1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 33rd Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1852 to November 1853.

1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1850 & 1851 August 2, 1852 – November 8, 1853 1854 & 1855 →

All 234 seats in the United States House of Representatives
118 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  LinnBoyd.jpg JosephRipleyChandler.png
Leader Linn Boyd Joseph R. Chandler
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Kentucky 1st Pennsylvania 2nd
Last election 120 seats 82 seats
Seats won 150 68
Seat change Increase 30 Decrease 14
Popular vote 1,566,004 1,308,031
Percentage 49.82% 41.61%
Swing Increase 6.51% Decrease 0.28%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Free Soil Unionist
Last election 4 seats 15 seats
Seats won 4 5[a]
Seat change Steady Decrease 10
Popular vote 125,271 22,139
Percentage 3.99% 0.70%
Swing Increase 0.87% Decrease 3.99%

  Fifth party Sixth party
 
Party Southern Rights Independent
Last election 8 seats 4 seats[b]
Seats won 4[c] 3[d]
Seat change Decrease 4 Decrease 1
Popular vote 20,326 87,826
Percentage 0.65% 2.79%
Swing Decrease 3.48% Steady

House033ElectionMap.png

Speaker before election

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Democrats increased their House majority while electing national compromise candidate Franklin Pierce, a Northerner favorable to Southern interests, to the Presidency. Effects of the Compromise of 1850 temporarily had reduced sectional tensions, and both major parties, Democrats and Whigs, unified around the 1852 Presidential campaign, with Whig unity more tenuous. Two small parties, the Constitutional Unionists and States' Rights parties, collapsed before this election, while the Free Soil Party, opposing slavery in the Western territories, retained four seats. One Independent, Caleb Lyon, was elected from New York.

Election summariesEdit

Following the 1850 Census, the House was reapportioned. In the initial apportionment bill, the number of seats was unchanged at 233,[1] but later one seat was added to California's delegation, increasing the total apportionment to 234, due to returns from California being determined to be incomplete.[2]

158 4 1 71
Democratic FS I Whig
State Type Date Total seats Democratic Free Soil Whig Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Iowa Districts August 2, 1852 2   1  1 0   1  1 0  
Missouri Districts August 2, 1852 7  2 3  1 0   4  1 0  
Vermont Districts September 7, 1852 3  1 0  1 0   3   0  
Maine Districts September 13, 1852 6  1 3  2 0   3  1 0  
Florida At-large October 5, 1852 1   1  1 0   0  1 0  
Indiana Districts October 12, 1852 11  1 10  2 0   1  1 0  
Ohio Districts October 12, 1852 21   12  1 2  1 7  2 0  
Pennsylvania Districts October 12, 1852 25  1 16  1 0   9   0  
California At-large November 2, 1852
(Election Day)[e]
2   2   0   0   0  
Illinois Districts 9  2 5[f]  1 0   4  3 0  
Michigan Districts 4  1 4  3 0   0  2 0  
New Jersey Districts 5   4   0   1   0  
New York Districts 33  1 21  4 1  1 10  7 1[g]  1
Wisconsin Districts 3   3  1 0  1 0   0  
Delaware At-large November 8, 1852 1   1   0   0   0  
Massachusetts Districts November 8, 1852 11  1 1   1  1 9  2 0  
South Carolina Districts February 28 – March 1, 1853 6  1 6  1 0   0   0  
Late elections (after the March 4, 1853 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 8, 1853 3  1 3  1 0   0  2 0  
Connecticut Districts April 4, 1853 4   4  1 0   0  1 0  
Rhode Island Districts April 6, 1853 2   2  1 0   0  1 0  
Virginia Districts May 26, 1853 13  2 13   0   0  2 0  
Arkansas Districts August 1, 1853 2  1 2  1 0   0   0  
Kentucky Districts August 1, 1853 10   5   0   5   0  
Texas Districts August 1, 1853 2   2   0   0   0  
North Carolina Districts August 4, 1853 8  1 5  2 0   3  3 0  
Tennessee Districts August 4, 1853 10  1 5  2 0   5  1 0  
Alabama Districts August 8, 1853 7   6  2 0   1  1 0  1[h]
Georgia Districts October 3, 1853 8   6  6 0   2  2 0  8[i]
Louisiana Districts November 1, 1853 4   3  1 0   1  1 0  
Maryland Districts November 2, 1853 6   4  2 0   2  2 0  
Mississippi District + 1 at-large November 7–8, 1853 5  1 5  5 0   0   0  4[j]
Total 234  1 158[f]
67.5%
 28 4
1.7%
  71
30.3%
 15 1
0.4%
 12
Popular vote
Democratic
49.82%
Whig
41.61%
Free Soil
3.99%
Unionist
0.70%
States' Rights
0.65%
Independent
2.79%
Others
0.44%
House seats
Democratic
64.10%
Whig
30.34%
Unionist
2.14%
Free Soil
1.71%
Southern Rights
1.71%
Independent
1.28%

