Open main menu

1423 Jose, provisional designation 1936 QM, is a stony asteroid of the Koronis family from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 28 August 1936, by Belgian astronomer Joseph Hunaerts at the Royal Observatory of Belgium in Uccle.[1] The elongated S-type asteroid has a rotation period of 12.3 hours.[5] It was named for Giuseppina, daughter of Italian astronomer Giuseppe Bianchi.[2]

1423 Jose
1423Jose (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Jose
Discovery [1]
Discovered byJ. Hunaerts
Discovery siteUccle Obs.
Discovery date28 August 1936
MPC designation(1423) Jose
Named after
Giuseppina, daughter of Giuseppe Bianchi[2]
(Italian astronomer)
1936 QM · 1931 TM2
1934 EE · 1936 SC
1937 YE · 1946 UF
1950 PW · 1968 HL
main-belt[1][3] · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 27 April 2019 (JD 2458600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc112.39 yr (41,051 d)
Aphelion3.0890 AU
Perihelion2.6318 AU
2.8604 AU
4.84 yr (1,767 d)
0° 12m 13.32s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
15.81±1.02 km[7]
19.580±0.243 km[8][9]
20.046±0.117 km[10]
26.14±2.5 km[11]
12.307±0.002 h[12]
SMASS = S[3][5]
S (SDSS-MOC)[13]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Jose is a core member of the Koronis family (605),[4][6] a prominent asteroid family with nearly co-planar ecliptical orbits.[5][14] It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.6–3.1 AU once every 4 years and 10 months (1,767 days; semi-major axis of 2.86 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.08 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The asteroid was first imaged on a precovery taken at the Lowell Observatory in June 1906. The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Uccle in August 1936.[1]


This minor planet was named by Cesare Lombardi after Giuseppina Bianchi, a daughter of Giuseppe Bianchi who died young. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 128).[2] Lombardi published several studies on the orbit of this asteroid.[15][16][17][18]

Physical characteristicsEdit

In the SDSS-based taxonomy, as well as in the SMASS classification, Jose is a common, stony S-type asteroid,[3][13] which is also the overall spectral type for the members of the Koronis family.[14]:23

Rotation period and poleEdit

In November 2004, a rotational lightcurve of Jose was obtained from photometric observations by amateur astronomers Rui Goncalves (938) and Laurent Bernasconi (A14) in Portugal and France, respectively. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 12.307±0.002 hours and a brightness variation of 0.68 magnitude (U=3), indicative of a non-spherical, elongated shape.[12]

During an extensive lightcurve survey of Koronian asteroids by visiting American astronomers using the 0.6-m telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii during 1997–2005, another period of 12.313±0.003 with an amplitude of 0.80 magnitude was determined (U=3).[19] French amateur astronomer René Roy and the team at the Palomar Transient Factory in California also measured as period of 12.28±0.01 and 12.294±0.0146 with an amplitude of 0.82 and 0.96, respectively (U=2/2).[12][20] A modeled lightcurve derived from combined dense and sparse photometric data was published in 2013. It gave a concurring period of 12.3127±0.0005 hours and a spin axis at (78.0°, −82.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[21]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Jose measures between 15.8 and 26.1 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.16 and 0.34.[7][8][9][10][11] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.1151 and a diameter of 25.88 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.9.[5]


  1. ^ a b c d e "1423 Jose (1936 QM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1423) Jose". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1423) Jose. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 114. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1424. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1423 Jose (1936 QM)" (2018-10-22 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 1423 Jose". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1423) Jose". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Asteroid (1423) Jose – Proper elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System: EAR–A–COMPIL–5–NEOWISEDIAM–V1.0. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  9. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  10. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. (catalog)
  11. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System – IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0: IRAS–A–FPA–3–RDR–IMPS–V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1423) Jose". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  13. ^ a b Carvano, J. M.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Lazzaro, D.; Mothé-Diniz, T. (February 2010). "SDSS-based taxonomic classification and orbital distribution of main belt asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 510: 12. Bibcode:2010A&A...510A..43C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913322. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  14. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  15. ^ Lombardi, C. (August 1938). "Orbita ellittica del piccolo pianeta 1936 QM=(1423) Jose". Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana. 11: 173. Bibcode:1938MmSAI..11..173L.
  16. ^ Lombardi, C. (December 1948). "Nuovi elementi dei piccoli pianeti (25) Phocaea e (1423) Jose". Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana. 20: 237. Bibcode:1949MmSAI..20..237L.
  17. ^ Lombardi, C. (December 1949). "Effemeridi per l' opposizione del 1951 di tre piccoli pianeti". Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana. 21: 355. Bibcode:1950MmSAI..21..355L.
  18. ^ Lombardi, C. (December 1950). "Perturbazioni generali approssimate di (1423) Jose". Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana. 22: 169. Bibcode:1951MmSAI..22..169L.
  19. ^ Slivan, Stephen M.; Binzel, Richard P.; Boroumand, Shaida C.; Pan, Margaret W.; Simpson, Christine M.; Tanabe, James T.; et al. (May 2008). "Rotation rates in the Koronis family, complete to H≈11.2". Icarus. 195 (1): 226–276. Bibcode:2008Icar..195..226S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.11.019.
  20. ^ Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75.
  21. ^ Hanus, J.; Broz, M.; Durech, J.; Warner, B. D.; Brinsfield, J.; Durkee, R.; et al. (November 2013). "An anisotropic distribution of spin vectors in asteroid families" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 559: 19. arXiv:1309.4296. Bibcode:2013A&A...559A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321993. Retrieved 11 December 2018.

External linksEdit