1500 metres at the World Athletics Championships

The 1500 metres at the World Championships in Athletics has been contested by both men and women since the inaugural edition in 1983. It is the second most prestigious title in the discipline after the 1500 metres at the Olympics. The competition format typically has two qualifying rounds leading to a final between twelve athletes. It is one of two middle-distance running events on the programme, alongside the World Championship 800 metres.

1500 metres
at the World Championships in Athletics
1500 m women Berlin 2009.JPG
Women racing in the 2009 semi-finals
Overview
GenderMen and women
Years heldMen: 19832019
Women: 19832019
Championship record
Men3:27.65 Hicham El Guerrouj (1999)
Women3:51.95 Sifan Hassan (2019)
Reigning champion
Men Timothy Cheruiyot (KEN)
Women Sifan Hassan (NED)

The championship records for the event are 3:27.65 minute for men, set by Hicham El Guerrouj in 1999, and 3:58.52 minutes for women, set by Tatyana Tomashova in 2003.[1] The world record has never been broken or equalled at the competition by either men or women, reflecting the lack of pacemaking and athletes' more tactical approach to championship races.[2]

Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco is the most successful athlete of the event through his four straight wins from 1997 to 2003, as well as a silver in 1995. Algeria's Noureddine Morceli is the next most successful athlete, with three gold medals. Two-time champion Hassiba Boulmerka of Algeria is the only woman to have won three medals. Rashid Ramzi is the only athlete to have won both middle-distance titles, having done an 800 m/1500 m double at the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. The first two women's champions Mary Decker and Tatyana Dorovskikh both completed 1500 m/3000 m World Championships doubles, while Bernard Lagat completed a 1500 m/5000 metres double at the 2007 World Championships. Steve Cram, the inaugural men's winner, is the only non-African-born man to win the World Championship event.

Algeria is the most successful nation in the discipline, having won five gold medals across the men's and women's event. Morocco and Bahrain each have won four gold medals, while Russia and the United States each have three. The United States has the highest total of medals in the events at twelve, with six in both in the men's and women's divisions. Kenya has the highest number of medals in the men's event, with a total of seven.

Two medallists have been stripped of their honours in the event due to doping: 1987 bronze medallist Sandra Gasser and 2007 silver medallist Yelena Soboleva.

AgeEdit

 
Bernard Lagat winning the 2007 men's race
  • All information from IAAF[3]
Distinction Male athlete Age Female athlete Age
Youngest champion Noureddine Morceli 21 years, 185 days Liu Dong 19 years, 241 days
Youngest medalist Noah Ngeny 20 years, 295 days Anita Weyermann 19 years, 240 days
Youngest participant Yahye Abdi Gurre 16 years, 234 days[nb1] Lamberte Nyabamikazi 14 years, 217 days
Oldest champion Bernard Lagat 32 years, 260 days Svetlana Masterkova 31 years, 224 days
Oldest medalist Bernard Lagat 34 years, 250 days Violeta Szekely 36 years, 134 days
Oldest participant Joseph Chesire 35 years, 281 days Ruth Wysocki 38 years, 154 days
  • nb The exact date of birth of the youngest male participant, Yahye Abdi Gurre, is unknown but he remains the youngest given his known year of birth and calculating from 1 January of that year.[3]

DopingEdit

The 1500 m was the event that first saw the disqualification of a World Championships medallist on the grounds of doping. The 1987 women's bronze medallist Sandra Gasser gave a positive test for anabolic steroids at the competition and received a two-year ban from the sport later that month.[4] Twelve years passed without incident in the event, until the disqualification of the first male 1500 m athlete in 1999: Ibrahim Mohamed Aden was disqualified and given a public warning for ephedrine usage due to failing his post-race test after the semi-finals.[5]

The 2003 men's finalist Fouad Chouki was banned for two-years after a positive test for EPO. Chouki lost an appeal at the Court of Arbitration for Sport in which he claimed that an unknown person had injected him with EPO in the aftermath of the race.[6] Regina Jacobs (a two-time silver medallist) had her 2003 semi-final performance annulled retrospectively following the BALCO scandal, as later analysis of her sample at the 2003 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships showed usage of the novel steroid THG.[7][8]

