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1209 Pumma, provisional designation 1927 HA, is a Hygiean asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 30 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 22 April 1927, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany.[10] The asteroid was named after the nice of astronomer Albrecht Kahrstedt.[2]

1209 Pumma
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date22 April 1927
MPC designation(1209) Pumma
Named after
Niece of discoverer's friend[2]
1927 HA · 1950 JQ
1963 UU
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc90.20 yr (32,945 days)
Aphelion3.5836 AU
Perihelion2.7590 AU
3.1713 AU
5.65 yr (2,063 days)
0° 10m 28.2s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions21.73±2.15 km[5]
26.889±0.253 km[6]
26.986±0.311 km[7]
40.33 km (calculated)[3]
8.5001±0.0001 h[8]
0.057 (assumed)[3]
C (assumed)[3]
10.60[5][7] · 10.62±0.19[9] · 10.7[1][3]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Pumma is a member of the Hygiea family (601),[4] a very large family of carbonaceous outer-belt asteroids, named after the fourth-largest asteroid, 10 Hygiea.[11] It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–3.6 AU once every 5 years and 8 months (2,063 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.13 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] No precoveries were taken, and no prior identifications were made. The body's observation arc begins at Uccle, 8 days after its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[10]

Physical characteristicsEdit


In April 2012, a rotational lightcurve of Pumma was obtained from photometric observations by Italian and French amateur astronomers Silvano Casulli and René Roy. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 8.5001 hours with a brightness variation of 0.28 magnitude (U=3).[8]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Pumma measures between 21.73 and 26.99 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.139 and 0.215.[5][6][7] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous C-type asteroids of 0.057 and consequently calculates a much larger diameter of 40.33 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 10.7.[3]


This minor planet's name was proposed by German astronomer Albrecht Kahrstedt (1897–1971), a staff member at ARI and later director at Babelsberg Observatory (also see 1587 Kahrstedt). "Pumma" is the nickname of a niece of Kahrstedt.[2][12][13] The official naming citation was published by Paul Herget in The Names of the Minor Planets in 1955 (H 112).[2]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1209 Pumma (1927 HA)" (2017-07-03 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1209) Pumma". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1209) Pumma. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 101. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1210. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1209) Pumma". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  8. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1209) Pumma". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  9. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  10. ^ a b "1209 Pumma (1927 HA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  11. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  12. ^ "1587 Kahrstedt (1933 FS1)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  13. ^ Kahrstedt, Albrecht. Astronom, * 24.8.1897 Neiße (Oberschlesien), † 1.11.1971 Berlin (evangelisch). Deutsche (in German). 1977. Retrieved 22 November 2015.

External linksEdit