The 1191 papal election took place after the death of Pope Clement III. Pope Clement, according to differing and irreconcilable reports, died in March 1191, in the last third of the month, on the 20th, the 25th, the 26th, the 28th, or perhaps 2 April or 4 April, or 10 April.[1] The election was conducted during the march of King Henry VI and his army toward Rome. The 85-year-old Cardinal Giacinto Bobone, a member of the Orsini family, was chosen after some extreme reluctance. He took the name Celestine III. Pressed by the Romans, however, he agreed to negotiate with King Henry about his coronation as emperor and about the possession of the city of Tusculum. Celestine postponed his own consecration in order to buy time to negotiate. He was finally crowned on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1191.

Papal election
Dates and location
21 March 1191
Key officials
ProtodeaconGiacinto Bobone
Elected pope
Giacinto Bobone
Name taken: Celestine III
1198 →

Death of Clement III Edit

King Henry crossed into Italy in mid-winter, and was in Bologna by 11 February 1191; on 22 February he was at Lucca, and on the 26th at Pisa.[2] He had sent representatives (nuntios) to Pope Clement, and to the cardinals and the senators of Rome, requesting his coronation and promising that he would in all matters preserve unharmed the laws and dignities of the Roman people. Henry intended to march into south Italy and claim the kingdom of William II of Sicily for his wife and himself, and, since the kingdom of Sicily was a papal fief, Henry needed the active cooperation of the pope.

In March 1191, Henry and his army were in Tuscany. Two cardinals had been sent by the pope to negotiate with him, Petrus Gallocia the Bishop of Porto and Petrus the Cardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli.[3] Before he died, Clement had agreed to the demand of Henry VI for an imperial coronation in Rome at Easter.[4] The Roman leaders were not impressed by Clement's promises, since he had promised them at the beginning of his reign that he would hand over Tusculum to them, and had yet to do so.[5]

Clement's latest known dated bull was signed on 20 March 1191.[6]

Pope Clement III died on 20 March 1191.[7]

Cardinals Edit

The sources do not mention any of the cardinals who elected Cardinal Giacinto of S. Maria in Cosmedin. A list must be constructed by deduction and inference. The cardinals who subscribed documents for Clement III is far smaller than the total number of cardinals alive at his death.

New cardinals Edit

Pope Clement III (1187–1191) had appointed 25 or 26 cardinals:[8]

At least 18 of Pope Clement's appointees were Italians, and 11 of the appointees were native Romans.

Likely attendees Edit

A beginning on the list of cardinals who may have attended the election of March or April 1191, in addition to some or all of the new cardinals, may be derived from a privilege granted by Pope Clement III to the monastery of Compiègne on 17 February 1191, about five weeks before his death.[28] Eighteen cardinals who subscribed the document were:

  • Octavianus, Hostiensis et Velletrensis episcopus.
  • Joannes Anagninus (Giovanni dei Conti di Anagni), Prenestinus episcopus.[29]
  • Petrus, Portuensis et Sancte Rufine epsicopus.
  • Pandulfus, presbiter cardinalis basilice duodecim Apostolorum.[30]
  • Petrus, presbiter cardinalis Sancti Petri ad Vincula, tituli Eudoxie.[31]
  • Johannes Felix, tituli Sancte Susanne, presbiter cardinalis.
  • Rufinus, tituli sancte Praxedis cardinalis, Ariminensis episcopus.[32]
  • Romanus, Sancte Anastasie presbiter cardinalis.[33]
  • Guido, ecclesie Sanctae Marie Trans-Tiberim, olim Fundentis, tituli Calixti presbiter cardinalis.
  • Hugo, presbiter cardinalis tituli Sanctorum Silvestri et Martini, tituli Equitii.
  • Johannes, tituli Sancti Stephani in Celio Monte presbiter cardinalis.
  • Cinthius, presbiter cardinalis tituli Sancti Laurentii in Lucina.
  • Bernardus, Sancte Marie Nove diaconus cardinalis.
  • Gregorius, Sancti Georgii ad Velum aureum diaconus cardinalis.
  • Lotharius, Sanctorum Sergii et Bachi diaconus cardinalis.
  • Nicholaus, Sancte Lucie diaconus cardinalis.
  • Gregorius Sancti Angeli diaconus cardinalis.
  • Egidius, Sancti Nicholai in carcere Tulliano diaconus cardinalis.