The women's World Championships 1500 m was affected by doping for three straight editions starting from 2007. Russia's Yelena Soboleva became the second athlete to be stripped of a 1500 m medal after she was banned for her involvement in a doping test manipulation scheme, alongside 2007 finalist Yuliya Fomenko and two-time world champion Tatyana Tomashova (who did not compete in 2007 and whose gold medals from 2003 and 2005 still stand).[9] In 2009 Mariem Alaoui Selsouli withdrew from the final after a sample given earlier that year tested positive for EPO while heats runner Alemitu Bekele Degfa was banned due to biological passport abnormalities.[10][11] Ukrainian duo Anzhelika Shevchenko and Nataliya Tobias had their 2011 results annulled while Olesya Syreva became the third Russian 1500 m to be disqualified for doping.[8]

Bernard Lagat, the men's gold medallist in 2007, had a positive "A" sample test for EPO prior to the 2003 World Championships which was disregarded after the "B" sample (taken at the same time) returned a negative result. He was temporarily banned in the interim period of testing and missed the world championships as a result, having been runner-up two years earlier. Lagat and medical advisor Hans Heid were critical of the testing procedure for EPO and advocated the dropping of the technique until more reliable methods were found.[12]

Outside of the competition, the 2005 men's champion Rashid Ramzi was banned for doping after winning at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[13] Inaugural women's champion Mary Decker was banned for doping later in her career,[14] as were 2003 and 2005 runners-up Süreyya Ayhan and Olga Yegorova.[15][9]

MedalistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Steve Cram (GBR)   Steve Scott (USA)   Saïd Aouita (MAR)
1987 Rome
details
  Abdi Bile (SOM)   José Luis González (ESP)   Jim Spivey (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Wilfred Kirochi (KEN)   Hauke Fuhlbrügge (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Abdi Bile (SOM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Vénuste Niyongabo (BDI)
1997 Athens
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Reyes Estévez (ESP)
1999 Seville
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Noah Ngeny (KEN)   Reyes Estévez (ESP)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Bernard Lagat (KEN)   Driss Maazouzi (FRA)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Mehdi Baala (FRA)   Ivan Heshko (UKR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Rashid Ramzi (BHR)   Adil Kaouch (MAR)   Rui Silva (POR)
2007 Osaka
details
  Bernard Lagat (USA)   Rashid Ramzi (BHR)   Shedrack Kibet Korir (KEN)
2009 Berlin
details
  Yusuf Saad Kamel (BHR)   Deresse Mekonnen (ETH)   Bernard Lagat (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Silas Kiplagat (KEN)   Matthew Centrowitz (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Matthew Centrowitz (USA)   Johan Cronje (RSA)
2015 Beijing
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Elijah Manangoi (KEN)   Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)
2017 London
details
  Elijah Manangoi (KEN)   Timothy Cheruiyot (KEN)   Filip Ingebrigtsen (NOR)
2019 Doha
details
  Timothy Cheruiyot (KEN)   Taoufik Makhloufi (ALG)   Marcin Lewandowski (POL)

Multiple medalistsEdit

Rank Athlete Nation Period Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Hicham El Guerrouj   Morocco (MAR) 1995–2003 4 1 0 5
2= Noureddine Morceli   Algeria (ALG) 1991–1995 3 0 0 3
2= Asbel Kiprop   Kenya (KEN) 2011–2015 3 0 0 3
4 Bernard Lagat   Kenya (KEN) (2001 only)
  United States (USA)
2001–2009 1 1 1 3
5 Rashid Ramzi   Morocco (MAR) 2005–2007 1 1 0 2
6 Abdi Bile   Somalia (SOM) 1987–1993 1 0 1 2
7 Fermín Cacho   Spain (ESP) 1993–1997 0 2 0 2
8 Matthew Centrowitz, Jr.   United States (USA) 2011–2013 0 1 1 2
9 Reyes Estévez   Spain (ESP) 1997–1999 0 0 2 2

