Open main menu

1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 33rd Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1852 to November 1853.

1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1850 / 51 August 2, 1852 – November 8, 1853 1854 / 55 →

All 234 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
118 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  LinnBoyd.jpg JosephRipleyChandler.png
Leader Linn Boyd Joseph R. Chandler
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Kentucky 1st Pennsylvania 2nd
Last election 130 seats 86 seats
Seats won 158[a] 71
Seat change Increase 28 Decrease 15

  Third party
 
Party Free Soil
Last election 4 seats
Seats won 4
Seat change Steady

House033ElectionMap.png

Speaker before election

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Democrats increased their House majority while electing Franklin Pierce to the Presidency. Though sectionalism remained a problem, the parties unified around the presidential campaign. Two small parties, the Constitutional Unionists and States' Rights parties, collapsed prior to this election, while the anti-slavery Free Soil Party retained four seats. One Independent, Caleb Lyon, was elected from New York.

Election summariesEdit

Following the 1850 Census, the House was reapportioned. In the initial apportionment bill, the number of seats was unchanged at 233,[1] but later one seat was added to California's delegation, increasing the total apportionment to 234, due to returns from California being determined to be incomplete.[2]

158 4 1 71
Democratic FS I Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Free Soil Whig Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Iowa Districts August 2, 1852 2   1  1 0   1  1 0  
Missouri Districts August 2, 1852 7  2 3  1 0   4  1 0  
Vermont Districts September 7, 1852 3  1 0  1 0   3   0  
Maine Districts September 13, 1852 6  1 3  2 0   3  1 0  
Florida At-large October 5, 1852 1   1  1 0   0  1 0  
Indiana Districts October 12, 1852 11  1 10  2 0   1  1 0  
Ohio Districts October 12, 1852 21   12  1 2  1 7  2 0  
Pennsylvania Districts October 12, 1852 25  1 16  1 0   9   0  
California At-large November 2, 1852
(Election Day)[b]
2   2   0   0   0  
Illinois Districts 9  2 5[a]  1 0   4  3 0  
Michigan Districts 4  1 4  3 0   0  2 0  
New Jersey Districts 5   4   0   1   0  
New York Districts 33  1 21  4 1  1 10  7 1[c]  1
Wisconsin Districts 3   3  1 0  1 0   0  
Delaware At-large November 8, 1852 1   1   0   0   0  
Massachusetts Districts November 8, 1852 11  1 1   1  1 9  2 0  
South Carolina Districts February 28–March 1, 1853 6  1 6  1 0   0   0  
Late elections (after the March 4, 1853 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 8, 1853 3  1 3  1 0   0  2 0  
Connecticut Districts April 4, 1853 4   4  1 0   0  1 0  
Rhode Island Districts April 6, 1853 2   2  1 0   0  1 0  
Virginia Districts May 26, 1853 13  2 13   0   0  2 0  
Arkansas Districts August 1, 1853 2  1 2  1 0   0   0  
Kentucky Districts August 1, 1853 10   5   0   5   0  
Texas Districts August 1, 1853 2   2   0   0   0  
North Carolina Districts August 4, 1853 8  1 5  2 0   3  3 0  
Tennessee Districts August 4, 1853 10  1 5  2 0   5  1 0  
Alabama Districts August 8, 1853 7   6  2 0   1  1 0  1[d]
Georgia Districts October 3, 1853 8   6  6 0   2  2 0  8[e]
Louisiana Districts November 1, 1853 4   3  1 0   1  1 0  
Maryland Districts November 2, 1853 6   4  2 0   2  2 0  
Mississippi District + 1 at-large November 7–8, 1853 5  1 5  5 0   0   0  4[f]
Total 234  1 158[a]
67.5%
 28 4
1.7%
  71
30.3%
 15 1
0.4%
 12
House seats
Democratic
67.52%
Free Soil
1.71%
Whig
30.34%
Others
0.43%

CaliforniaEdit

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California at-large
2 seats elected on a general ticket
Edward C. Marshall Democratic 1851 (Late) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Joseph W. McCorkle Democratic 1851 (Late) Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat, William Henry Bissell, elected to IL-08.
  2. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  3. ^ Caleb Lyon was elected to NY-23 as an Independent.
  4. ^ Previous election had 1 Constitutional Union member.
  5. ^ Previous election had 6 Constitutional Union and 2 States' Rights.
  6. ^ Previous election had 3 Constitutional Union and 1 States' Rights.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Stat. 432
  2. ^ 10 Stat. 25

BibliographyEdit

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External linksEdit