In addition,

Cardinals not attending Edit

  • ? Konrad von Wittlesbach, Bishop of Sabina and Archbishop of Mainz.[39]
  • Guillaume aux Blanches Mains, Archbishop of Reims, papal legate, uncle and principal advisor of King Philip II of France[40]
  • Rogerius, OSB Cas., of S. Eusebio. Archbishop of Benevento (1179–1221).[41]
  • Adelardus Cattaneus, Cardinal Priest of S. Marcello. In August 1190, Adelardus was papal legate in the Holy Land. On 16 July 1191, he and other bishops consecrated the church at Akko.[42]
  • ? Petrus Gallocia, Bishop of Porto.
  • Petrus Dianus, Cardinal-priest of S. Cecilia, was papal legate in Lombardy until June 1193.[43]
  • Goffredus (Roffredo) de Insula of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, Abbot of Montecassino (1188–1210).
  • Melior of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Bishop of Massa Maritima.[44]

Election Edit

Ralph of Diceto, Dean of London, indicates that there was dissension among the cardinals:[45] The fear was that it might lead to schism among them, and it was only with that consideration that the senior cardinal deacon, Iacintus, agreed to his election to the papal throne.[46] The disagreement was undoubtedly over the agreement made by Henry VI and Clement III, that Tusculum would be handed over to the Romans, an abandonment of longstanding papal policy fortified by treaty.[47] The Continuator of Sigebert of Gembloux remarks on both the dissension and the duplicity among the Romans and the cardinals.[48]

Cardinal Iacintus took the name Celestine III.[49]

When Pope Celestine saw King Henry approaching, he put off his own consecration in order to postpone Henry's.[50]

After the election, and before King Henry could draw near Rome, the Roman leaders petitioned Pope Celestine not to anoint and crown Henry emperor until the Pope should obtain agreement from him that the city of Tusculum would be turned over to them. The city had been placed in Pope Clement's custody, but the Tusculans had turned to the king and invoked his patrocinia. The Romans vigorously pressed (instantissime proponentes) on the pope that this was the way to get Tusculum into Roman hands, as the previous agreement had specified. Celestine agreed to their proposal. He immediately sent negotiators (nuntios) to the king, who firmly proposed to him that, in the light of the previous agreement between the pope and the Romans (at the beginning of Clement's reign), it was necessary for Tusculum to be handed over to the pope by the king.[51]

On Holy Saturday, 13 April, Celestine III was proceeding from the Lateran palace to St. Peter's, where he would be consecrated the next day. He came face to face with King Henry and Queen Constanza and an armed group of people. The Romans had closed the gates of the city and were heavily guarding them, keeping the imperial party from entering.[52]

Celestine III (Giacinto Bobone) was ordained a priest on Holy Saturday, 13 April 1191; he was consecrated a bishop and enthroned on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1191. His consecrator was Cardinal Octavianus de Poli, Bishop of Ostia.[53]

Thanks to the pact made between Henry VI and Celestine III, the city of Tusculum was attacked by the Romans, and completely destroyed on 17 April 1191.[54]