Medalists by countryEdit

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   Kenya (KEN) 4 5 1 10
2   Morocco (MAR) 4 2 2 8
3   Algeria (ALG) 3 0 0 3
4   Bahrain (BHR) 2 1 0 3
5   United States (USA) 1 2 3 6
6   Somalia (SOM) 1 0 1 2
7   Great Britain (GBR) 1 0 0 1
8   Spain (ESP) 0 3 2 5
9   France (FRA) 0 1 1 2
10   Ethiopia (ETH) 0 1 0 1
11=   Burundi (BDI) 0 0 1 1
11=   Germany (GER) 0 0 1 1
11=   Portugal (POR) 0 0 1 1
11=   South Africa (RSA) 0 0 1 1
11=   Ukraine (UKR) 0 0 1 1
11=   Norway (NOR) 0 0 1 1

WomenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Mary Decker (USA)   Zamira Zaytseva (URS)   Yekaterina Podkopayeva (URS)
1987 Rome
details
  Tetyana Samolenko (URS)   Hildegard Körner (GDR)   Doina Melinte (ROU)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)   Tetyana Dorovskikh (URS)   Lyudmila Rogachova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Liu Dong (CHN)   Sonia O'Sullivan (IRL)   Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)   Kelly Holmes (GBR)   Carla Sacramento (POR)
1997 Athens
details
  Carla Sacramento (POR)   Regina Jacobs (USA)   Anita Weyermann (SUI)
1999 Seville
details
  Svetlana Masterkova (RUS)   Regina Jacobs (USA)   Kutre Dulecha (ETH)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Gabriela Szabo (ROU)   Violeta Szekely (ROU)   Natalya Gorelova (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Tatyana Tomashova (RUS)   Süreyya Ayhan (TUR)   Hayley Tullett (GBR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Tatyana Tomashova (RUS)   Olga Yegorova (RUS)   Bouchra Ghezielle (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
  Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BHR)   Iryna Lishchynska (UKR)   Daniela Yordanova (BUL)
2009 Berlin
details
  Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BHR)   Lisa Dobriskey (GBR)   Shannon Rowbury (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Jennifer Simpson (USA)   Hannah England (GBR)   Natalia Rodríguez (ESP)
2013 Moscow
details
  Abeba Aregawi (SWE)   Jennifer Simpson (USA)   Hellen Obiri (KEN)
2015 Beijing
details
  Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)   Faith Kipyegon (KEN)   Sifan Hassan (NED)
2017 London
details
  Faith Kipyegon (KEN)   Jennifer Simpson (USA)   Caster Semenya (RSA)
2019 Doha
details
  Sifan Hassan (NED)   Faith Kipyegon (KEN)   Gudaf Tsegay (ETH)

Multiple medalistsEdit

Rank Athlete Nation Period Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Hassiba Boulmerka   Algeria (ALG) 1991–1995 2 0 1 3
2= Tatyana Tomashova   Russia (RUS) 2003-2005 2 0 0 2
2= Maryam Yusuf Jamal   Bahrain (BHR) 2007-2009 2 0 0 2
4 Jennifer Simpson   United States (USA) 2011-2017 1 2 0 3
5 Tatyana Dorovskikh   Soviet Union (URS) 1987–1991 1 1 0 2
6 Carla Sacramento   Portugal (POR) 1995–1997 1 0 1 2
7 Faith Kipyegon   Kenya (KEN) 2015-2017 1 1 0 2
8 Regina Jacobs   United States (USA) 1997-1999 0 2 0 2

