12th New Zealand Parliament

The 12th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1893 general election in November and December of that year.

12th Parliament of New Zealand
11th Parliament 13th Parliament
Legislative bodyNew Zealand Parliament
Term21 June 1894 – 17 October 1896
Election1893 New Zealand general election
GovernmentLiberal Government
House of Representatives
12th New Zealand Parliament Seating.png
Speaker of the HouseMaurice O'Rorke
PremierRichard Seddon
Leader of the OppositionWilliam Russell
Legislative Council
Members46 (at start)
45 (at end)
Speaker of the CouncilHenry Miller
MonarchHM Victoria
GovernorHE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Glasgow

1893 general electionEdit

In the 1892 electoral redistribution, population shift to the North Island required the transfer of one seat from the South Island to the north. The resulting ripple effect saw every electorate established in 1890 have its boundaries altered, and 14 new electorates were established. Of those, eight electorates were established for the first time: Bay of Plenty, Otaki, Pareora, Patea, Riccarton, Waiapu, Waimea-Sounds, and Wellington Suburbs. The remaining six electorates had existed before, and they were re-established for the 12th Parliament: Caversham, Chalmers, Lyttelton, Rangitata, Waihemo, and Waipa.[1]

The 1893 general election was held on Tuesday, 28 November in the general electorates and on Wednesday, 20 December in the Māori electorates, respectively.[2] A total of 74 MPs were elected; 30 represented North Island electorates, 40 represented South Island electorates, and the remaining four represented Māori electorates.[3] 302,997 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 75.3%.[2]


The 12th Parliament sat for three sessions, and was prorogued on 14 November 1896.[4]

Session Opened Adjourned
first 21 June 1894 24 October 1894
second 20 June 1895 1 November 1895
third 11 June 1896 17 October 1896

Overview of seatsEdit

Affiliation Members
At 1893 election At dissolution
Liberal 48 48
Liberal–Labour 6 6
Government total 54 54
Conservative 14 15
Independent 5 4
Independent Liberal 1 1
Opposition total 20 20
Total 74 74
Working government majority 34 34


The Liberal Government of New Zealand had taken office on 24 January 1891.[5] John Ballance, who had been leading the Ballance Ministry, had died on 27 April 1893[6] and had been succeeded by the Seddon Ministry under Richard Seddon.[7] The Seddon Ministry remained in power for the whole term of this Parliament and held power until Seddon's death on 10 June 1906.[8]

Initial composition of the 12th ParliamentEdit

74 seats were created across 66 electorates. 62 electorates returned a single member and four electoral districts had three representatives each.[9] The Liberal party was the only established party structure at the time, many independent conservative MPs coalesced as a semi-formal Opposition under the leadership of William Russell. Key

  Liberal     Conservative     Liberal–Labour     Independent Liberal     Independent  

