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The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run (typically pronounced 'fifteen-hundred metres') is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983. It is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or approximately ​1516 miles.

Athletics
1500 metres
The three Olavis.jpg
Olavi Salsola, Olavi Salonen and Olavi Vuorisalo (The three Olavis) break the 1,500 m world record in 1957 in Turku, Finland.
Men's records
World  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) 3:26.00 (1998)
Olympic  Noah Ngeny (KEN) 3:32.07 (2000)
Women's records
World  Genzebe Dibaba (ETH) 3:50.07 (2015)
Olympic  Paula Ivan (ROM) 3:53.96 (1988)

The demands of the race are similar to that of the 800 metres, but with a slightly higher emphasis on aerobic endurance and a slightly lower sprint speed requirement. The 1500 metre race is predominantly aerobic, but anaerobic conditioning is also required.[1]

Each lap run during the world-record race run by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 in Rome, Italy averaged just under 55 seconds (or under 13.8 seconds per 100 metres).[2] 1,500 metres is three and three-quarter laps around a 400-metre track. During the 1970s and 1980s this race was dominated by British runners, along with an occasional Finn, American, or New Zealander, but through the 1990s a large number of African runners began to take over in being the masters of this race, with runners from Kenya, Morocco, and Algeria winning the Olympic gold medals.

In the Modern Olympic Games, the men's 1,500-metre race has been contested from the beginning, and at every Olympic Games since. The first winner, in 1896, was Edwin Flack of Australia, who also won the first gold medal in the 800-metre race. The women's 1,500-metre race was first added to the Summer Olympics in 1972, and the winner of the first gold medal was Lyudmila Bragina of the Soviet Union. During the Olympic Games of 1972 through 2008, the women's 1,500-metre race has been won by three Soviets plus one Russian, one Italian, one Romanian, one Briton, one Kenyan, and two Algerians. The 2012 Olympic results are still undecided as a result of multiple doping cases. The best women's times for the race were controversially[3] set by Chinese runners, all set in the same race on just two dates 4 years apart at the Chinese National Games. At least one of those top Chinese athletes has admitted to being part of a doping program.[4] The women's record was finally surpassed by Genzebe Dibaba of Ethiopia in 2015.

In American high schools, the mile run (which is 1609.344 metres in length) and the 1,600-metre run, also colloquially referred to as "metric mile", are more frequently run than the 1,500-metre run, since US customary units are better-known in America. Which distance is used depends on which state the high school is in, and, for convenience, national rankings are standardized by converting all 1,600-metre run times to their mile run equivalents.[5]

Contents

StrategyEdit

Many 1500 metres events, particularly at the championship level, turn into slow, strategic races, with the pace quickening and competitors jockeying for position in the final lap to settle the race in a final sprint. Such is the difficulty of maintaining the pace throughout the duration of the event, most records are set in planned races led by pacemakers who sacrifice their opportunity to win by leading the early laps at a fast pace before dropping out.

"The person who wins the race is behind watching"

— Filbert Bayi, former world record holder[6]

Continental recordsEdit

Area Men Women
Time (s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 3:26.00 WR Hicham El Guerrouj   Morocco 3:50.07 WR Genzebe Dibaba   Ethiopia
Asia (records) 3:29.14 Rashid Ramzi   Bahrain 3:50.46 Yunxia Qu   China
Europe (records) 3:28.81 Mo Farah   Great Britain 3:52.47 Tatyana Kazankina   Soviet Union
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
3:29.30 Bernard Lagat   United States 3:56.29 Shannon Rowbury   United States
Oceania (records) 3:29.66 Nick Willis   New Zealand 4:00.93 Sarah Jamieson   Australia
South America (records) 3:33.25 Hudson de Souza   Brazil 4:05.67 Letitia Vriesde   Suriname

