1771 in science
- Louis Antoine de Bougainville publishes Le voyage autour du monde, par la frégate La Boudeuse, et la flûte L'Étoile.
- Peter Simon Pallas begins publication of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs, chronicling his ongoing scientific expedition through the Russian Empire.
- Arthur Young publishes The Farmer's Kalendar.
- April 13 – Richard Trevithick (died 1833), Cornish engineer and inventor.
- September 11 – Mungo Park (died 1806), Scottish explorer.
- October 13 – Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim (died 1853), Saxon-born naturalist.
- November 6 – Alois Senefelder (died 1834), Prague-born German inventor of lithography.
- December 14 – Regina von Siebold (died 1849), German physician and obstetrician.
- February 20 – Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan, French geophysicist, astronomer and chronobiologist (born 1678)
- March 17 – Chester Moore Hall, English scientific instrument maker (born 1703)
- March 23 – Henry Hindley, English clock and scientific instrument maker (born c. 1701)
- December 6 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist (born 1682)
- December 15 – Benjamin Stillingfleet, English botanist (born 1702)