Medalists by countryEdit

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   Russia (RUS) 3 1 1 5
2   United States (USA) 2 4 1 7
3   Algeria (ALG) 2 0 1 3
4   Bahrain (BHR) 2 0 0 2
5   Soviet Union (URS) 1 2 2 5
6=   Romania (ROU) 1 1 1 3
6=   Kenya (KEN) 1 1 1 3
8=   Portugal (POR) 1 0 1 2
8=   Ethiopia (ETH) 1 0 1 2
9=   China (CHN) 1 0 0 1
9=   Sweden (SWE) 1 0 0 1
11   Great Britain (GBR) 0 3 1 4
12=   East Germany (GDR) 0 1 0 1
12=   Ireland (IRL) 0 1 0 1
12=   Turkey (TUR) 0 1 0 1
12=   Ukraine (UKR) 0 1 0 1
16=   Bulgaria (BUL) 0 0 1 1
16=   France (FRA) 0 0 1 1
16=   Spain (ESP) 0 0 1 1
16=    Switzerland (SUI) 0 0 1 1

Championship record progressionEdit

MenEdit

Men's 1500 metres World Championships record progression[16]
Time Athlete Nation Year Round Date
3:42.28 Pierre Délèze    Switzerland (SUI) 1983 First round 12 August
3:40.17 Steve Cram   Great Britain (GBR) 1983 First round 12 August
3:38.65 Andreas Busse   East Germany (GDR) 1983 First round 12 August
3:37.87 Steve Scott   United States (USA) 1983 First round 12 August
3:36.43 Steve Scott   United States (USA) 1983 Semi-final 13 August
3:35.77 Steve Cram   Great Britain (GBR) 1983 Semi-final 13 August
3:35.67 Abdi Bile   Somalia (SOM) 1987 Semi-final 6 September
3:32.84 Noureddine Morceli   Algeria (ALG) 1991 Final 1 September
3:27.65 Hicham El Guerrouj   Morocco (MAR) 1999 Final 24 August

WomenEdit

Women's 1500 metres World Championships record progression[17]
Time Athlete Nation Year Round Date
4:10.71 Ravilya Agletdinova   Soviet Union (URS) 1983 First round 12 August
4:07.47 Mary Decker   United States (USA) 1983 First round 12 August
4:00.90 Mary Decker   United States (USA) 1983 Final 14 August
3:58.56 Tatyana Samolenko   Soviet Union (URS) 1987 Final 5 September
3:58.52 Tatyana Tomashova   Russia (RUS) 2003 Final 31 August

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Championships Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2015-07-12.
  2. ^ IAAF World Championships: IAAF Statistics Handbook Daegu 2011, pp. 595–6 (archived). IAAF. Retrieved on 2015-07-06.
  3. ^ a b Butler 2013, p. 34–7.
  4. ^ Sandra Gasser of Switzerland today was stripped of the.... UPI (21987-09-29). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  5. ^ IAAF suspend Davidson Ezinwa (NGR) and disqualify Mohamed Ibrahim Aden (SOM). IAAF (1999-08-23). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  6. ^ CAS restores two-year doping ban to Chouki. AP Worldstream (2005-04-05). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  7. ^ Abrahamson, Alan (2004-07-18). Jacobs Banned for Four Years. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  8. ^ a b Butler 2013, p. 67–9.
  9. ^ a b Seven Russians handed doping bans. BBC Sport (2008-10-20). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  10. ^ Moroccan admits to positive doping test. Sydney Morning Herald (2009-08-24). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  11. ^ Alemitu Bekele verliert EM-Titel (in German). Leichathletik (2013-01-16). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  12. ^ Expert Critical of Lagat EPO Test Cleared Miler's Case Suggests Testing Is Flawed Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Track and Field News (2003-11-26). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  13. ^ Cram, Steve (2009-05-05). Why Rashid Ramzi's sudden rise always stuck in the craw. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  14. ^ Rowbottom, Mike (1999-04-27). Athletics: Slaney doping ban upheld at IAAF hearing. Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  15. ^ Turkish star Kop handed life ban. BBC Sport (2009-11-11). Retrieved on 2015-08-08.
  16. ^ Main > Men, 1500 m > World Championships Records Progression. Track and Field Brinkster. Retrieved on 2015-07-07.
  17. ^ Main > Women, 1500 m > World Championships Records Progression. Track and Field Brinkster. Retrieved on 2015-07-07.

BibliographyEdit

  • Butler, Mark (2013). IAAF Statistics Book Moscow 2013 (PDF). IAAF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2014.

External linksEdit