This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1831.
- January 1 – William Lloyd Garrison begins publication of the Liberator, an abolitionist periodical in the United States.
- February 18 (old style) – Alexander Pushkin marries Natalya Goncharova at the Great Ascension Church on Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street in Moscow.
- March 16 – Victor Hugo's historical romantic Gothic novel Notre-Dame de Paris, known in English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (completed on January 15), is published by Gosselin in Paris.
- March 19 – The play La Cocarde Tricolore by the Cogniard brothers introduces the term "chauvinism".
- April 18 – The Sydney Morning Herald is first published.
- unknown dates
- Convict Henry Savery's autobiographical fiction Quintus Servinton: a tale founded upon incidents of real occurrence is published anonymously in Tasmania, the first Australian novel.
- Playwright Manuel Bretón de los Herreros publishes a translation of Tibullus, which secures him an appointment as sub-librarian at the Spanish national library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio).
- Daniel Appleton publishes three religious books in New York City, so originating of the firm of D. Appleton & Company.
- Honoré de Balzac
- John Brownlow – Hans Sloane: a tale
- Selina Davenport – The Queen's Page
- Benjamin Disraeli – The Young Duke
- Susan Edmonstone Ferrier – Destiny
- Nikolai Gogol – Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka
- Catherine Gore
- Ann Hatton – Gerald Fitzgerald
- Victor Hugo – The Hunchback of Notre Dame (Notre Dame de Paris)
- Thomas Love Peacock – Crotchet Castle
- George Sand (as Amantine Aurore Dupin) and Jules Sandeau (as J. Sand) – Rose et Blanche
- Mary Shelley – Frankenstein (revised 1-volume edition)
- Anne Knight – Mary Gray. A tale for little girls
- Robert Montgomery Bird – Gladiator
- Manuel Bretón de los Herreros – Marcela o ¿Cuál de las tres?
- Dulduityn Danzanravjaa – Saran khökhöö (Moon Cuckoo; approximate year)
- Alfred de Vigny – La Maréchale d'Ancre
- Franz Grillparzer – Des Meeres und der Liebe Wellen (Waves of the Sea and of Love)
- Victor Hugo – Marion Delorme
- James Sheridan Knowles – Alfred the Great
- Alexander Pushkin – Boris Godunov (Борис Годунов, published)
- John Augustus Stone – Tancred, King of Sicily
- Robert Taylor – Swing, or, Who Are the Incendiaries?
- Thomas Hood – The Dream of Eugene Aram, the Murderer
- Giacomo Leopardi – Canti
- Edgar Allan Poe – Poems
- Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet – The Eventful History of the Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of HMS Bounty: Its Cause and Consequences
- Washington Irving – Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus
- John Stuart Mill – The Spirit of the Age
- James Cowles Prichard – Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations
- Mary Prince – The History of Mary Prince, A West Indian Slave
- January 2 – Justin Winsor, American historian and librarian (died 1897)
- January 3 – George Manville Fenn, English novelist and educationalist (died 1909)
- January 14 – John Cordy Jeaffreson, English novelist and non-fiction writer (died 1901)
- February 25 – Jane G. Austin, American writer (died 1894)
- January 26 – Mary Mapes Dodge, American children's writer (died 1907)
- February 16 – Nikolai Leskov, Russian novelist and playwright (died 1895)
- March 29 – Amelia Edith Huddleston Barr, English novelist and teacher (died 1919)
- April 9 – Clara Harrison Stranahan, American author and college founder (died 1905)
- April 19 – Mary Louise Booth, American writer, editor, and translator (died 1889)
- May 6 – Mary C. Ames, American writer (died 1884)
- June 7 – Amelia Edwards, English fiction writer and Egyptologist (died 1892)
- June 25 – Harriet Mann Miller, American author, naturalist, and ornithologist (died 1918)
- July 3 – Edmund Yates, Scottish writer (died 1894)
- July 7 – Jane Elizabeth Conklin, American religious writer and poet (died 1914)
- August 1 – William Aldis Wright, English writer and literary editor (died 1914)
- September 5 – Victorien Sardou, French dramatist (died 1908)
- September 12 – Álvares de Azevedo, Brazilian Ultra-Romantic writer (died 1852)
- October 7 – Eleanor Kirk, American writer (died 1908)
- October 15 – Helen Hunt Jackson, American poet, writer and activist (died 1885)
- unknown date – Nora Perry, American writer (died 1896)
- January 2 – Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Danish-born German historian (born 1776)
- January 14 – Henry Mackenzie, Scottish novelist (born 1745)
- January 21 – Ludwig Achim von Arnim, German poet and novelist (heart attack, born 1781)
- February 25 – Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, German dramatist and novelist, originator of Sturm und Drang (born 1752)
- April 4 – Isaiah Thomas, American publisher (born 1749)
- June 30 – William Roscoe, English poet (born 1753)
- September 12 – Jippensha Ikku (十返舎 一九), Japanese novelist and humorist (born 1765)
- October 2 – José Agostinho de Macedo, Portuguese poet (born 1761)
- December 18 – Willem Bilderdijk, Dutch author (born 1756)
- December 26 – Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, Indian poet and teacher (born 1809)
- WorldCat entry
- The development of Australian literature in the 19th century (PDF), University of the Third Age, p. 4, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-16, retrieved 2013-08-22
- Hugh Chisholm; James Louis Garvin (1926). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature & General Information. 13th Ed. Encyclopædia britannica Company, Limited.
- Candy Gunther Brown (2004). The Word in the World: Evangelical Writing, Publishing, and Reading in America, 1789-1880. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8078-5511-9.
- Leavis, Q. D. (1965). Fiction and the Reading Public (2nd ed.). London: Chatto & Windus.
- Robert McHenry (1980). Liberty's Women. G. & C. Merriam Company. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-87779-064-8.
- Ayres, H.M. (1917). "Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger (1752–1831)". The Reader's Dictionary of Authors. New York: Warner Library Co. Retrieved 24 March 2019.