References Edit

  1. ^ Jaffé, p. 576. Capitani says cautiously, "tra il 20 marzo e il 10 aprile del 1191".
  2. ^ J. F. Böhmer, Die Urkunden der Römische Könige und Kaiser von Conrad I. bis Heinrich VII. (Frankfurt am Main: F.Varrentrapp 1831), pp. 147-148. Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 624-626.
  3. ^ The two Petrus witnessed an imperial charter in Castro S. Quirico, south of Siena, on 8 March 1191: Kartusch, p. 324, 344.
  4. ^ Roger de Hoveden, in: Watterich II, p. 707: "concessit regi Alemannorum quod petebat, salvis dignitatibus et consuetudinibus Romanorum. et statuerunt ei terminum veniendi Romam proximum pascha sequens."
  5. ^ Watterich II, p. 707, citing Roger de Hoveden.
  6. ^ Walther Holtzmann (editor), Papsturkunden in England Vol. I (Göttingen 1931) [Abhandlungen N.F. 25, no. 2], pp. 566-567, no. 272.
  7. ^ "Annales Ratisponensis", in: Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptorum Tomus XVII (Hannover: Hahn 1861), p. 590: "Anno Domini 1191, 13 Kal. Aprilis Clemens papa hominem deposuit. Cui altera die, id est 12 Kal. Aprilis sive in die Sancti Benedicti [21 March], Iacintus qui dictus est Celestinus III. successit." Watterich II, p. 707, note 4, explicitly states his agreement with the date.
  8. ^ Kartusch, pp. 46-47.
  9. ^ Joannes was a jurist. Kartusch, pp. 229-231. Ganzer, pp. 145-146.
  10. ^ Kartusch, pp. 74-75.
  11. ^ Kartusch, pp. 104-105
  12. ^ Kartusch, pp. 112-117.
  13. ^ Gregory was the nephew of Celestine III. Kartusch, pp. 154-158.
  14. ^ Gregorius de Crescentio Caballi Marmorei. Kartusch, pp. 163-167.
  15. ^ Guido was originally Cardinal Deacon S.R.E., but in February 1191 he was cardinal of S. Maria Transtiberim. Kartusch, p. 177-182.
  16. ^ Hugo was a native of Milan. Kartusch, pp. 199-202.
  17. ^ Kartusch, pp. 344-346.
  18. ^ Gregorius was the son of the Count of Monte Carello. Kartusch, pp. 172-174.
  19. ^ Kartusch, pp. 84-86.
  20. ^ Volkert Pfaff (1979), "Giordano da Ceccano", Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 23 (1979). Retrieved: 30 December 2021.
  21. ^ Goffredus (Roffredus) does not subscribe at all for Pope Clement III, or for Pope Celestine III: Jaffé II, p. 535-536; 577. Kartusch, pp. 146-151. Ganzer, pp. 141-144.
  22. ^ Rufinus died before 23 March 1192. Kartusch, pp. 392-393. Ganzer, pp. 146-147.
  23. ^ Kartusch, pp. 95-99.
  24. ^ Kartusch, pp. 159-163.
  25. ^ Kartusch, pp. 320-321.
  26. ^ Kartusch, pp. 323-324.
  27. ^ He is probably the Cardinal priest of S. Anastasia. Kartusch, pp. 384-385.
  28. ^ Jaffé, p. 576, no. 16671. E. Morel (editor), Cartulaire de l' Abbaye de Saint-Corneille de Compiègne Tome I (Montdidier : J. Bellin 1904), CXCII, pp. 291-294.
  29. ^ Giovanni dei Conti di Segni had been Cardinal Priest of S. Marco (1167-1190).
  30. ^ Pandulfus Masca, a native of Lucca or Pisa. Kartusch, pp. 307-310.
  31. ^ Cardinal Petrus and Cardinal Petrus Gallocia of Porto were with King Henry at Castro S. Quirici, near Siena, on 8 March 1191, negotiating with Henry about the fate of Tusculum. He may not have been at the election later in the month: Ina Friedlaender, Die päpstlichen Legaten in Deutschland und Italien am Ende des XII. Jahrhunderts (1181-1198) (Berlin 1928), pp. 72-73. Kartusch, pp. 324-325.
  32. ^ Ganzer, pp. 146-147.
  33. ^ Kartusch, pp. 384-385.
  34. ^ Kartusch, pp. 79-82.
  35. ^ Kartusch, pp. 215-220.
  36. ^ Gerardus was a native of Lucca. Kartusch, pp. 138-142.
  37. ^ W. Maleczek (1984), Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, (Wien 1984), pp. 71-73. Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri, "Graziano da Pisa," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 59 (2002). Retrieved: 30 December 2021.
  38. ^ Julius von Pflugk-Harttung (1886). Acta ponticum romanorum inedita (in Latin and German). Vol. Dritter Band (III). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. pp. 379, no. 438., dated 7 December 1190.
  39. ^ Cardinal Konrad did not subscribe documents at all for Pope Clement III (1187–1191), or for Pope Celestine III (from 1191–1197). Jaffé, pp. 535-536; 577. He was in Mainz on 1 March 1190, at the imperial diet, where King Henry VI granted him the right to coin money (T. Toeche, Kaiser Heinrich VI (Leipzig 1867), p. 645, no. 72). Henry sent him to southern Italy after Easter, 1 April 1190 to investigate the position of King Tancred; he had returned to Germany ("Annales Colonenses", in: Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores Vol. 17, p. 798: "rex [Henricus] Moguntinum archiepiscopum et Ditherium cancellarium premittit in Apuliam ad explorandum eventum rerum. sed ortis inter eos simultatibus, Moguntiacus statim revertitur, cancellarius in Novembri redit, omnia facilia captu indicans"). Kartusch, pp. 127-133.