All-time top 25Edit

MenEdit

  • Correct as of July 2017.
Rank Result Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 3:26.00 Hicham El Guerrouj   Morocco 14 July 1998 Rome
2 3:26.34 Bernard Lagat   Kenya 24 August 2001 Brussels
3 3:26.69 Asbel Kiprop   Kenya 17 July 2015 Monaco [7]
4 3:27.37 Noureddine Morceli   Algeria 12 July 1995 Nice
5 3:27.64 Silas Kiplagat   Kenya 18 July 2014 Monaco [8]
6 3:28.12 Noah Ngeny   Kenya 11 August 2000 Zürich
7 3:28.75 Taoufik Makhloufi   Algeria 17 July 2015 Monaco [9]
8 3:28.79 Abdalaati Iguider   Morocco 17 July 2015 Monaco [10]
9 3:28.80 Elijah Manangoi   Kenya 21 July 2017 Monaco [11]
10 3:28.81 Mo Farah   Great Britain 19 July 2013 Monaco [12]
3:28.81 Ronald Kwemoi   Kenya 18 July 2014 Monaco [13]
12 3:28.95 Fermín Cacho   Spain 13 August 1997 Zürich
13 3:28.98 Mehdi Baala   France 5 September 2003 Brussels
14 3:29.02 Daniel Kipchirchir Komen   Kenya 14 July 2006 Rome
15 3:29.10 Timothy Cheruiyot   Kenya 21 July 2017 Monaco [14]
16 3:29.14 Rashid Ramzi   Bahrain 14 July 2006 Rome
17 3:29.18 Venuste Niyongabo   Burundi 22 August 1997 Brussels
18 3:29.29 William Chirchir   Kenya 24 August 2001 Brussels
19 3:29.46 Said Aouita   Morocco 23 August 1985 Berlin
20 3:29.46 Daniel Komen   Kenya 16 August 1997 Monaco
21 3:29.47 Augustine Choge   Kenya 14 June 2009 Berlin [15]
22 3:29.50 Caleb Ndiku   Kenya 19 July 2013 Monaco
23 3:29.51 Ali Saidi-Sief   Algeria 4 July 2001 Brussels
24 3:29.53 Amine Laalou   Morocco 22 July 2010 Monaco
25 3:29.58 Ayanleh Souleiman   Djibouti 18 July 2014 Monaco

NotesEdit

Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 3:28.00:

WomenEdit

  • Correct as of August 2016 .[16]
Rank Res. Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 3:50.07 Genzebe Dibaba   Ethiopia 17 July 2015 Fontvieille [17]
2 3:50.46 Yunxia Qu   China 11 September 1993 Beijing
3 3:50.98 Bo Jiang   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
4 3:51.34 Yinglai Lang   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
5 3:51.92 Junxia Wang   China 11 September 1993 Beijing
6 3:52.47 Tatyana Kazankina   Soviet Union 13 August 1980 Zürich
7 3:53.91 Lili Yin   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
8 3:53.96 Paula Ivan   Romania 1 October 1988 Seoul
9 3:53.97 Lixin Lan   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
10 3:54.23 Olga Dvirna   Soviet Union 27 July 1982 Kiev
11 3:54.52 Zhang Ling   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
12 3:55.07 Yanmei Dong   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
13 3:55.22 Laura Muir   Great Britain 27 August 2016 Saint-Denis [18]
14 3:55.30 Hassiba Boulmerka   Algeria 8 August 1992 Barcelona
15 3:55.33 Sureyya Ayhan   Turkey 5 September 2003 Brussels
16 3:55.68 Yuliya Fomenko   Russia 8 July 2006 Paris
17 3:56.05 Sifan Hassan   Netherlands 17 July 2015 Fontvieille [19]
18 3:56.14 Zamira Zaitseva   Soviet Union 27 July 1982 Kiev
19 3:56.18 Maryam Yusuf Jamal   Bahrain 27 August 2006 Rieti
20 3:56.29 Shannon Rowbury   United States 17 July 2015 Fontvieille [20]
21 3:56.31 Dong Liu   China 17 October 1997 Shanghai
22 3:56.41 Faith Kipyegon   Kenya 28 May 2016 Eugene [21]
23 3:56.43 Elena Soboleva   Russia 8 July 2006 Paris
24 3:56.50 Tatyana Pozdnyakova   Soviet Union 27 July 1982 Kiev
25 3:56.54 Abeba Aregawi   Ethiopia 31 May 2012 Rome

Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled due to doping offense:

Res. Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
3:56.15 Mariem Selsouli   Morocco 6 July 2012 Paris

NotesEdit

Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 3:55.47:

Olympic medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
  Edwin Flack (AUS)   Arthur Blake (USA)   Albin Lermusiaux (FRA)
1900 Paris
details
  Charles Bennett (GBR)   Henri Deloge (FRA)   John Bray (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
  Jim Lightbody (USA)   Frank Verner (USA)   Lacey Hearn (USA)
1908 London
details
  Mel Sheppard (USA)   Harold Wilson (GBR)   Norman Hallows (GBR)
1912 Stockholm
details
  Arnold Jackson (GBR)   Abel Kiviat (USA)   Norman Taber (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
  Albert Hill (GBR)   Philip Baker (GBR)   Lawrence Shields (USA)
1924 Paris
details
  Paavo Nurmi (FIN)   Willy Schärer (SUI)   H. B. Stallard (GBR)
1928 Amsterdam
details
  Harri Larva (FIN)   Jules Ladoumègue (FRA)   Eino Purje (FIN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
  Luigi Beccali (ITA)   Jerry Cornes (GBR)   Phil Edwards (CAN)
1936 Berlin
details
  Jack Lovelock (NZL)   Glenn Cunningham (USA)   Luigi Beccali (ITA)
1948 London
details
  Henry Eriksson (SWE)   Lennart Strand (SWE)   Willem Slijkhuis (NED)
1952 Helsinki
details
  Josy Barthel (LUX)   Bob McMillen (USA)   Werner Lueg (GER)
1956 Melbourne
details
  Ron Delany (IRL)   Klaus Richtzenhain (EUA)   John Landy (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
  Herb Elliott (AUS)   Michel Jazy (FRA)   István Rózsavölgyi (HUN)
1964 Tokyo
details
  Peter Snell (NZL)   Josef Odložil (TCH)   John Davies (NZL)
1968 Mexico City
details
  Kipchoge Keino (KEN)   Jim Ryun (USA)   Bodo Tümmler (FRG)
1972 Munich
details
  Pekka Vasala (FIN)   Kipchoge Keino (KEN)   Rod Dixon (NZL)
1976 Montreal
details
  John Walker (NZL)   Ivo Van Damme (BEL)   Paul-Heinz Wellmann (FRG)
1980 Moscow
details
  Sebastian Coe (GBR)   Jürgen Straub (GDR)   Steve Ovett (GBR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
  Sebastian Coe (GBR)   Steve Cram (GBR)   José Manuel Abascal (ESP)
1988 Seoul
details
  Peter Rono (KEN)   Peter Elliott (GBR)   Jens-Peter Herold (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
  Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Rachid El Basir (MAR)   Mohamed Suleiman (QAT)
1996 Atlanta
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Stephen Kipkorir (KEN)
2000 Sydney
details
  Noah Ngeny (KEN)   Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Bernard Lagat (KEN)
2004 Athens
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Bernard Lagat (KEN)   Rui Silva (POR)
2008 Beijing
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Nick Willis (NZL)   Mehdi Baala (FRA)
2012 London
details
  Taoufik Makhloufi (ALG)   Leonel Manzano (USA)   Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
  Matthew Centrowitz Jr. (USA)   Taoufik Makhloufi (ALG)   Nick Willis (NZL)

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1972 Munich
details
  Lyudmila Bragina (URS)   Gunhild Hoffmeister (GDR)   Paola Pigni (ITA)
1976 Montreal
details
  Tatyana Kazankina (URS)   Gunhild Hoffmeister (GDR)   Ulrike Klapezynski (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
  Tatyana Kazankina (URS)   Christiane Wartenberg (GDR)   Nadezhda Olizarenko (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
  Gabriella Dorio (ITA)   Doina Melinte (ROU)   Maricica Puică (ROU)
1988 Seoul
details
  Paula Ivan (ROU)   Laimutė Baikauskaitė (URS)   Tetyana Samolenko (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
  Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)   Lyudmila Rogachova (EUN)   Qu Yunxia (CHN)
1996 Atlanta
details
  Svetlana Masterkova (RUS)   Gabriela Szabo (ROU)   Theresia Kiesl (AUT)
2000 Sydney
details
  Nouria Mérah-Benida (ALG)   Violeta Szekely (ROU)   Gabriela Szabo (ROU)
2004 Athens
details
  Kelly Holmes (GBR)   Tatyana Tomashova (RUS)   Maria Cioncan (ROU)
2008 Beijing
details
  Nancy Langat (KEN)   Iryna Lishchynska (UKR)   Nataliya Tobias (UKR)
2012 London
details
Vacant[22] Vacant[23]   Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BRN)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
  Faith Kipyegon (KEN)   Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)   Jennifer Simpson (USA)

World Championship medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Steve Cram (GBR)   Steve Scott (USA)   Saïd Aouita (MAR)
1987 Rome
details
  Abdi Bile (SOM)   José Luis González (ESP)   Jim Spivey (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Wilfred Kirochi (KEN)   Hauke Fuhlbrügge (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Abdi Bile (SOM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Vénuste Niyongabo (BDI)
1997 Athens
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Reyes Estévez (ESP)
1999 Seville
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Noah Ngeny (KEN)   Reyes Estévez (ESP)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Bernard Lagat (KEN)   Driss Maazouzi (FRA)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Mehdi Baala (FRA)   Ivan Heshko (UKR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Rashid Ramzi (BHR)   Adil Kaouch (MAR)   Rui Silva (POR)
2007 Osaka
details
  Bernard Lagat (USA)   Rashid Ramzi (BHR)   Shedrack Kibet Korir (KEN)
2009 Berlin
details
  Yusuf Saad Kamel (BHR)   Deresse Mekonnen (ETH)   Bernard Lagat (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Silas Kiplagat (KEN)   Matthew Centrowitz (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Matthew Centrowitz (USA)   Johan Cronje (RSA)
2015 Beijing
details
  Asbel Kiprop (KEN)   Elijah Manangoi (KEN)   Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)
2017 London
details
  Elijah Manangoi (KEN)   Timothy Cheruiyot (KEN)   Filip Ingebrigtsen (NOR)

WomenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Mary Decker (USA)   Zamira Zaytseva (URS)   Yekaterina Podkopayeva (URS)
1987 Rome
details
  Tetyana Samolenko (URS)   Hildegard Körner (GDR)   Doina Melinte (ROU)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)   Tetyana Dorovskikh (URS)   Lyudmila Rogachova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Liu Dong (CHN)   Sonia O'Sullivan (IRL)   Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Hassiba Boulmerka (ALG)   Kelly Holmes (GBR)   Carla Sacramento (POR)
1997 Athens
details
  Carla Sacramento (POR)   Regina Jacobs (USA)   Anita Weyermann (SUI)
1999 Seville
details
  Svetlana Masterkova (RUS)   Regina Jacobs (USA)   Kutre Dulecha (ETH)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Gabriela Szabo (ROU)   Violeta Szekely (ROU)   Natalya Gorelova (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Tatyana Tomashova (RUS)   Süreyya Ayhan (TUR)   Hayley Tullett (GBR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Tatyana Tomashova (RUS)   Olga Yegorova (RUS)   Bouchra Ghezielle (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
  Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BHR)   Iryna Lishchynska (UKR)   Daniela Yordanova (BUL)
2009 Berlin
details
  Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BHR)   Lisa Dobriskey (GBR)   Shannon Rowbury (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Jennifer Simpson (USA)   Hannah England (GBR)   Natalia Rodríguez (ESP)
2013 Moscow
details
  Abeba Aregawi (SWE)   Jennifer Simpson (USA)   Hellen Obiri (KEN)
2015 Beijing
details
  Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)   Faith Kipyegon (KEN)   Sifan Hassan (NED)
2017 London
details
  Faith Kipyegon (KEN)   Jennifer Simpson (USA)   Caster Semenya (RSA)