AlabamaEdit

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Edward C. Marshall Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Joseph W. McCorkle Democratic 1851 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

GeorgiaEdit

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

The elections were held November 8, 1852. However, many of the districts went to a December 13, 1852 second ballot.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Zeno Scudder
Redistricted from the 10th district
Whig 1851 Incumbent re-elected on the second ballot. First ballot (November 8, 1852):

Second ballot (December 13, 1852):
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10
Massachusetts 11

MichiganEdit

MississippiEdit

Elections held late, from November 7 to 8, 1853

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large None (new district) New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 1 Benjamin D. Nabers Unionist 1851 Incumbent lost re-election as a Whig.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 2 John A. Wilcox Unionist 1851 Incumbent lost re-election as a Whig.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 3 John D. Freeman Unionist 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 4 Albert G. Brown Southern Rights 1847 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

MissouriEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

TennesseeEdit

Elections held late, on August 4 1853.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Andrew Johnson Democratic 1842 Incumbent retired to run for Governor.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Albert G. Watkins Whig 1849 Redistricted from the 2nd district.
Tennessee 2 Albert G. Watkins Whig 1849 Incumbent redistricted to the 2nd district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
William M. Churchwell Democratic 1851 Redistricted from the 3rd district.
Tennessee 3 William M. Churchwell Democratic 1851 Incumbent redistricted to the 2nd district.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Tennessee 4 John H. Savage Democratic 1849 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
William Cullom Whig 1851 Redistricted from the 8th district.
Tennessee 5 George W. Jones Democratic 1842 Incumbent redistricted to the 6th district.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Tennessee 6 William H. Polk Independent Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
George W. Jones Democratic 1842 Redistricted from the 5th district.
Tennessee 7 Meredith P. Gentry Whig 1845 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Tennessee 8 William Cullom Whig 1851 Incumbent redistricted to the 4th district.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Tennessee 9 Isham G. Harris Democratic 1849 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Christopher H. Williams Whig 1849 Redistricted from the 11th district.
Tennessee 10 Frederick P. Stanton Democratic 1845 Incumbent re-elected.

TexasEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

WisconsinEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[21]
Wisconsin 1 Charles Durkee Free Soil 1848 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 Ben C. Eastman Democratic 1850 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 James Duane Doty Ind. Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota Territory Henry Hastings Sibley Democratic 1848 (Wisconsin Territory: Special)
1849 (Wisconsin Territory: Eliminated)
1849 (Minnesota Territory)
Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected.
Democratic hold.
New Mexico Territory Richard H. Weightman Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected in 1853.
Democratic hold.
Oregon Territory Joseph Lane Democratic 1851 Incumbent re-elected.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Includes three Union Whigs and two Union Democrats.
  2. ^ Included three Independent Democrats and one Independent Whig.
  3. ^ Includes four Southern Rights Democrats.
  4. ^ Includes one Independent, one Independent Democrat, and the Benton Independent.
  5. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for congressional elections as well.
  6. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat, William Henry Bissell, elected to IL-08.
  7. ^ Caleb Lyon was elected to NY-23 as an Independent.
  8. ^ Previous election had 1 Constitutional Union member.
  9. ^ Previous election had 6 Constitutional Union and 2 States' Rights.
  10. ^ Previous election had 3 Constitutional Union and 1 States' Rights.
  11. ^ Full name unpublished in source, presumably Alexander Wilkin (Whig)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Stat. 432
  2. ^ 10 Stat. 25
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA - at Large Race - Nov 02, 1852".
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 - 1st Trial Race - Nov 08, 1852".
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 - 2nd Trial Race - Dec 13, 1852".
  6. ^ "MS - At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  7. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  8. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  9. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  10. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  11. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  12. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  13. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  14. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  15. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  16. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  17. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  18. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  19. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  20. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  21. ^ "Official Vote on Members of Congress". The Weekly Wisconsin. December 8, 1852. p. 3. Retrieved May 23, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  22. ^ Greeley, Horace (February 22, 1868). "The Tribune Almanac for the Years L838 to L868, Inclusive: Comprehending the Politician's Register and the Whig Almanac, Containing Annual Election Returns by States and Counties ... Political Essays ... &c., Making a Connected Political History for Thirty Years". New York tribune – via Google Books.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - NM Territorial Delegate Race - Oct 01, 1853".

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit