1832 and 1833 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1832. They were held concurrently with the 1832 presidential election, in which Democrat[c] Andrew Jackson was re-elected.

1832 and 1833 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1830 & 1831 July 2, 1832 – October 7, 1833[a] 1834 & 1835 →

All 240 seats in the United States House of Representatives
121 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  SpeakerStevenson.png Blank2x3.svg
Leader Andrew Stevenson Lewis Williams
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Leader's seat Virginia 11th North Carolina 13th
Last election 126 seats 66 seats
Seats won 143[b] 63[b]
Seat change Increase 17 Decrease 3

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Last election 17 seats 4 seats
Seats won 25 9
Seat change Increase 8 Increase 5

House023ElectionsMap.png

Speaker before election

Andrew Stevenson
Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

Andrew Stevenson
Jacksonian

The Jacksonians[c] gained 17 seats, picking up several new seats in districts that were created following the 1830 census, with the rival National Republican Party losing three seats.

Economic issues were key factors in this election: Southern agricultural districts reacted angrily to the passage of the Tariff of 1832, which led to the Nullification Crisis. President Andrew Jackson and the Jacksonians showed a distrust for the banking sector, particularly the central Second Bank of the United States, which was strongly supported by the rival Anti-Jacksonian Party.[d]

The third-party Anti-Masonic Party, based on anti-Masonry, gained eight seats, and Nullifier Party, a John C. Calhoun-led states' rights party that supported South Carolina in the Nullification Crisis, picked up eight of the nine representatives in South Carolina's delegation.

The House initially elected Andrew Stevenson as Speaker, but he resigned from the House after President Jackson appointed him as U.S. Minister to the United Kingdom: Anti-Jacksonian Representatives subsequently elected John Bell as Speaker over James Polk.

Election summariesEdit

Following the 1830 Census, 27 new seats were apportioned,[1] with 4 states losing 1 seat each, 8 states having no change, and the remaining 12 states gaining between 1 and 6 seats.

63 25 143 9
Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Jacksonian [e]
State Type Date Total
seats
Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Jacksonian Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 13, 1832 1   1   0   0   0  
Georgia At-large October 1, 1832 9  2 0   0   9  2 0  
Illinois Districts August 6, 1832 3  2 0   0   3  2 0  
Louisiana[f] Districts July 2–4, 1832 3   3   0   0   0  
Mississippi At-large August 6–7, 1832 2  1 0   0   2  1 0  
Missouri[g] At-large August 5–6, 1833 2  1 2  1 0   0   0  
New Jersey At-large November 6, 1832 6   0  6 0   6  6 0  
New York District November 5–7, 1832 40  6 0  3 8   32  9 0  
Ohio Districts October 9, 1832 19  5 6  2 2  2 11  5 0  
Pennsylvania Districts October 9, 1832 28  2 4  2 10  3 14  3 0  
Late elections (After the March 4, 1833 beginning of the term)
Alabama Districts August 5, 1833 5  2 0   0   4  1 1  1
Connecticut At-large April 11, 1833 6   6   0   0   0  
Indiana Districts August 5, 1833 7  4 1  1 0   6  3 0  
Kentucky Districts August 5, 1833 13  1 9  5 0   4  4 0  
Maine Districts September 9, 1833 8  1 1   0   7  1 0  
Maryland Districts October 7, 1833 8  1 2  3 0   6  2 0  
Massachusetts Districts April 1, 1833 12  1 9  4 2  2 1  1 0  
New Hampshire At-large March 12, 1833 5  1 0   0   5  1 0  
North Carolina Districts August 8, 1833 13   7  5 0   6  5 0  
Rhode Island At-large August 27, 1833 2   1  1 1  1 0   0  
South Carolina Districts September 2–3, 1833 9   0   0   1  4 8  4
Tennessee Districts August 1–2, 1833 13  4 1   0   12  4 0  
Vermont Districts January 1, 1833 5   3   2   0   0  
Virginia Districts April 1833 21  1 7  2 0   14  3 0  
Total 240  27 63
26.3%
 3 25
10.4%
 8 143
59.6%
 17 9
3.8%
 5
House seats
Jacksonian
59.58%
Anti-Jacksonian
26.25%
Anti-Masonic
10.42%
Nullifier
3.75%

Special electionsEdit

22nd CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 6 George Edward Mitchell Jacksonian 1822
1826 (Retired)
1829
Incumbent died June 28, 1832.
New member elected October 1, 1832.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1832.
Virginia 22 Charles Clement Johnston Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent died June 17, 1832.
New member elected in 1832.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 12, 1832.
Vermont 1 Jonathan Hunt Anti-Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent died May 15, 1832.
New member elected January 1, 1833 on the fourth ballot.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Successor seated January 21, 1833.
First ballot (July 6, 1832):

Second ballot (September 4, 1832):

Third ballot (November 6, 1832):

Fourth ballot (January 1, 1833):
Virginia 18 Philip Doddridge Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent died November 19, 1832.
New member elected January 1, 1833.
Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated January 21, 1833.

23rd CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 5 John Randolph Jacksonian 1815
1817 (Retired)
1819
1825 (Resigned)
1827
1829 (Retired)
1833
Incumbent died May 24, 1833.
New member elected in August 1833.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent member-elect resigned March 3, 1833 to become a judge, but then resigned that position to run for this seat.
Incumbent re-elected October 8, 1833.

AlabamaEdit

Arkansas TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ConnecticutEdit

Connecticut kept its apportionment at 6 seats and elected its members at-large April 11, 1833.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
6 seats
Noyes Barber Anti-Jacksonian 1821 Incumbent re-elected. Elected on a general ticket:
William W. Ellsworth Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Ebenezer Young Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Jabez W. Huntington Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Ralph I. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
William L. Storrs Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.

DelawareEdit

Florida TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

GeorgiaEdit

Georgia now had 9 seats, having gained 2 seats in reapportionment, and elected its members at-large on October 1, 1832.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
(9 seats)
James M. Wayne Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected. Elected on a general ticket:
Richard Henry Wilde Jacksonian 1814
1816 (Lost)
1824 (Special)
1826 (Lost)
1827 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Wiley Thompson Jacksonian 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Augustin S. Clayton Jacksonian 1831 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas F. Foster Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Henry G. Lamar Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Daniel Newnan Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
New seat New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
New seat New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

Maine held its elections September 9, 1833.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7
Maine 8 New seat New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

Elections were held April 1, 1833, after the term began but before the House convened in December 1833. However, at least one district went to several ballots into early 1834.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Benjamin Gorham Anti-Jacksonian 1820 (Special)
1822 (Retired)
1827 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin Crowninshield Jacksonian 1823 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Massachusetts 3 Jeremiah Nelson Anti-Jacksonian 1832 (Late) Incumbent retired.
New member elected late on the third ballot.
Jacksonian gain.
First ballot (April 1, 1833):

Second ballot (May 6, 1833):

Third ballot (June 10, 1833):
Massachusetts 4 Edward Everett Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5 John Davis Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 6 George Grennell Jr.
Redistricted from the 7th district
Anti-Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8 Isaac C. Bates Anti-Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9 Henry Dearborn
Redistricted from the 10th district
Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected late on the eighth ballot.
Anti-Masonic gain.
First ballot (April 1, 1833):

Second ballot (May 6, 1833):

Third ballot (June 10, 1833):

Fourth ballot (August 12, 1833):

Fifth ballot (November 11, 1833):

Sixth ballot (December 16, 1834):

Seventh ballot (January 27, 1834):

Eighth ballot (February 17, 1834):
Massachusetts 10 James L. Hodges
Redistricted from the 12th district
Anti-Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 11
Massachusetts 12 John Quincy Adams
Redistricted from the 11th district
Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected from a new party.
Anti-Masonic gain.

Michigan TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

MississippiEdit

Elections held early, on August 6 1832.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large
(2 seats)
Franklin E. Plummer Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
None (new district) New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.

MissouriEdit

New HampshireEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
5 seats
John Brodhead Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Elected on a general ticket:
Thomas Chandler Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Joseph Hammons Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Joseph M. Harper Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent re-elected.
Henry Hubbard Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[34]
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9
North Carolina 10
North Carolina 11
North Carolina 12 Samuel Price Carson Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
North Carolina 13

OhioEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Following the reapportionment resulting from the 1830 census, Pennsylvania gained two representatives, increasing from 26 to 28, and was redistricted into 25 districts, two of which were plural districts. Pennsylvania elected its members October 9, 1832.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[35][h]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner resigned to become a judge but then won re-election to the seat.
  •  Y Joel B. Sutherland (Jacksonian) 50.0%
  • James Gowen (Anti-Jacksonian) 40.5%
  • Samuel B. Davis (Jacksonian) 9.5%
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Henry Horn Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 3 John G. Watmough Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John G. Watmough (Anti-Jacksonian) 53.7%
  • Jesse R. Burden (Jacksonian) 34.4%
  • Mahon M. Lewis (Jacksonian) 11.9%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Joshua Evans Jr. Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Joel K. Mann Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Joel K. Mann (Jacksonian) 54.5%
  • Benjamin Reiff (Anti-Masonic) 45.5%
Pennsylvania 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 7 Peter Ihrie Jr.
Redistricted from the 8th district
Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold
Pennsylvania 8 Henry King
Redistricted from the 7th district
Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Henry King (Jacksonian) 54.3%
  • William Audenreid (Anti-Masonic) 45.7%
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the 7th district
Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 10 John C. Bucher
Redistricted from the 6th district
Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 11 Adam King
Redistricted from the 10th district
Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 12 Thomas H. Crawford
Redistricted from the 11th district
Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 13 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
  •  Y Jesse Miller (Jacksonian) 53.8%
  • Thomas Whiteside (Anti-Masonic) 46.2%
Pennsylvania 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 15 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
  •  Y Andrew Beaumont (Jacksonian) 34.8%
  • Thomas W. Miner (Anti-Masonic/Anti-Jacksonian) 33.3%
  • James McClintock (Independent Jacksonian) 31.9%
Pennsylvania 16 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 17 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
  •  Y John Laporte (Jacksonian) 60.3%
  • Simon Kinney (Anti-Masonic) 39.7%
Pennsylvania 18 George Burd
Redistricted from the 13th district
Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George Burd (Anti-Jacksonian) 52.0%
  • David Mann (Anti-Masonic) 48.0%
Pennsylvania 19 Richard Coulter
Redistricted from the 17th district
Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Stewart
Redistricted from the 14th district
Anti-Masonic 1820
1828 (Lost)
1830
Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Andrew Stewart (Anti-Masonic) 51.8%
  • William G. Hawkins (Jacksonian) 48.8%
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan
Redistricted from the 15th district
Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny
Redistricted from the 16th district
Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Harmar Denny (Anti-Masonic) 61.2%
  • William Robinson (Jacksonian) 38.8%
Pennsylvania 23 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks
Redistricted from the 18th district
Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Banks (Anti-Masonic) 51.1%
  • Samuel Power (Jacksonian) 48.9%
Pennsylvania 25 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

TennesseeEdit

Elections held late, from August 1 to August 2 1833.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 John Blair Jacksonian 1823 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas D. Arnold Anti-Jacksonian 1831 Redistricted from the 2nd district.
Tennessee 2 Thomas D. Arnold Anti-Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent redistricted to the 1st district.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Tennessee 3 James I. Standifer Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent redistricted to the 4th district.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
  •  Y Luke Lea (Jacksonian) 46.34%
  • Joseph L. Williams (Unknown) 29.65%
  • John F. Gillespie (Unknown) 24.01%[38]
Tennessee 4 Jacob C. Isacks Jacksonian 1823 Incumbent redistricted to the 5th district.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
James I. Standifer Jacksonian 1829 Redistricted from the 3rd district.
Tennessee 5 William Hall Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Jacob C. Isacks Jacksonian 1823 Redistricted from the 4th district.
Tennessee 6 James K. Polk Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent redistricted to the 9th district.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Tennessee 7 John Bell Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 Cave Johnson Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent redistricted to the 11th district.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Tennessee 9 William Fitzgerald Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent redistricted to the 12th district.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
  •  Y James K. Polk (Jacksonian) 68.52%
  • Thomas J. Porter (Unknown) 21.81%
  • Theodorick F. Bradford (Anti-Masonic) 9.68%[44]
James K. Polk Jacksonian 1825 Redistricted from the 6th district.
Tennessee 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
  •  Y William M. Inge (Jacksonian) 64.25%
  • James W. Combs (Unknown) 18.29%
  • Thomas D. Davenport (Unknown) 17.47%[45]
Tennessee 11 Cave Johnson Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent redistricted from the 8th district.
Jacksonian gain.
Tennessee 12 William Fitzgerald Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent redistricted from the 9th district.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Tennessee 13 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.

