts||August 8, 1853||7||6||2||0||1||1||0||1[d]|
|Georgia||Districts||October 3, 1853||8||6||6||0||2||2||0||8[e]|
|Louisiana||Districts||November 1, 1853||4||3||1||0||1||1||0|
|Maryland||Districts||November 2, 1853||6||4||2||0||2||2||0|
|Mississippi||District + 1 at-large||November 7–8, 1853||5||1||5||5||0||0||0||4[f]|
Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.
2 seats elected on a general ticket
|Edward C. Marshall||Democratic||1851 (Late)||Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
|Joseph W. McCorkle||Democratic||1851 (Late)||Incumbent lost renomination.|
New member elected.
|Florida at-large||Edward C. Cabell||Whig||1846||Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
- Includes 1 Independent Democrat, William Henry Bissell, elected to IL-08.
- In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
- Caleb Lyon was elected to NY-23 as an Independent.
- Previous election had 1 Constitutional Union member.
- Previous election had 6 Constitutional Union and 2 States' Rights.
- Previous election had 3 Constitutional Union and 1 States' Rights.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)