European Championship medalistsEdit

World Indoor Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]   Michael Hillardt (AUS)   José Luis González (ESP)   Joseph Chesire (KEN)
1987 Indianapolis
details
  Marcus O'Sullivan (IRL)   José Manuel Abascal (ESP)   Han Kulker (NED)
1989 Budapest
details
  Marcus O'Sullivan (IRL)   Hauke Fuhlbrügge (GDR)   Jeff Atkinson (USA)
1991 Seville
details
  Noureddine Morceli (ALG)   Fermín Cacho (ESP)   Mário Silva (POR)
1993 Toronto
details
  Marcus O'Sullivan (IRL)   David Strang (GBR)   Branko Zorko (CRO)
1995 Barcelona
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Mateo Cañellas (ESP)   Erik Nedeau (USA)
1997 Paris
details
  Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)   Rüdiger Stenzel (GER)   William Tanui (KEN)
1999 Maebashi
details
  Haile Gebrselassie (ETH)   Laban Rotich (KEN)   Andrés Manuel Díaz (ESP)
2001 Lisbon
details
  Rui Silva (POR)   Reyes Estévez (ESP)   Noah Ngeny (KEN)
2003 Birmingham
details
  Driss Maazouzi (FRA)   Bernard Lagat (KEN)   Abdelkader Hachlaf (MAR)
2004 Budapest
details
  Paul Korir (KEN)   Ivan Heshko (UKR)   Laban Rotich (KEN)
2006 Moscow
details
  Ivan Heshko (UKR)   Daniel Kipchirchir Komen (KEN)   Elkanah Angwenyi (KEN)
2008 Valencia
details
  Deresse Mekonnen (ETH)   Daniel Kipchirchir Komen (KEN)   Juan Carlos Higuero (ESP)
2010 Doha
details
  Deresse Mekonnen (ETH)   Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)   Haron Keitany (KEN)
2012 Istanbul
details
  Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)   İlham Tanui Özbilen (TUR)   Mekonnen Gebremedhin (ETH)
2014 Sopot
details
  Ayanleh Souleiman (DJI)   Aman Wote (ETH)   Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)
2016 Portland
details
  Matthew Centrowitz Jr. (USA)   Jakub Holuša (CZE)   Nick Willis (NZL)
2018 Birmingham
details
  Samuel Tefera (ETH)   Marcin Lewandowski (POL)   Abdalaati Iguider (MAR)

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]   Elly van Hulst (NED)   Fița Lovin (ROU)   Brit McRoberts (CAN)
1987 Indianapolis
details
  Doina Melinte (ROU)   Tatyana Samolenko (URS)   Svetlana Kitova (URS)
1989 Budapest
details
  Doina Melinte (ROU)   Svetlana Kitova (URS)   Yvonne Mai (GDR)
1991 Seville
details
  Lyudmila Rogachova (URS)   Ivana Kubešová (TCH)   Tudorita Chidu (ROU)
1993 Toronto
details
  Yekaterina Podkopayeva (RUS)   Violeta Beclea (ROU)   Sandra Gasser (SUI)
1995 Barcelona
details
  Regina Jacobs (USA)   Carla Sacramento (POR)   Maite Zúñiga (ESP)
1997 Paris
details
  Yekaterina Podkopayeva (RUS)   Patricia Djaté-Taillard (FRA)   Lidia Chojecka (POL)
1999 Maebashi
details
  Gabriela Szabo (ROU)   Violeta Beclea-Szekely (ROU)   Lidia Chojecka (POL)
2001 Lisbon
details
  Hasna Benhassi (MAR)   Violeta Beclea-Szekely (ROU)   Natalya Gorelova (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
  Regina Jacobs (USA)   Kelly Holmes (GBR)   Yekaterina Rozenberg (RUS)
2004 Budapest
details
  Kutre Dulecha (ETH)   Carmen Douma-Hussar (CAN)   Gulnara Galkina (RUS)
2006 Moscow
details
  Yuliya Fomenko (RUS)   Yelena Soboleva (RUS)   Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BHR)
2008 Valencia
details
  Gelete Burka (ETH)   Maryam Yusuf Jamal (BHR)   Daniela Yordanova (BUL)
2010 Doha
details
  Kalkidan Gezahegne (ETH)   Natalia Rodríguez (ESP)   Gelete Burka (ETH)
2012 Istanbul
details
  Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)   Mariem Alaoui Selsouli (MAR)   Hind Dehiba (FRA)
2014 Sopot
details
  Abeba Aregawi (SWE)   Axumawit Embaye (ETH)   Nicole Sifuentes (CAN)
2016 Portland
details
  Sifan Hassan (NED)   Dawit Seyaum (ETH)   Gudaf Tsegay (ETH)
2018 Birmingham
details
  Genzebe Dibaba (ETH)   Laura Muir (GBR)   Sifan Hassan (NED)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bestsEdit

  • "i" indicates performance on 200m indoor track

Other sportsEdit

1,500 metres is also an event in swimming and speed skating. The world records for the distance in swimming for men are 14:31.02 (swum in a 50-metre pool) by Sun Yang, 14:08.06 (swum in a 25-metre pool) by Gregorio Paltrinieri; and by women 15:25.48 (swum in a 50-metre pool)[26] by Katie Ledecky, and 15:19.71 (swum in a 25-metre pool) by Mireia Belmonte García.

The world records for the distance in speed skating are 1:41.04 by Shani Davis and 1:50.85 by Heather Richardson-Bergsma.[27]

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ 1500 m - Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 2012-02-07.
  2. ^ iaaf.org - 0 Toplists M - O
  3. ^ "Scandal as controversial Chinese athlete Wang Junxia enters IAAF Hall of Fame". The Daily Telegraph. London. 9 March 2012. 
  4. ^ "Athletics world records blow as Wang Junxia 'admits' being part of Chinese state-sponsored doping regime". Retrieved 2016-08-13. 
  5. ^ McCune R. R. (2011-07-11). Verzbicas Breaks Four. Lets Run. Retrieved on 2012-02-07.
  6. ^ http://www.heraldscotland.com/sport/commonwealth-games/cwg-news/bayis-record-may-be-gone-but-it-should-never-be-forgotten.23308390
  7. ^ "1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 17 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  8. ^ Mike Rowbottom (18 July 2014). "Kiplagat shows his class with 3:27.64 in Monaco - IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  9. ^ "1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 17 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 17 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017. 
  12. ^ Mike Rowbottom (19 July 2013). "Seven world leads on magical night in Monaco – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  13. ^ "IAAF Diamond League - 1500m Results". www.diamondleague-monaco.com. 18 July 2014. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  14. ^ "1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017. 
  15. ^ "1500m Results". IAAF. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  16. ^ All time Women's 1500 metres. IAAF. Retrieved on 2012-02-07.
  17. ^ "IAAF Diamond League Monaco - 1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  18. ^ "1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 27 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  19. ^ "IAAF Diamond League Monaco - 1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  20. ^ "IAAF Diamond League Monaco - 1500m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  21. ^ "Prefontaine Classic 2016 Results". tilastopaja.org. 28 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  22. ^ "Turkey's Asli Cakir Alptekin stripped of Olympic 1500m title for doping". The Guardian. 17 August 2015. 
  23. ^ Gamze Bulet stripped of silver medal, banned for doping
  24. ^ Mariem Alaoui Selsouli was banned from The Olympic games 2012 in London after testing positive for the diuretic furosemide, following her competition in Diamond League July 6, 2012 in Paris-Saint-Denis, with the result 3:56.15 min.
  25. ^ Mulvenney, Nick (25 July 2012). "UPDATE 1-Olympics-Athletics-Moroccan Selsouli tests positive". Reuters. 
  26. ^ https://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/news/katie-ledecky-chops-2-seconds-off-1500-free-world-record-at-2015-fina-world-championships/
  27. ^ "Current Speedskating World Records". Archived from the original on 2009-10-19. 

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