  40. ^ Ganzer, pp. 125-129. Kartusch, pp. 424-427.
  41. ^ Ganzer, pp. 129-131. E. Gattula, Historia Abbatiae Cassiniensis Pars prima (Venice: S. Coleti 1733), p. 399.
  42. ^ Ganzer, pp. 137-140, at p. 138. Kartusch, pp. 63-67.
  43. ^ Petrus was a member of the family of the Diani of Piacenza. "Diana" is incorrect: P. Kehr, Italia Pontificia Vol. V (Berlin: Weidmann 1911), p. 428, nos. 4 and 5. Kartusch, pp. 347-355, at p. 350; and 394. Ganzer, pp. 136-137.
  44. ^ Melior subscribes for Clement III in 1187 and 1188, but not for Celestine III until 27 December 1191. Jaffé II, pp. 536, 577. Ganzer, pp. 148-149. W. Malaczek (1991), "Diani, Pietro," in: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 39 (1991). Retrieved: 30 December 2021.
  45. ^ "Ymagines Historiarum," in: W. Stubbs (ed,), "The Historical Works of Ralph de Diceto, Dean of London", Vol. II (London: Longmans; Macmillan; Black, 1876), p. 89.
  46. ^ "Clemente papa tertio rebus humanis exempto, Iacintus, inter diaconos ecclesie Romane primus, ne scisma subitum in Ecclesia Dei consurgeret, se fieri papam vix tandem consensit."
  47. ^ Gregorovius IV. 2, pp. 625-628.
  48. ^ Watterich II, p. 711, note 2: "[Henricus] in sua promotione multas contradictiones tam a Romanis, quam a cardinalibus sustinuit; tandem cernens regnorum perturbationem et Apuliensium erga se rebellione, pro tempore tam cardinalibus satis fecit, Pape restituens multa quae antecessores eius ecclesiae abstulerat. Qua Romani accepta, in coronatione imperatoris prebuerunt assensum."
  49. ^ The statement, "30 cardinals, of whom 5 were cardinal-bishops, 12 were cardinal-priests, and 13 were cardinal deacons, participated in the election that was held from 25–30 March 1191," is absolutely incorrect. It is derived from Chacon, Alfonso (1677). Vitae et res gestae Pontificum romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium: ab initio nascentis ecclesiae vsque ad Clementem IX P.O.M. Online: Philippi et Ant. De Rubeis. pp. 1151–1152., but Chacon (Ciaconius) clearly states, "Cardinales vivi", not "Cardinales participantes". In any case, Ciaconius' list is defective.
  50. ^ Arnold of Lübeck "Chronica Slavorum" IV. 4, in: Watterich II, p. 710: "Cumque approprinquaret romae suscepturus Apostolicam benedictionem, Dominus Apostolicus Clemens mortuus est, pro quo dominus Coelestinus in sede est sublimatus. Qui videns regem cum multa iactantia venisse, ad protelandam eius consecrationem suam distulit."
  51. ^ Roger de Hoveden, cited by Watterich II, pp. 709-710. Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 627.
  52. ^ Roger de Hoveden, in: Watterich II, p. 711.
  53. ^ Jaffé, p. 578.
  54. ^ Gregorovius IV. 2, p. 628.

Sources Edit

  • Baaken, Katrin (1985). "Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III.," (in German) In: Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 41 (1985), 203-211.
  • Ganzer, Klaus (1963). Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalkollegiums vom 11.bis 13. Jahrhundert. Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom (in German). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1896). The History of Rome in the Middle Ages Vol. IV, part 2. London: George Bell 1896.
  • Jaffé, Philipp (1888). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (in Latin). Vol. II. Leipzig.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Kartusch, Elfriede (1948). Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181–1227. Wien: Max Niemeyer.
  • Watterich, J. B. M. (1862). Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae: ab aequalibus conscriptae (in Latin). Vol. Tomus II. Leipzig: G. Engelmann.

External links Edit

  • Adams, John Paul. Sede Vacante 1191; California State University Northridge. Retrieved: 27 December 2021.
  • Capitani, Ottavio. "Celestino III." (in Italian) Federiciana (Treccani 2005); retrieved 27 December 2021.
  • Miranda, Salvador. Election details [a list, incomplete with numerous errors]
  • Pfaff, Volkert. "Celestino III." (in Italian) Enciclopedia dei Papi (Treccani 2000). Retrieved: 27 December 2021.