Electorate results for the 1893 New Zealand general election[10][11][12]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Ashburton Edward George Wright John McLachlan 26 Cathcart Wason
Ashley Richard Meredith 590 David Duncan Macfarlane
Auckland, City of John Shera George Grey 2,233 Thomas Tudehope[nb 1][13]
Thomas Thompson William Crowther 438
Alfred Cadman Charles Button 68
Avon Edwin Blake William Tanner 653 George McIntyre
Awarua Joseph Ward Uncontested
Bay of Islands Robert Houston 231 James Trounsen[14]
Bay of Plenty New electorate William Kelly 209 Henry Burton[15]
Bruce James Allen Uncontested
Buller Eugene O'Conor Roderick McKenzie 213 Eugene O'Conor
Caversham New electorate Arthur Morrison 136 William Barron
Chalmers New electorate John A. Millar 119 Edmund Allen
Christchurch, City of William Pember Reeves 1,848 Ebenezer Sandford[nb 2]
Ebenezer Sandford George Smith 916
Richard Molesworth Taylor William Whitehouse Collins 281
Clutha Thomas Mackenzie 832 James Burgh[16]
Dunedin, City of David Pinkerton 1,294 Henry Fish[nb 3]
Henry Fish William Earnshaw 589
William Hutchison 294
Eden Edwin Mitchelson 1,161 Malcolm Niccol[17]
Egmont Felix McGuire 135 Benjamin Robbins
Ellesmere John Hall William Montgomery 293 William Rolleston
Franklin Ebenezer Hamlin Benjamin Harris 89 William Massey
Grey Arthur Guinness 1,723 Richard Nancarrow
Hawke's Bay William Russell 70 Charles William Reardon[18]
Inangahua Robert Stout Patrick O'Regan 204 William Goodwin Collings
Invercargill James Whyte Kelly 1,242 Joseph Hatch
Kaiapoi Richard Moore David Buddo 87 Richard Moore
Lyttelton New electorate John Joyce 1,041 Edwin Blake
Manukau Frank Buckland Maurice O'Rorke 252 Frank Buckland
Marsden Robert Thompson[nb 4] 1,010 James Harrison[14]
Masterton Alexander Hogg 1,228 Joseph Harkness
Mataura George Richardson Robert McNab 119 George Richardson
Napier George Swan Samuel Carnell 520 George Swan
Nelson Joseph Harkness John Graham 279 Richmond Hursthouse
New Plymouth Edward Smith 491 Robert Trimble
Oamaru Thomas Duncan 416 PB Fraser
Otaki New electorate James Wilson 195 Donald Fraser[19]
Palmerston James Wilson Frederick Pirani 203 George Matthew Snelson[20]
Pareora New electorate Frederick Flatman 217 Arthur Rhodes
Parnell Frank Lawry 334 William Shepherd Allen
Patea New electorate George Hutchison 673 William Cowern
Rangitata New electorate William Maslin 67 Edward George Wright
Rangitikei Robert Bruce John Stevens 176 Frank Lethbridge
Riccarton New electorate George Warren Russell 106 William Boag
Selwyn Alfred Saunders 232 Thomas Hamilton Anson
Taieri Walter Carncross 76 John Buckland
Thames James McGowan 311 Edmund Taylor
Timaru William Hall-Jones 407 Edward George Kerr
Tuapeka Hugh Valentine Vincent Pyke 340 Charles Rawlins
Waihemo New electorate John McKenzie 324 Scobie Mackenzie
Waiapu New electorate James Carroll 497 Cecil de Lautour
Waikato Edward Lake Alfred Cadman 75 Isaac Coates[11]
Waikouaiti James Green 510 George J. Bruce[21]
Waimea-Sounds New electorate Charles H. Mills 333 H Everett
Waipa New electorate Frederic Lang 989 Gerald Peacock[22]
Waipawa William Smith Charles Hall 378 George Hunter
Wairarapa Walter Clarke Buchanan 690 George Augustus Fairbrother[23]
Wairau Lindsay Buick 322 William Sinclair
Waitaki John McKenzie William Steward 1,062 Thomas Paterson[24]
Waitemata Jackson Palmer Richard Monk 239 Jackson Palmer
Wakatipu Thomas Fergus William Fraser 326 John O'Meara
Wallace James Mackintosh 433 Henry Hirst
Wanganui Archibald Willis 197 Gilbert Carson
Wellington, City of John Duthie Kennedy Macdonald
George Fisher Francis Bell
William McLean Sir Robert Stout
Wellington Suburbs New electorate Alfred Newman 124 Thomas Wilford
Westland Richard Seddon Uncontested
Māori electorates[nb 5]
Eastern Maori James Carroll Wi Pere 1,399 Hoani Paraone Tunuiarangi
Northern Maori Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa Hone Heke Ngapua 507 Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa
Southern Maori Tame Parata 185 Teoti Pita Mutu
Western Maori Hoani Taipua Ropata Te Ao 90 Pepene Eketone

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Majority is difference in votes to fourth candidate
  2. ^ Majority is difference in votes to fourth candidate
  3. ^ Majority is difference in votes to fourth candidate
  4. ^ Robert Thompson was an Independent in the previous Parliament
  5. ^ The affiliation of many of the Māori candidates is unknown or uncertain

By-elections during 12th ParliamentEdit

There were a number of changes during the term of the 12th Parliament.

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Waitemata 1894 9 April Richard Monk Election declared invalid William Massey
Tuapeka 1894 9 July Vincent Pyke Death William Larnach
City of Auckland 1895 24 July Sir George Grey Resignation Thomas Thompson
City of Christchurch 1896 13 February William Pember Reeves Appointed Agent-General   Charles Lewis


  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 59f.
  2. ^ a b "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  3. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 90.
  4. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 40.
  6. ^ McIvor, Timothy L. "Ballance, John 1839–1893". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 40–41.
  8. ^ Hamer, David. "Seddon, Richard John - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  9. ^ "Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives - The General Election 1893". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 1894. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  10. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  11. ^ a b "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  12. ^ "General Election". Pelorus Guardian and Miners' Advocate. Vol. 4, no. 91. 1 December 1893. p. 2. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  13. ^ "Electorate City of Auckland". Auckland Star. Vol. XXIV, no. 273. 17 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Page 4 Advertisements Column 3". The Northern Advocate. 25 November 1893. p. 4. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  15. ^ "Public Notice". Bay of Plenty Times. 20 November 1893. p. 5. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  16. ^ "Political News". Tuapeka Times. Vol. XXV, no. 4049. 11 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  17. ^ Scholefield, Guy, ed. (1940). A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography : A–L (PDF). Vol. I. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. p. 124. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  18. ^ "Hawke's Bay Electorate". Hawke's Bay Herald. Vol. XXVIII, no. 9544. 2 December 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  19. ^ "The Otaki Election". Manawatu Herald. 16 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  20. ^ "The Palmerston Election". Feilding Star. Vol. XV, no. 125. 25 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  21. ^ "Waikouaiti Electoral District". Otago Daily Times. No. 9901. 21 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  22. ^ "The General Elections". The Press. Vol. L, no. 8651. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  23. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Borough Of Carterton". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  24. ^ "The Oamaru Mail". Vol. XVIII, no. 5804. 28 November 1893. p. 2. Retrieved 23 August 2016.


  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.

External linksEdit