VermontEdit

Vermont elected its members January 1, 1833, but two were elected late in the Spring of 1833. The 4th district's election in the previous cycle (1830–1831) went to eleven ballots, so its member wasn't elected until the 1832, near the beginning of this cycle (1832–1833).

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1 Jonathan Hunt Anti-Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent died May 15, 1832.
New member elected.
Winner also elected the same day to finish the current term.
  •  Y Joel B. Sutherland (Jacksonian) 50.0%
  • James Gowen (Anti-Jacksonian) 40.5%
  • Samuel B. Davis (Jacksonian) 9.5%
Vermont 2 William Slade Anti-Masonic 1831 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont 3 Horace Everett Anti-Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected on the third ballot. First ballot (January 1, 1833):

Second ballot (March 5, 1833):

Third ballot (May 7, 1833):
Vermont 4 Heman Allen Anti-Jacksonian 1832 (Late) Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont 5 William Cahoon Anti-Masonic 1829 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the second ballot.
Anti-Masonic hold.
First ballot (January 1, 1833):

Second ballot (March 5, 1833):

VirginiaEdit

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas Territory at-large Ambrose H. Sevier Jacksonian 1828 (Special) Incumbent re-elected on an unknown date.
Florida Territory at-large Joseph M. White Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent re-elected on an unknown date.
Michigan Territory at-large Austin Eli Wing Jacksonian 1830 or 1831 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected on an unknown date.
Jacksonian hold.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Not including special election and the few regular elections that went past this date for several ballots
  2. ^ a b There are discrepancies among the sources, e.g. Dubin, pg. 108 (and Moore, pg. 956-959) vs. Martis, pg. 92 (and "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives.): Dubin lists 145 Democrats (or Jacksonians, including 1 Independent Democrat), 60 National Republicans, 24 Anti-Masons, 7 Southern Rights or Nullifiers, and 1 "Unionist", while the latter sources list 143 Jacksonians or Democrats, 63 Anti-Jacksonians or National Republicans, 25 Anti-Masons, and 9 Nullifiers. Figures used here defer to Martis and the party figures from the Historian of the House.
  3. ^ a b By this point, Jacksonians also started to be known as Democrats.
  4. ^ By this point, Anti-Jacksonians were also known as National Republicans.
  5. ^ Nullifier
  6. ^ While Dubin (pg. 103) and Moore (pg. 956) indicate that Philemon Thomas of LA-02 was a Democrat/Jeffersonian, Martis (pg. 92) lists Philemon Thomas as a National Republican/Anti-Jeffersonian – figures listed here defer to Martis in this case.
  7. ^ Missouri held an election in 1832 for the first seat in its at-large district, and again in 1833 for the second seat in that district.
  8. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats
  9. ^ Changed parties

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Stat. 516
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  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA District 22 Special Election". www.ourcampaigns.com.
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  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 01 - Special Election - Second Trial Race - Sep 04, 1832". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 01 - Special Election - Third Trial Race - Nov 06, 1832". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 01 - Special Election - Fourth Trial Race - Jan 01, 1833". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA District 18 Special Election Race - Jan 00, 1833".
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA District 05 Special Election". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT At-Large Race - Apr 11, 1833".
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA at Large Race - Oct 01, 1832".
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - ME District 8 Race - Sep 09, 1833".
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 (Suffolk) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 2 (Essex South) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com.
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  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 - 2nd Trial Race - May 06, 1833". OurCampaigns.com.
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 - 3rd Trial Race - Jun 10, 1833". OurCampaigns.com.
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  39. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
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  52. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 03 - Third Trial Race - May 07, 1833". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  53. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 04 Race - Jan 01, 1833". www.ourcampaigns.com.
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  55. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 05 - Second Trial Race - Mar 05, 1833". www.ourcampaigns.com.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit